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This author, in riper years is guilty of a much greater deviation from the rule. Dullness


be imagined a deity or idol, to be worshipped by bad writers ; but then some sort of disguise is requisite, some baftard virtue must be bestowed, to make such worship in some degree excusible. Yet in the Dunciad, Dullness without the least disguise, is made the object of worship. The mind rejects such a fiction as unnatural ; for dullness is a defect, of which even the dullest mortal is alhamed :


Then he : Great tamer of all human art!
First in my care, and ever at my heart ;
Dullness ! whose good old cause I yet defend,
With whom my Muse began, with whom thall end,
E'er fince Sir Fopling's periwig was praise,
To the last honours of the Bull and Bays!
O thou ! of bus'ness the directing foul !
To this our head, like bias to the bowl,
Which as more pond'rous, made its aim more true,
Obliquely wadling to the mark in view :
O ! ever gracious to perplex'd mankind,
Still spread a healing mist before the mind :
And, leit we err by Wit's wild dancing light,
Secure us kindly in our native night.
Or, if to wit a coxcomb make pretence,
Guard the fure barrier between that and sense ;
Or quite unravel all the reas’ning thread,
And hang fome curious cobweb in its ftead !
As, forc'd from wind-guns, lead itfelf can fly,
And pond'rous flugs cut fwiftly through the sky;
As clocks to weight their nimble motion owe,
The wheels above urg'd by the load below :
Me Emptiness and Dullness could inspire,
And were my elasticity, and fire.

B. i. 163. The following instance is stretched beyond all resemblance : it is bold to take a part of member of a liv. ing creature, and to bestow upon it life, volition, and

action :


action : after animating two such members, it is still bolder to make one envy the other ; for this is wide of any resemblance to reality :

De noftri baci
Meritamenti sia giudice quella,
Che la bocca ha più bella.
Tutte concordemente
Eleiler la belisliina Amarilli ;
Ed' ella i suoi begli occhi
Dolcemente chinando,
Di modesto roflor tutta li tinse,
E mostro ben, che non men bella è dentro
Di quel che sia di fuori ;
O foile, che'l bel volto
Avelle invidia all' onorata bocca,
E s'adornasse anch'egli
Della purpurea sua pomposa, vesta,
Quasi voleffe dir, son bello anch'io.

Peftor Fido, ačt 2. fc. 1. Fifthly, The enthusiasm of passion may have the effect to prolong passionate personification : but defe criptive personification cannot be dispatched in too few words : a circumstantiate description dissolves the charm, and makes the attempt to personify appear ridiculous. Homer fucceeds in animating his darts and arrows : but such personification spun out in a French translation, is mere burlesque :

Et la fléche en furie, avide de son sang,

Part, vole à lui, l'atteint, et lui perce le flanc. Horace says happily,

Post equitem fedet atra Cura. Observe how this thought degenerates by being die vided, like the former, into a number of minute parts :


Un fou rempli d'erreurs, que le trouble accompagne
Et malade à la ville ainsi qu' à la campagne,
En vain monte à cheval pour tromper son ennui,

Le Chagrin monte en croupe, et galope avec lui.
A poet, in a short and lively expression, may ani.
mate his muse, his genius, and even his verse : but
to animate his verse, and to address a whole epistle
to it, as Boileau doth,* is insupportable.
The following passage is not less faulty :

Her fate is whisper'd by the gentle breeze,
And told in fighs to all the trembling trees;
The trembling trees, in ev'ry plain and wood,
Her fate remurmur to the silver flood;
The silver flood, fo lately calm, appears
Swell'd with new pallion, and o'erflows with tears;
I he winds, and trees, and floods, her death deplore,
Daphne, our grief! our glory! now no more.

Pope's Pafiorals, iv. 6). Let grief or love have the power to animate the winds, the trees, the floods, provided the figure bę dispatched in a single expression : even in that case, the figure seldom has a good effect ; because grief or love of the pastoral kind, are causes rather too faint for so violent an effect as imagining the winds, trees, or floods, to be sensible beings. But when this figure is deliberately spread out, with great regularity and accuracy, through many lines, the read. er, instead of relishing it, is struck with its ridicu. lous appearance.



Epille 10.



Apostrophe. This figure and the former are derived from the same principle. If, to humour a plaintive paslion, we can bestow a momentary sensibility upon an inanimate object, it is not more difficult to bestow a momencary presence upon a sensible being who is abfent :

Hinc Drepani me portus et illætabilis ora
Accipit. Hic, pelagi

' tot tempestatibus actus,
Jeu? genitorem, omnis curæ cafusque levamen,

Anchifen : hic mc puter optime feffum
Deferis, heu ! tan:is nequicquam erepte periclis.
Nec vates Helenus, cum multa horrenda moneret,
Hos mihi prædixit luctus ; non dira Celæno.

Æneid, iii. 707.

Strike the harp in praise of Bragela, whom I left in the isle of milt, ihe spouse of my love. Dost thou raise thy fair face from the sock to find the fails of Cuchullin ? The fea is rolling far distant, and its white foam shall deceive thee for my fails. Retire for it is night my love, and the dark winds ligh in thy hair. Retire to the hall of my feasts, and think of the times that are paít ; for I will not return till the storm of war is gone. O Connal speak of wars and arms, and send her from my mind ; for lovely with her raven-hair is the white-bolom'd daughter of Sor. glan.

Fingal, b. s. Speaking of Fingal absent,

Happy are thy people, O Fingal ; thine arm shall fight their battles. Thou art the first in their dangers; the wifeft in the days of their peace : thou speakest, and thy thou.


sands obey; and armies tremble at the sound of thy steel. Happy are thy people, O Fingal.

This figure is sometimes joined with the former :
things inanimate, to qualify them for listening to a
passionate expoftulation, are not only personified, but
also conceived to be present :

Et si fara Deum, fi mens non læva fuisset,
Impulerat ferro Argolicas foedare latebras :
Trojaque nunc flares, Priamique arx alta maneres,

Æneid, ii. 54.

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Poor Lord, is't I
That chase thee from thy country, and expose
Those tender limbs of thine to the event
Of non-sparing war? And is it I
That drive thee from the sportive court, where thou
Waft shot at with fair eyes, to be the mark
Of smoky muskets? O you leaden meffengers,
That ride upon the violent speed of fire,
Fly with falfo aim ; pierce the still moving air
That lings with piercing ; do not touch my Lord.

All's well that ends well, ači 3. fi. 4.

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And let them lift ten thousand swords, faid Nathos with a smile : the sons of car-borne Ulnoth will never tremble in danger. Why doft thou roll with all thy foam, thou roaring sea of Ullin? why do ye rustle on your dark wings, ye whiitiing tempeíts of the lky Do ye think, ye storins, that ye keep Nathos on the coast? No ; his soul detains him, children of the night ! Althos, bring my father's


arms, &c.

Whether halt thou flcd, O wind, said the King of Morven! Doft thou rustle in the chambers of the south, and pursue the shower in other lands? Why comet not thou to my fails, to the blue face of my feas' The toe is in the land of Morven, and the king is absent.


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