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rooms this figure must, for the most part, give place to a parallelogram, which can more easily be adjusted, than a square, to the fmaller rooms contrived entirely for convenience. A parallelogram, at the same time, is the best calculated for receiving light ; because, to avoid cross lights, all the windows ought to be in one wall; and the opposite wall must be fo near as to be fully lighted, otherwise the room will be obscure. The height of a room exceeding nine or ten feet, has little or no relation to utility ; and therefore proportion is the only rule for determining a greater height.
As all artists who love what is beautiful, are prone to entertain the eye, they have opportunity to exert their taste upon palaces and sumptuous buildings, where, as above observed, intrinsic beauty ought to have the afcendant over that which is relative. But such propensity is unhappy with respect to dwelling-houses of moderate fize; because in these, intrinsic beauty cannot be displayed in any perfection, without wounding relative beauty: a small house admits not much variety of form ; and in such houses there is no instance of internal convenience being accurately adjusted to external regularity : I am apt to believe that it is beyond the reach of art. And yet architects never give over attempting to reconcile these two incompatibles : how otherwise should it happen, that of the endless variety of private dwelling-houses, there is scarce an instance of any one being chosen for a pattern ? the unwearied propensity to make a house regular as well as convenient, forces the architect, in fome articles to facrifice convenience to regularity, and in others, regularity to convenience; and the ķouse which turns out neither regular nor convenient, never fails to displease : the faults are obvious
and the difficulty of doing better is known to the
Nothing can be more evident, than that the form of a dwelling-house ought to be suited to the climate: and yet no error is more common, than to copy in Britain the form of Italian houses ; not forgetting even those parts that are purposely contrived for air, and for excluding the sun. I shall give one or two instances. A colonnade along the front of a building, hath a fine effect in Greece and Italy, by producing coolness and obscurity, agreeable properties in warm and luminous climates : but the cold climate of Britain is altogether averfe to that ornament; and therefore, a colonnade can never be proper in this country, unless for a portico, or to communicate with a detached building. Again, a logio laying the house open to the north, contrived in Italy for gathering cool air, is, if possible, still more improper for this climate : scarce endurable in su.nmer, it, in winter, exposes the house to the bitter blasts of the north, and to every shower of snow and rain.
Having said what appeared necessary upon relative beauty, the next step is, to view architecture as one of the fine arts; which will lead us to the examination of such buildings, and parts of buildings, as are calculated folely to please the eye. In the works of Nature, rich and magnificent, variety prevails ; and . in works of Art that are contrived to imitate Nature, the great art is to hide every appearance of art; which is done by avoiding regularity, and indulging variety. But in' works of art that are original, and not imitative, the timid hand is guided by rule and compass; and accordingly in architecture strict regularity and uniformity are studied, as far as consistent with utility.
Proportion #" Houses are built to live in, and not to look on ; therefore let use be preferred before uniformity, except where both may be bad.”
Lord l'crulan, bay 45.
Proportion is no less agreeable than regularity and uniformity : and therefore in buildings intended to please the eye, they are all equally effential. By many writers it is taken for granted, that in buildings there are certain proportions that please the eye, as in sounds there are certain proportions that please the ear, and that in both equally the flightest deviation from the precise proportion is disagreeable. Others seem to relish more a comparison between proportion in numbers and proportion in quantity ; and hold that the same proportions are agreeable in both. The proportions for example, of the numbers 16, 24, and 36, are agreeable ; and so, say they, are the
proportions of a room, the height of which is 16 feet, the breadth 24, and the length 36. ' May I hope from the reader, that he will patiently accompany me in examining this point, which is useful as well as curious. To refute the notion of a resemblance between musical proportions and those of architecture, it might be sufficient to observe in general, that the one is addressed to the ear, the other to the eye ; and that objects of different senses have no referiblance, nor indeed any relation to each other. But more particularly, what pleases the ear in harmony, is not proportion among the strings of the instrument, but among the sounds that these strings produce. In architecture, on the contrary, it is the proportion of different quantities that please the eye, without the least relation to found. Were quantity to be the ground of comparison, we have no reason to prefume, that there is any natural analogy between the proportions that please in a building, and the proportions of strings that produce concordant sounds. Let us take for example an octave, produced by two finilar strings, the one double of the other in length:
this is the most perfect of all concords ; and yet I. know not that the proportion of one to two is agreeable in any two parts of a building. I add, that concordant notes are produced by wind-instruments, which, as to proportion, appear not to have even the fightest resemblance to a building.
With respect to the other notion, namely, a comparison between proportion in numbers and proportion in quantity ; I urge, that number and quantity are so different, as to afford no probability of any natural relation between them. Quantity is a real quality of every body ; number is not a real quality, but merely an idea that arises upon viewing a plu. rality of things, whether conjunctly or in fucceffion, An arithmetical proportion is agreeable in numbers; but have we any reason to infer that it must also be agreeable in quantity ? At that rate, a geometrical proportion, and many others which are agreeable in numbers, ought also to be agreeable in quantity. In an endless variety of proportions, it would be wonderful, if there never should happen a coincidence of any one agreeable proportion in both. One examplé is given in the numbers 16, 24, and 36 ; but to be convinced that this agreeable coincidence is merely accidental, we need only reflect, that the fame proportions are not applicable to the external figure of a house, and far less to a column.
That we are framed by nature to relish proportion as well as regularity, is indisputable ; but that agreeable proportion should, like concord in sounds, be confined to certain precise measures, is not warranted by experience : on the contrary, we learn from experience, that proportion admits more and less ; that feveral proportions are each of them agreeable ; and that we are not sensible of disproportion, till the dif, ference between the quantities compared become the
CH. XXIV. Gardening and Architecture. 363 most 'striking circumstance. Columns evidently admit different proportions, equally agreeable ; and sa do houses, rooms, and other parts of a building. This leads to an interesting reflection : the foregoing difference between concord and proportion, is an additional instance of that admirable harmony which subfists among the several branches of the human frame. The ear is an accurate judge of founds, and of their smallest differences; and that concord in founds should be regulated by accurate measures, is perfectly well suited to this accuracy of perception : the eye is more uncertain about the size of a large object, than of one that is small; and at a distance an object appears lefs than at hand. Delicacy of perception, therefore, with respect to proportion in quan, tities, would be an useless quality ; and it is much better ordered, that there should be such a latitude with respect to agreeable proportions, as to correspond to the uncertainty of the eye with respect to quantity:
But all the beauties of this subject are not yet displayed ; and it is too interesting to be passed over in a cursory view. I proceed to obferve, that to make the eye as delicate with respect to proportion as the ear is with respect to concord, would not only be an useless: quality, but be the source of continual pain and uneasiness. I need go no farther for a proof than the very room I occupy at present ; for every step I take varies to me, in appearance, the proportion of length to breadth : at that rate, I should not be happy but in one precise spot, where the proportion
appears agreeable. Let me further observe, that it would be singular indeed to find, in the nature of man, any two principles in perpetual opposition to each other : and yet this would be the case, if proportion were circumfcribed like concord; for it