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24. Paron 4th, the last fyllable long and the other

three short : celeritas.

25. EPITRITUS ist, the first syllable short and the

other three long : voluptates. 26. Epitritus 2d, the second syllable short and

the other three long : pænitentes. 27. EPITRITUS 3d, the third syllable short and the

other three long : difcordias. 28. Epitritus 4th, the last syllable short and the

other three long : fortunatus. 29. A word of five syllables composed of a Pyr

rhichius and Dactylus : ministerial. 30. A word of five fyllables composed of a Tro.

chæus and Dactylus : fingularity. 31. A word of five fyllables composed of a Dace

tylus and Trochæus : precipitation, examination. 32. A word of five syllables, the second only long:

Significancy. 33. A word of six syllables composed of two Daca

tyles : impetuofity. 34. A word of fix syllables composed of a Tribra

chys and Dactyle: pufillanimity. N. B. Every word may be considered as a profe foot, because every word is distinguished by a pause; and every foot in verse may be considered as a verse word, composed of fyllables pronounced at once without a pause,

CHAP.

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Comparisons. COMPARISONS, as observed above,* ferve two purposes : when addressed to the understanding, their purpose is to instruct ; when to the heart, their purpose is to please. Various means contribute to the latter : first, the suggesting fome unusual resemblance or contrast ; second, the setting an object in the strongest light; third, the associating an object with others that are agreeable ; fourth, the elevating an object'; and, fifth, the depressing it. And that comparisons may give pleasure by these various means, appears from what is faid in the chapter above cited; and will be made still more evident by examples, which shall be given after preiniling some general observations.

Objects of different senses cannot be compared together ; for such objects, being entirely separated from each other, have no circumstance in common to admit either resemblance or contrast. Objects of hearing may be compared together, as also of taste, of smell, and of touch : but the chicf fund of comparison are objects of sight; because, in writing or speaking, things can only be compared in idea, and the ideas of sight are more distinct and lively than those of any other sense.

When a nation emerging out of barbarity begins to think of the fine arts, the beauties of language cannot long lie concealed ; and when discovered, they are generally, by the force of novelty, carried beyond moderation. Thus, in the carly poems of

every

* Chap. 8.
K

VOL. II.

every nation, we find metaphors and similes founded on flight and distant resemblances, which, losing their grace with their novelty, wear gradually out of repute ; and now, by the improvement of taste, none but correct metaphors and similes are admitted into any polite composition. To illustrate this observation, a specimen shall be given afterward of such metaphors as I have been defcribing ; with respect to similes, take the following specimen.

Behold thou art fair, my love : thy hair is as a flock of goats that appear from Mount Gilead : thy teeth are like a Hock of theep from the washing, everyone bearing twins : thy lips are like a thread of scarlet : thy neck like the tower of David built for an armoury, whereon hang a thousand shields of mighty men : thy two breasts like two young roes that are twins, which feed among the lilies : thy eyes like the fith-pools in Helhbon, by the gate of Bath-rabbim : thy nose like the tower of Lebanon, looking toward Damascus.

Song of Solomon.

Thou art like snow on the heath ; thy hair like the mist of Cromla, when it curls on the rocks and shines to the beam of the west ; thy breasts are like two sinooth rocks seen from Brano of the streams ; thy arms like two white pillars in the hall of the mighty Fingal.

Fingal.

It has no good effect to compare things by way of fimile that are of the fame kind ; nor to compare by contrast things of different kinds. The reason is given in the chapter quoted above ; and the reason shall be illustrated by examples. The first is a comparison built upon a resemblance so obvious as to make little or no impression.

This just rebuke inflam'd the Lycian crew,
They join, they thicken, and the assault renew :

Unmoy'a

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Unmov'd th' embody'd Greeks their fury dare,
And fix'd support the weight of all the war ;
Nor could the Greeks repel the Lycian pow'rs,
Nor the bold Lycians force the Grecian towr's.
As on the confines of adjoining grounds,
Two stubborn swains with blows dispute their bounds;

They tug, they sweat; but neither gain, nor yield,
One foot, one inch, of the contended field :
Thus obftinate to death, they fight, they fall;
Nor these can keep, nor thofe can win the wall.

Iliad xii. 505

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Another, from Milton, lies open to the same objec-
tion. Speaking of the fallen angels searching for
mines of gold.

A numerous brigade hasten'd': as when bands
Of pioneers with spade and pick-ax arm’d,
Forerun the royal camp to trench a field

Or cast a rampart.
The next shall be of things contrasted that are of
different kinds.

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Queen. What, is my Richard both in shape and

mind
Transform'd and weak ? Hath Bolingbroke depos'd
Thine intelleet? Hath he been in thine heart !
The lion thrusteth forth his paw,
And wounds the earth, if nothing else, with rage
To be o'erpower'd : and wilt thou, pupil-like,
Take thy correction mildly, kiss the rod,
And fawn on rage with base humility ?

Richard II. a&t 5. sc. I. This comparison has scarce any force : a man and a lion are of different species, and therefore are proper subjects for a simile ; but there is no such resem blance between them in general, as to produce any

strong

strong effect by contrasting particular attributes or circumstances.

A third general observation is, That abstract terms can never be the subject of comparison, otherwise than by being personified. Shakespear compares adversity to a toad, and flander to the bite of a croco. dile ; but in such comparisons these abstract terms must be imagined sensible beings.

To have a just notion of comparisons, they must be distinguished into two kinds ; one common and familiar, as where a man is compared to a lion in courage, or to a horse in speed; the other more distant and refined, where two things that have in themselves no resemblance or opposition, are compared with respect to their effects. This sort of comparison is occasionally explained above ;* and for further explanation take what follows. Thereis no resemblance between a flower-pot and a cheerful song ; and yet they may be compared with respect to their effects, the emotions they produce being similar. There is as little resemblance between fraternal concord and precious ointment ; and yet observe how successfully they are compared with respect to the impressions they make.

Behold how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in uniry. It is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon Aaron's beard, and descended to the skirts of his garment.

Pfilm 133 For illustrating this sort of comparison, I add some more examples :

Delightful is thy presence, O Fingal ! it is like the fun on Croila, when the hunter mourns his absence for a season, and sees him between the clouds.

Did

* P. 70

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