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40. This power of abftraction is of great atisi A carpenter considers a log of wood with regard haruness, firmness, colour, and texture : a philo pher, neglecting these properties, makes the log u dergo a chemical analysis, and examines its taste, smell, and its component principles : the geomet cian ccifines his reasoning to the figure, the lengt breadih, and thickness. In general, every artist, a ftracting from all other properties, confines his obf vations to those which have a more immediate cu nection with his profeflion.
41. It is observed above, p. 401. that there can no such thing as a general idea ; that al} our perce tions are of particular objects, and that our seconda perceptions or ideas must be equally fo. Precise for the same reason, there can be no such thing as abstract idea. We cannot form an idea of a pa without taking in the whole; nor of motion, colou figure, independent of a body. No man will í that he can form any idea of beauty, till he think a person endued with that quality ; nor that he ca form an idea of weight, till he takes under conside ation a body that is weighty. And when he tak under consideration a body, endued with one or oth of the properties mentioned, the idea he forms is n an abstract or general idea, but the idea of a parti ular body with its properties. But though a part ar the whole, a subject and its attributes, an effect ar its cause, are so intimately connected, as that an ide cannot be formed of the one independent of ti other ; yet we can reason upon the one abftractin from the other.
This is done by words fignifying the things which the reasoning is confined ; and such wore are denominated ahfiract terms. The meaning as use of an abstract term is well understood, thoug of itself, unless other particulars be taken in, it rail no image nor idea in the mind. In language it serve
excellent purposes ; by it different figures, different colours, can be compared, without the trouble of .conceiving them as belonging to any particular subject; and they contribute with words fignificant to raise images or ideas in the mind.
42. The power of abstraction is bestowed on man, for the purpose folely of reasoning. It tends greatly to the facility as well as clearness of any process of reasoning, that, laying aside every other circumstance, .we can confine our attention to the single property we desire to investigate.
43. Abstract terms may be separated into three different kinds, all equally subservient to the reasoning faculty. Individuals appear to have no end; and
did we not possess the faculty of distributing them into classes, the mind would be loft in an endless maze, and no progress be made in knowledge. It is by the faculty of abstraction that we distribute beings into genera and species : finding a number of individuals connected by certain qualities common to all, we give a name to these individuals considered as thus connected, which name, by gathering them together into one class, ferves to express the whole of these individuals as diftin&t from others. Thus the word animal serves to denote every being that can move voluntarily; and the words main, horse, lion, &c. answer kmilar purposes. This is the first and most common fort of abstraction; and it is of the most extenfive use, by enabling us to comprehend in our reasoning whole kinds and forts, instead of individuals without end. The next fort of abftract terms comprehends a number of individual objects, considered as connected by fome occasional relation. A great number of persons collected in one place, without any other relation but merely that of contiguity, are denominatcd a crowd: in forming this term, we abstract from sex, from age, from cor.dition, from dress, &c. A numt
ber of perfons connected by the same laws and by the
fame government, are termed a nation : and a num-
ber of men under the fame military command, are
termed an army. A third sort of abstraction is,
where a single property or part, which may be com-
mon to many individuals, is selected to be the subject
of our contemplation ; for example, whiteness, heat,
beauty, length, roundness, head, arm.
44. Abstract terms are a happy invention : it is by
their means chiefly, that the particulars which make
the subject of our reasoning, are brought into close
union, and separated from all others however natur-
ally connected. Without the aid of such terms, the
mind could never be kept steady to its proper subject,
but be perpetually in hazard of assuming foreign cir-
cumstances, or negle&ing what are essential. We
can, without the aid of language, compare real
obje&s by intuition, when these objects are present;
and when abfent, we can compare them in idea.
But when we advance farther, and attempt to make
inferences and draw conclusions, we always employ
abstract terms, even in thinking ; it would be as dif-
ficult to reason without them, as to perform operations
in algebra without signs ; for there is scarce any rea-
soning without some degree of abstraction, and we
cannot easily abstract without using abstract terms.
Hence it follows, that without language man would
scarce be a rational being.
45. The same thing, in different respects, has dif-
ferent names. With respect to certain qualities, it is
termed a substance ; with respect to other qualities, a
body; and with respect to qualities of all sorts, a sub-
ject. It is termed a passive subject with respect to an
action exerted upon it; an object with respect to a
percipient; a cause with respect to the effect it pro-
duces; and an effect with respect to its cause.
[The volumes are denoted by numeral letters, the pages by figures.]
BSTRACTION) power of ii. 413. Its use ii. 414.
Abitract terins) ouglit to be avoided in poetry i. 191. ii. 278. Can-
not be compared but by being personitied ii. 148. Pertonified ii.
187. Defined ii. 412. The use of abstract terins ii. 4 3.
Accent) defined ii. 83. The musical accents that are necessary in
an hexameter linc ii. 93. A low word must not be accented il.
117. Rules for acceilting Englith heroic verse ii. JI6, 117. How
far affected by the pause ii. 120. 'Accent and pause brave a mutu-
al influence i. i 22.
Action) what feclings are raised by human actions i. 39. 179-
279, 280. We are iinpelled to action by desire i. 43. Some ac-
tions are instinctive, tome intended as means to a certain end i.
45. Actions great and elevated, low and grovelling i. 179-
Slowness and quicknels in a&ing, to what causes owing i. 244.
253. Emotions occafioned by propricty of action i. 271. Oc-
calioned by impropriety of action i. 272. Human actions
confidered with reipest to dignity and meanness i. 284. AC-
tions the interpreters of the lieart i. 343. Allion is the fun-
damental part of epic and drama'ie compositions ii. 303.
Unity of action ii. 319. We are conscious of internal action is in
the head ii. 395. Internal action may proceed without our being
conscious of it ii. 396.
A&tion and reaction betwixt a pallion and its object j. 100.
Actor) bombait actor i. 198. The chief talents of an actor i. 339.
An actor should feel the pallion he represents i. 358. Lifference as
to pronunciation betwixt the French and English actorsi. 362. note.
Admiration i. 99. 207.
Æneid. See Virgil.
Afiectation i. 270.
Affection to children accounted for i. 63. To blood-relations i. 63.
Affection for what belongs to us i. 64. Social attections more re-
fined than selfish i. 93. Atection in wliai manner inflamed into a
passion i. 99. Opposed to propensity i. 102. Aflection to children
endures longer than any other affeétion i. 102. Opinion wd belief
influenced by affection i. 134. Affection defined i. 320. il. 408.
Agamemnon) of Seneca censured 1. 383.
Agreeable emotions and patlions i. 88, &c. Things neither agreea-
ble nor dilagreeable. See object.
Alceftes) of Euripides censured i, 40L. ii. 333, 334.
Alexandrel of Racine cenfured i. 373.
Alexandrine line ii. 96.
Allegory) defined ii. 220. More difficult in painting than in poetry
ii. 231. In an historical poem ii. 310.
All for Love) of Dryden centured i. 389.
Alto Relievo ii. 370.
Ambiguity) occafioned by a wrong choice of words ii. 15. occasions
ed by a wrong arrangement ii. 44.
Anynta) of Tailo cenfured i. 367.
Amor patriæ) accounted for i. 143.
Amphybrachys ii. 142.
Amphimacer ii. 142.
Analytic) and fynthetic methods of reasoning compared i. 30,
Anapeftus ii. 142.
Anger) explained i. 70, &c. Frequently comes to its height instan-
taneoully i. 98. Decays suddenly i. 101. Sometimes exerted
against the innocent i. 129. and even against things inanimate
i. 129. Not infectious i. 146. Has no dignity in it i. 282.
Angle) largest and finallest angle of vision i. 141.
Animals) distribyted by nature into classes ii. 384.
Antibacchius ii. 142.
Anticlimax ii. 74.
Antispastus ii. 143,
Antithetis ii. 23. Verbal antithefis i. 308. ii. 23.
Apostrophe ii. 202, &c.
Appearance) things ought to be described in poetry, as they appear,
not as they are in reality ii, 259.
Appetite) defined i. 43. Appetites of hunger, thirst, animal love,
arife without an object i. 57. Appetite for fame or esteem i. 164.
Apprehension) dulnels and quickness of apprehension, to what causes
owing i. 244.
Architecture, ch. 24. Grandeur of manner in architecture i. 186.
· The situation of a great house ought to be lofty i. 267. A play.
house or a mutic-room susceptible of much ornament i. 269. What
emotions can be raised by architecture ii. 339. Its emotions com-
pared with those of gardening ii. 340. Every building ought to
have an expreslion fuited to its destination ii. 340. 366. Simplicity
ought to be the governing taste ii. 341. Regularity to be studied ii.
344. 361. External form of dwelling-houses ii. 368, 359. Divif
ions within ii. 358. 368, 369. A palace ought to be regular, but in
a small house convenience ought to be preferred ii. 356. 359. A
dwelling-house ought to be suited to the climate ii. 360. Congruity
ought to be studied ii. 366. Architecture governed by principles
that produce oppofite effects ii. 369, 370. Different ornaments
employed in it ii. 370. Witticisms in architecture ii. 378. Alle-
gorical or emblematic ornaments ii. 378. Archite Sture inspires a
tafte for neatness and regularity ii. 380.
Ariosto) censured i. 257. ii
Ariftæus) the episode of Aristæus in the Georgics censured ii. 141.
Aristotle) censured ii. 399. note.
Arniy) defined ii. 416.
Arrangement) the best arrangement of words is to place them if pofa
fible in an increasing series ii. 13. Arrangement of members in a
period ii. 13. Of periods in a discourse ii. 14. Ambiguity from
wrong arrangement ii. 44. Arrangement natural and inverted
ii. 65, 66.
Articulate founds) how far agreeable ii. 5, 6,7,8.
Artificial mount ii. 350.
Arts.) See Fine arts.
Ascent) pleafant, but descent pot painful i. 177.
Athalie) of Racine censured i. 383.
Attention)defined ii. 409. Imprehion made by objects depends on the
degree of attention ii. 410. Attention not always voluntary ii. 411,
Attractive paflions i. 346.
Attractive object i. 148.
Attractive ligns of pallion i. 382.