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Just writes to make his barrenness appear,
And strains from hard-bound brains eight lines 2-year.

Pope's epiftle to Dr. Arbuthnot, I. 181. I shall close with one example more, which of all makes the finest figure. In the first section mention is made of a climax in sound ; and in the second, of a climax in sense. It belongs to the present sub. ject to observe, that when these coincide in the fame passage, the concordance of found and sense is delightful : the reader is conscious not only of pleasure from the two climaxes separately, but of an additional pleasure from their concordance, and from finding the sense fo justly imitated by the found. In this respect, no periods are more perfect than those borrowed from Cicero in the first section.

The concord between sense and found is no less agreeable in what may be termed an anticlimax, where the progress is from great to little ; for this has the effect to make diminutive objects appear ftill more diminutive. Horace affords a striking ex. ample.

Parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. The arrangement here is fingularly artful: the first place is occupied by the verb, which is the capital word by its fense as well as found: the close is reserved for the word that is the meanest in fenfe as well as in found. And it must not be overlooked, that the resembling founds of the two last fyllables give a ludicrous air to the whole.

Reviewing the foregoing examples, it appears to me, contrary to expectation, that in passing from the strongeit resemblances to those that are fainter, every step affords additional pleasure. Renewing the experiment again and again, I feel no wavering, but the greatest pleasure constantly from the fainteft res


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femblances. And et how can this be? for if the
pleasure lie in imita on, must not the strongest re-
semblance afford tie greatest pleasure? From this
vexing dilemma I ay happily relieved, by reflecting
on a doctrine establed in the chapter of resem.
blance and contrast, hat the pleasure of resemblance
is the greatest, wheț it is least expected, and where
the objects compard are in their capital circum,
ftances widely differnt. Nor will this appear sure
prising, when we escend to familiar examples. It
raiseth no degree otwonder to find the most perfect
resemblance between two eggs of the same bird : it
is more rare to fincfuch resemblance between two
human faces; and pon that account such an ap-
pearance raises for degree of wonder : but this
emotion rises to a Itl greater height, when we find
in a pebble, an aghty or other natural production,
any resemblance to : tree or to any organised body.
We cannot hesitate i moment, in applying these ob-
fervations to the pesent subject : what occasion of
wonder can it be o find one found resembling
another, where both are of the same kind ? It is not
fo common to find a resemblance between an articu.
late found and one nit articulate ; which accordingly
affords some flight plalure. But the pleasure swells
greatly, when we employ found to imitate things it
refembles nat otherwse than by the effects produced
in the mind.
.. I have had occasion to obferve, that to complete
the resemblance between found and senie, artful pro-
nunciation contributes not a little. Pronunciation
therefore may be considered as a branch of the pre-
ent subject; and willi fomç obfervations upon it the
fection shall be concluded.

In order to give a just idea of pronunciation, it must be diftinguihed from singing. The latter is car.

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ried on by notes, requiring cachof them a different aperture of the windpipe: the noes properly belong, ing to the former, are expreffel by ditfirent apertures of the mouth, without varing the aperture of the windpipe. This however dth not hinder pronunciation to borrow from fining, as one fometimes is naturally led to do, in epreliling a vehement pallion.

In reading, as in singing, tere is a key-note : above this note the voice is freuently elevated, to make the sound correspond to pe elevation of the subject: but the mind in an elevted state, is disposed to action ; therefore, in order a rest, it must be brought down to the key-note Hence the term cadence.

The only general rule that cal be given for directing the pronunciation, is, Tofound the words in such a manner as to imitate the hings they fignify. In pronouncing words fignifying what is elevated, the voice ought to be raised aboe its ordinary tone; and words signifying dejection f mind, ought to be pronounced in a low note. Ti imitate a stern and impetuous paffion, the words oght to be pronounce ed rough and loud ; a sweet and kindly paffion, on the contrary, ought to be imitaled by a soft and me, lodious tone of voice; in Dryden's ode of Alexan. der's feast, the line Faln, fals, faln, faln, represents a gradual finking of the mind and therefore is

pro. nounced with a falling voice by every one of taste, without instruction. In general, words that make the greateft figure ought to be marked with a pecu. , liar emphasis. Another circumstance contributes to the resemblance between sense and found, which is flow or quick pronunciation : for though the length or shortness of the syllables with relation to cach other, be in prose ascertained in some measurç, and

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in verse accuratel; 'et, taking a whole line or period together, it say je pronounced flow or faft. A period according aght to be pronounced low, when it expresies what is folemn or deliberate; and ought to be preanced quick, when it expreises what is brisk, livey,ur impetuous.

The art of proloncing with propriety and grace; being intended t make the found an echo to the sense, scarce adnit of any other general rule than that above mentiond. It inay indeed be branched out into many paicular rules and observations ; but without muchsuccess; because no language furnisheth words toignify the different degrees of high and low, louand loft, fast and flow. Before these differences ca be made the subje&t of regular instruction, notes just be invented, resembling those employed in musii We have reason to believe, that in Greece every tagedy was accompanied with such notes, in order ascertain the pronunciation ; but the moderns hithrto have not thought of this refine

Cicero gideed, without the help of notes, pretends to giverules for ascertaining the various tones of voice that are proper in expressing the different passions ; and it must be acknowledged, that in this atttempt le hath exhausted the whole power of language. A the fame time, every person of discernment will serceive, that these rules avail little in point of instruction: the very words he employs, are not intelligibi, except to those who beforehand are acquainted wih the subject.

To vary the scane a little, I propose to close with a slight comparison, between singing and pronouncing. In this comparifon, the five following circum. Itances relative to articulate found, must be kept in view. . ift, A found or fyllable is harsh or fmooth.

ed, * De ortore, k 3. cap. 58.

ad, It is long or short. 3d, I i pronounced high or low. 4th, It is pronounce lud or soft. And, lastly, a number of words is succession, conftituting a period or membr of a period, are pronounced flow or quick: f these five the first depending on the componit letters, and the fecond being ascertained by citim, admit not any variety in pronouncing. The hree last are arbitrary, depending on the will the person who pronounces ; and it is chiefly i he artful management of these that just pronunci&ion consists. With respect to the first circumstance, husic has evidently the advantage ; for all its notes te agreeable to the ear; which is not always the case f articulate sounds, With respect to the second, long and short fyllables Tariously combined, produce a gnt variety of feet; vet far inferior to the variety tht is found in the multiplied combinations of musial notes. With respect to high and low notes, ponunciation is still more inferior to finging ; for it is observed by Dionyfius of Halicarnassus,* that in pronouncing, i. e. without altering the apertue of the windpipe, the voice is confined within three notes and a half: singing has a much greater compass. With respect to the two last circunítances, pronunciation equals singing.

In this chapter I have mentioned none of the heauties of language but what arise from words taken in their proper fenfe. , Beauties that depend on the metaphorical and figurative power of words, are reserved to be treated chap. 20.


De ftuctura orationis, ca. ..

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