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ing of the man who liftens, to the paffion with which he is moved. In the expreffion bold deed, or audax facinus, we extend to the effect what properly belongs to the caufe. But not to waste time by making a commentary upon every expreffion of this kind, the beft way to give a complete view of the fubject, is to exhibit a table of the different relations that may give occafion to this figure. And in viewing the table, it will be obferved, that the figure can never have any grace but where the relations are of the moft intimate kind.
1. An attribute of the cause expreffed as an at tribute of the effect.
Of yonder fleet a bold difcovery make..
An impious mortal gave the daring wound.
To my advent'rous fong.
That with no middle flight intends to foar.
2. An attribute of the effect expreffed as an attribute of the cause.
Quos periiffe ambos mifera cenfebam in mari.
No wonder, fallen fuch a pernicious height.
3. An effect expreffed as an attribute of the caufe.
Jovial wine, Giddy brink, Drowfy night, Mufing midnight, Panting height, Aftonifh'd thought, Mournful gloom.
Casting a dim religious light.
And the merry bells ring round,
4. An attribute of a fubject bestowed upon one of its parts or members.
It was the nightingale and not the lark,
Oh, lay by
Those most ungentle looks and angry weapons;
And ready now
To ftoop with wearied wing and willing feet
Paradife Loft, b. 3.
5. A quality of the agent given to the inftrument with which it operates.
Why peep your coward fwords half out their fhells!
6. An attribute of the agent given to the fubject upon which it operates.
7. A quality of one fubject given to another.
Icci, beatis nunc Arabum invides
Horat. Carm. I. 1. ode 29.
When faplefs age, and weak unable limbs,
By art, the pilot through the boiling deep
Then, nothing loath, th' enamour'd fair he led,
A flupid moment motionless she stood.
Summer, l. 1336.
8. A circumftance connected with a fubject, expreffed as a quality of the fubject.
'Tis ours the chance of fighting fields to try.
* See chap. 1.
Odyffey viii. 337.
Iliad i. 301.
Oh! had I dy'd before that well-fought wall.
From this table it appears, that the adorning a caufe with an attribute of the effect, is not fo agreeable as the oppofite expreffion. The progrefs from cause to effect is natural and easy: the oppofite progrefs refembles retrogade motion;* and therefore panting height, aftonifh'd thought, are strained and uncouth expreffions, which a writer of taste will avoid.
It is not lefs ftrained, to apply to a fubject in its prefent ftate, an epithet that may belong to it in fome future ftate:
Submerfafque obruc puppes.
Eneid, i. 73.
And mighty ruins fall.
Impious fons their mangled fathers wound.
Another rule regards this figure, That the property of one fubject ought not to be bestowed upon another with which that property is incongruous:
Iliad v. 411.
King Rich. How dare thy joints forget
The connection between an awful fuperior and his fubmiffive dependent is fo intimate, that an attribute may readily be transferred from the one to the other: but awfulness cannot be fo transferred, because it is inconfiftent with fubmiffion..
Metaphor and Allegory.
A METAPHOR differs from a fimile, in
form only, not in fubftance: in a fimile, the two fubjects are kept diftin&t in the expreffion, as well as in the thought; in a metaphor, the two fubjects are kept diftinct in the thought only, not in the expreffion. A hero resembles a lion, and, upon that refemblance many fimiles have been raifed by Homer and other poets. But instead of refembling a lion, let us take the aid of the imagination, and faign or figure the hero to be a lion: by that variation the fimile is converted into a metaphor; which is carri ed on by defcribing all the qualities of a lion that refemble thofe of the hero. The fundamental pleafure here, that of refemblance, belongs to the thought.
An additional pleasure arifes from the expreffion : the poet, by figuring his hero to be a lion, goes on to defcribe the lion in appearance, but in reality the hero and his defcription is peculiarly beautiful, by expreffing the virtues and qualities of the hero in new terms, which, properly fpeaking, belong not to him, but to the lion. This will better be understood by examples. A family connected with a common parent, refembles a tree, the trunk and branches of which are connected with a common root: but let us fuppofe, that a family is figured, not barely to be like a tree, but to be a tree; and then the fimile will be converted into a metaphor, in the following
Edward's fev'n fons, whereof thyfelf art one,
Figuring human life to be a voyage at sea :
There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Julius Cæfar, at 4. fc. 5
Figuring glory and honour to be a garland of flowers,
Wou'd to heav'n, Thy name in arms were now as great as mine!