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but there is a beauty in utility ; and in discoursing of beauty, that of utility must not be neglected. This leads us to consider gardens and buildings in different' views : they may be destined for use solely, for beauty solely, or for both. Such variety of destination, bestows upon these arts a great command of beauties, complex no less than various. Hence the difficulty of forming an accurate taste in gardening and architecture : and hence that difference and wavering of taste in these arts, greater than in any art that has but a single destination.
Architecture and gardening cannot otherwise entertain the mind, but by raising certain agreeable emoa tions or feelings ; with which we must begin, as the true foundation of all the rules of criticism that
goya ern these arts. Poetry, as to its power of raising emotions, possesses juftly the first place among the fine arts ;
for scarce any one emotion of human nature is beyond its reach. Painting and seulpture are more circumscribed, having the command of no emotions but of what are raised by fight : they are peculiarly successful in expressing painful passions, which are displayed by external signs extremely legible.* Gardening, beside the emotions of beauty from regularity, order, proportion, colour, and utility, can raise emotions of grandeur, of sweetness, of gaiety, of melancholy, of wildness, and even of surprise or wonder. In architecture, the beauties of regularity, order, and proportion, are still more conspicuous than in gardening; but as to the beauty of colour, architecture is far inferior. Grandeur can be expressed in a building, perhaps more succeflfully than in a garden ; but as to the other emotions above mentioned, architecture hitherto has not been bronght to the perfection of expressing them distinctly.
* See chap. 15.
To balance that defect, archite&ure can display the beauty of utility in the highest perfe&tion.
Gardening indeed possesses one advantage, never to be equalled in the other art : in various scenes, it can raise succeslively all the different emotions above mentioned. But to produce that delicious effect, the garden must be extenfive, so as to admit a flow fucceflion : for a small garden, comprehended at one view, ought to be confined to one expression ;* it may be gay, it
may be sweet, it may be gloomy; but an attempt to mix these, would create a jumble of emotions not a little unpleasant.f For the same reafon, a building, even the most magnificent, is necessarily confined to one expreflion.
Architecture, considered as a fine art, instead of being a rival to gardening in its progress, seems not far advanced beyond its infant state. To bring it to maturity, two things mainly are wanted. First, a greater variety of parts and ornaments than at prefent it seems provided with. Gardening here has greatly the advantage: it is provided with plenty of materials for raising scenes without end, affecting the spectator with variety of emotions. In architecture, on the contrary, materials are so scanty, that artists hitherto have not been successful in raising any emo. tions but of beauty and grandeur : with respect to the former, there are indeed plenty of means, regularity, order, symmetry, fimplicity, utility ; and with respect to the latter, the addition of size is sufficient. But though it is evident, that every building ought to have a certain character or expression suited to its destination ; yet this refinement has scarce been
attempted * See chap. 8. + " The citizen, who in his villa has but an acre for a garden, must have it diversified with every cbject that is suited to an extensive garden. There must be woods, ftreams, lawns, ftatues, and temples to every gode dess as well as to Cloacina."
attempted by any artist. A death's head and bones employed in monumental buildings, will indeed produce an emotion of gloom and melancholy ; but such ornaments, if these can be termed so, ought to be rejected, because they are in themselves disagreeable. The other thing wanted to bring the art to perfection, is, to ascertain the precise impression made by every single part and ornament, cupolas, spires, columns, carvings, statues, vases, &c. for in vain will an artist attempt rules for employing these, either singly or in combination, until the different emotions they produce be distinctly explained. Gardening in that particular also, hath the advantage: the several emotions raised by trees, rivers, cascades, plains, eminences, and its other materials, are understood i and each emotion can be described with some degree of precision, which is attempted occasionally in the foregoing parts of this work.
In gardening as well as in architecture, fimplicity ought to be a ruling principle. Profuse ornament haih na better effect than to confound the eye, and to prevent the object from making an impression as one entire whole. An artist destitute of genius for capital beauties, is naturally prompted to supply the de. fect by crowding his plan with slight embellishments : hence, in a garden, triumphal arches, Chinese houses, temples, obelisks, cascades, fountains, without end; and in a building, pillars, vafes, statues, and a profufion of carved work. Thus some women defective in taste, are apt to overcharge every part of their dress with ornament. Superfluity of decoration hath another bad effect : it gives the object a diminutive look an island in a wide extended lake makes it appear larger ; but an artificial lake, which is always little, appears still less by making an island in it.**
IR Sce appendix to part 3. chap. e.
In forming plans for embellishing a field, an artist without taste
employs straight lines, circles, squares ; because these look best upon paper. He perceives not, that to humour and adorn nature, is the perfection of his art ; and that nature, neglecting regularity, distributes her objects in great variety with a bold hand. A large field laid out with strict regularity, is stiff and artificial.* Nature indeed, in organized bodies comprehended under one view, studies regularity, which, for the same reason, ought to be studie ed in architecture : but in large objects, which can. not otherwise be surveyed but in parts and by fuccession, regularity and uniformity would be useless properties, because they cannot be discovered by the eye.f Nature therefore, in her large works, neglects these properties, and in copying nature, the artist ought to negle& ihem.
Having thus far carried on a comparison between gardening and architecture ; rules peculiar to each come next in order, beginning with gardening The fimplest plan of a garden, is that of a spot embellish: ed with a number of natural objects, trees, walks, polished parterres, flowers, streams, &c. One more complex comprehends ftatues and buildings, "that nature and art may be mutually ornamental. A third, approaching nearer perfection, is of objects afsembled together in order to produce, not only an emotion of beauty, but also fome other particular emotion, grandeur, for example, gaiety, or any other
above * In France and Italy, a garden is disposed like the human body, allers, like legs and arms, answering each other; the gicat walk in the middle rei refunting ihe trunk of the body. carries felf along into every operation.
A squa:e fuld appears no such to the eye when viewed from any part of it; and the centre is the only place where a circular qcld pres serves in a pearance its regular figure,
Thus an artin void of taile
above mentioned. The completest plan of a garden is an improvement upon the third, requiring the seva eral parts to be so arranged, as to inspire all the different emotions that can be raised by gardening. In this plan, the arrangement is an important circumstance ; for it has been shown, that some emotions figure best in conjunction, and that others ought always to appear in fucceflion, and never in conjunction. It is mentioned above,* that when the most opposite emotions, such as gloominess and gaiety, Stillness and activity, follow each other in fucceflion, the pleasure, on the whole, will be the greatest ; but that such emotions ought not to be united, because they produce an unpleasant mixture.f For this reafon, a ruin affording a fort of melancholy pleasure, ought not, to be seen from a flower-parterre which is gay and cheerful. But to pass from an exhilarating object to a ruin, has a fine effect ; for each of the emotions is the more sensibly felt by being contrasted with the other, Similar emotions, on the other hand, such as gaiety and sweetness, stillness and gloominess, motion and grandeur, ought to be raised . together ; for their effects upon the mind are greatly heightened by their conjunction,
Kent's method of embellishing a field, is admirable; which is to replenish it with beautiful objects, natural and artificial, disposed as they ought to be upon à canvas in painting. It requires indeed more genius to paint in the gardening way : in forming a landscape upon a canvas, no more is required but to aduit the figures to each other : an artist who would form a garden in Kent's manner, has an additional talk, which is, to adjust his figures to the several va. rities of the ficid.
A single Chap. 8. + Clap.2. part 4. See the place immcdiately above circd.