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Again :

Qualis populea || morens Philomela fub umbra
Again :

Ludere que vellem || calamo per misit agresti,

Lines, however, where words are left entire, without being divided even by a semipause, run by that means much the more sweetly :

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Nec gemere aërea || ceffabit | turtur ab ulmo.
Again :

Quadrupedante putrem || fonitu quatit ungula campum.
Again;

Eurydicen toto | referebant | flumine ripæ,

The reason of these observations will be evident up: on the slightest reflection. Between things fo intimately connected in reading aloud, 'as are sense and found, every degree of discord is unpleasant : and for that reason, it is a matter of importance, to make the musical pauses coincide as much as possible with those of fenle; which is requisite, 'more especially, with respect to the pause, a deviation from the rule being less remarkable in a semipause. Confidering the matter as to melody folely, it is indifferent whether the pauses be at the end of words or in the middle; but when we carry the fense along, it is disagreeable to find a word split into two by a pause, as if there were really two words : and though the disagreeableness here be connected with the sense only, it is by an eafy transition, of perceptions transferred to the

found;

found; by which means we conceive a line to be harsh and grating to the ear, when in reality it is only so to the understanding.*

To the rule that fixes the pause after the fifth portion, there is one exception, and no more : if the fyllable fucceeding the 5th portion be short, the paufe is fometimes postponed to it.

Pupillis quos dura || pre mit custodia matrum, Again,

In terres oppressa | gravi sub religione.

Again :

quorum pars magna || fui ; quis talia fando,

This contributes to diversify the melody; and where the words are smooth and liquid, is not ungraceful ; as in the following examples :

Formosam resonare | doces Amaryllida sylvas. Again :

Agricolas, quibus ipfa l procul discordibus armis.

If this pause, placed as aforesaid after the short fyllable, happen also to divide a word, the melody by these circumstances is totally annihilated. Witnessthe following line of Ennius which is plain prose.

Romæ monia terru | it impiger | Hannibal armis. Hitherto the arrangement of the long and short fyllables of an Hexameter line and its different pauses,

have * See chap. 2. part 1. fe&t. 5.

5.

have been considered with respect to melody, but to have a just notion of Hexameter verse, these para ticulars must also be confidered with respect to sense. There is not perhaps in any other fort of verfe, such latitude in the long and short syllables; a circumstance that contributes greatly to that richness of melody which is remarkable in Hexameter verse, and which made Aristotle pronounce, that an epic poem in any other verse would not succeed.* One defect, however, must not be difsembled, that the same means which contribute to the richness of the melody, render it less fit than several other forts for a narrative poem.

There cannot be a inore artful contrivance, as above observed, than to close an Hex, ameter line with two long syllables preceded by two short : but unhappily this construction proves a great embarrassment to the sense ; which will thus be evi. dent. As in general, there ought to be a strict concordance between a thought and the words in which it is dressed ; so in particular, every close in the sense ought to be accompanied with a close in the found. in profe this law may be strictly observed; but in verse, the same strictness would occasion insuperable difficulties. Willing to facrifice to the melody of verse, some share of the concordance between thought and expression, we freely excuse the separation of the musical pause from that of the sense, during the course of a line; but the close of an Hexameter line is too conspicuous to admit this liberty : for which reafon there ought always to be some pause in the sense at the end of every Hexameter line, were it but such a pause as is marked with a comma; and for the fame reason, there ought never to be a full close in the sense but at the end of a line, because there the

inelody

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* Poet. cap. 23,

melody is closed. An Hexameter line, to preserve its melody, cannot well admit any greater relaxation; and yet in a narrative poem, it is extremely difficult to adhere strictly to the rule even with these indul. gences. Virgil, the chief of poets for versification, is forced often to end a line without any close in the fense, and as often to close the fense during the running of a line ; though a close in the melody during the movement of the thought, or a close in the thought during the movement of the melody, can, not be agreeable.

The accent to which we proceed, is no less effen. tial than the other circumstances above handled. By a good ear it will be discerned, that in every line there is one syllable distinguishable from the rest by a capital accent : that fyllable, being the 7th por. tion, is invariably long.

Nec bene promeritis || capitûr nec | tangitur ira,

Again :

Non fibi fed toto | genitûm se credere mundo.

Again :

Qualis fpelunca i subito com mota columba.

In these examples, the accent is laid upon the laft syllable of a word ; which is favourable to the melody in the following respect, that the pause, which for the sake of reading diftinâiy must follow every word, gives opportunity to prolong the accent. And for that reason, a line thus accented, has a more {pirited air, than when the accent is placed on any

other

other fyllable. Compare the foregoing lines with the following:

Alba neque Afyrio || fucâtur | laná veneno.
Again :

Panditur interea | domus omnipotentis Olympi.

Again :

Olli fedato || refpôndit. corde Latinus.

In lines where the pause comes after the short fyllable succeeding the fifth portion, the accent is difplaced, and rendered less sensible : it seems to be split into two, and to be laid partly on the 5th portion, and partly on the 7th, its usual place ; as in

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Nuda genu, nodôque | finùs collecta fluentes.

Again :

Formosam resonare|| docês Amarlyllida sylvas.

Beside this capital accent, slighter accents are laid upon other portions : particularly upon the 4th, unlels where it consists of two short fyllables ; upon the 9th, which is always a long fyllable ; and upon the ith,, where the line concludes with a monosyllable. Such conclusion by the by, impairs the melody, and for that reason is not to be indulged unless where it is expressive of the fense. The following lines are marked with all the accents.

Ludere quæ vellem calamó permisit agresti.

Agair :

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