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nected by arcades ; third, an octagon room, or of any other figure, about the centre of the building ; and lastly, the great room.
A double row of windows must be disagreeable by distributing the light unequally : the space in particular between the rows is always gloomy. For that reason, a room of greater height than can be conveniently served by a single row, ought regularly to be lighted from the roof. Artists have
generally an inclination to form the great room into a double cube, even with the inconvenience of a double row of windows: they are pleased with the regularity, overlooking that it is mentalonly, and not visible to the eye, which seldom can distinguish between the height of 24 feet and that of 30.
Of all the emotions that can be raised by architecture, grandeur is that which has the greatest influence on the mind ; and it ought therefore to be the chief study of the artist, to raise this emotion in great buildings destined to please the eye. But as grandeur depends partly on fize, it seems so far unlucky for architecture, that it is governed by regularity and proportion, which never deceive the eye by making objects appear larger than they are in re. ality : suche deception, as above observed, is never found but with some remarkable disproportion of parts. But though regularity and proportion contribute nothing to grandeur as far as that emotion depends on size, they in a different respect contribute greatly to it, as has been explained above.t
Next * One who has not given peculiar atiention will scarce imagine how imperfe&t our judgment is about disances, without experience. Our looks being generally directed to objects upon the ground around us judge tolerably of horizontal distances : bot seldom having occafion to look upward in a pernendicular line, we scarce can form any judgment of diftances in that direction.
1 Chap: 4: VOL. II.
Next of ornaments, which contribute to give buildings a peculiar expression. It has been doubted whether a building can regularly admit any ornament but what is useful, or at least has that
appearance. But considering the different purposes of architecture, a fine as well as an useful art, there is no good reason why ornaments may not be added to please the eye without any relation to use. This liberty is allowed in poetry, painting, and gardening, and why not in architecture considered as a fine art ? A private dwelling-house, it is true, and other edifices where use is the chief aim, admit not regularly any ornament but what has the appearance, at least, of use ; but temples, triumphal arches, and other buildings intended chiefly or solely for show, admit every fort of ornament.
A thing intended merely as an ornament may be of any figure and of any kind that fancy can suggelt ; if it please the spectator, the artist gains his end. Statues, vases, sculpture upon stone, whether basso or alto relievo, are beautiful ornaments, relished in all civilized countries. The placing such ornaments so as to produce the best effect, is the only nicéty. A statue in perfection is an enchanting work ; and we naturally require that it should be feen in every direction and at different distances; for which reason, statues employed as ornaments are proper to adorn the great stair-case that leads to the principal door of a palace, or to occupy the void be. tween pillars. But a niche in the external front is not a proper place for a ftatue ; and Statues upon the roof, or upon the top of a wall, would give pain by seeming to be in danger of tumbling. To adorn the top of a wall with a row of vaies is an unhappy conceit, by placing things apparently of use where they cannot be of any use. As to baffo and alto relievo,
I observe, that in architecture as well as in gardening, contradictory expressions ought to be avoided : for which reason, the lightness and delicacy of carved work suits ill with the firmness and folidity of a pedestal : upon the pedestal, whether of a statue or a column, the ancients never ventured any bolder ornament than the baffo relievo.
One at first view will naturally take it for granted, that in the ornaments under consideration, beauty is indispensable. It goes a great way undoubtedly; but, upon trial, we find many things esteemed as highly ornamental that have little or no beauty. There are various circumstances, beside beauty, that tend to make an agreeable impression. For instance, the reverence we have for the ancients is a fruitful fource of orna
Amalthea's horn has always been a favourite ornament, because of its connection with a lady who was honoured with the care of Jupiter in his infancy. A fat old fellow and a goat are furely not graceful forms ; and yet Selinus and his companions are every where fashionable ornaments. What else but our fondness for antiquity can make the horrid form of a Sphinx so much as endurable ? Original destination is another circumstance that has influence to add dignity to things in themselves abundantly trivial. In the sculpture of a marble chimney-piece, instruments of a Grecian or Roman facrifice are beheld with pleasure; original destination rendering them vencrable as well as their antiquity. Let some modern cutlery ware be substituted, though not less heautiful; the artist will be thought whimsical, if not abfurd. Triumphal arches, pyramids, obelisks, are beautiful forms, but the r.oblenefs of their original destination has greatly enhanced the pleasure we take in them. Aftatue, supposed to be an Apollo, will
wịth an antiquary lose much of its grace when difcovered to have been done for a barber's apprentice. Long robes appear noble, not fingly for their flowing lines, but for their being the habit of magistrates ; and a scarf acquires an air of dignity by being the badge of a superior order of churchmen. These examples may be thought sufficient for a specimen : a diligent inquiry into human nature will discover other influencing principles; and hence it is, that of all subjects, ornaments admit the greatest variety in point of taste.
Things merely ornamental appear more gay and Mhowy than things that take on the appearance of use. A knot of diamonds in the hair is splendid ; but diamonds have a more modest appearance when used as clasps or buttons. The former are more proper for a young beauty, the latter after marriage.
And this leads to ornaments having relation to use. - Ornaments of that kind are governed by a different principle, which is, That they ought to be of a form suited to their real or apparent destination. This rule is applicable as well to ornaments that make a component part of the subject, as to ornaments that are only accessory. With relation to the former, it never can proceed from a good taste to make a țea-spoon resemble the leaf of a tree ; for fuch a form is inconsistent with the destination of a tea-spoon. An eagle's claw is an ornament no less improper. for the foot of a chair or table : because it gives it the appearance of weakness, inconsistent with its destination of bearing weight. Blind windows are fometimes introduced to preserve the appearance of regularity in which case the deceit ought carefully to be concealed : if visible, it marks the irregularity in the clearest manner, fignifying, that real windows, pught to have been there, could they have
been made consistent with the internal structure. A pilaster is another example of the fame sort of ornament; and the greatest error against its seeming deftination of a support, is to sink it so far into the wall as to make it lose that seeming. A composition representing leaves and branches, with birds perching upon them, has been long in fashion for a candlestick
; but none of these particulars is in any degree suited to that destination. · A large marble bafon supported
by fishes, is a conceit much relished in fountains. This is an example of accessory ornaments in a bad taste; for fishes here are unsuitable to their apparent destination. No less so are the supports of a coach, carved in the figure of Dolphins or Tritons : for what have these marine beings to do on dry land ? and what support can they be to a coach ?
In a column we have an example of both kinds of ornament. Where columns are employed in the front of a building to support an entablature, they belong to the first kind : where employed to connect with detached offices, they are rather of the other kind. As a column is a capital ornament in Grecian architecture, it well deserves to be handled at large.
With respect to the form of this ornament, I obferve, that a circle is a more agreeable figure than a square, a globe than a cube, and a cylinder than a parallelopipedon. This last, in the language of architecture, is saying that a column is a more agreeable figure than a pilaster ; and for that reason it ought to be preferred, all other circumstances being equal. Another reason concurs, that a column connected with a wall, which is a plain surface, makes a greater variety than a pilaster. There is an additional reason for rejecting pilasters in the external front of a building, arising from a principle unfold