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INTRODUCTION.

"HE author of the following pages having, in the earlier

part of his life, travelled through most parts of Europe, and observed various modes of civilized society, was desirous of contemplating human nature in simpler states; and, from what he had heard and read, he concluded, that Africa presented the most ample field for such observations. Accordingly, in the year 1787, he communicated his design to his sovereign, the late intelligent and enterprising King of Sweden, who not only granted him leave of absence from the office he had the honour to hold under him ; but was also graciously pleased to favour with his royal countenance and support, himself and his fellow-travellers, Dr. A. Sparrman, known to the public by his voyages to the Cape of Good Hope, and round the world with the celebrated Cook, and Captain Arrhenius, of the Swedish artillery, a very able and experienced mineralogist.

They travelled by land from Stockholm to Paris, with his majesty's particular recommendation to the court of France, where their views were very cordially promoted. A passage was granted to them in a French ship from Havre de Grace to Africa, and they carried orders to all the

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French governors and agents on the coast, to give them every kind of aslistance, which accordingly they received wherever they thought proper to land. Thus the author's opportunities of observation were uncommonly favourable, and he flatters himself he did not let them escape altogether unimproved.

The chief objects of his enquiry and observation in Africa were the character of the natives, and the evils they suffer from the slave-trade, the produce of the country, and above all, how far it seemed capable of improvement and of colonization.

The author, on returning to Europe, in 1788, called on some friends he had left in England eleven years before. Dr. Sparrman, who went first to Paris, shortly afterwards joined him in London; Captain Arrhenius going directly to Sweden. It soon transpiring that they had just returned from Africa, they were summoned before the British Privy Council, in whose interesting report their opinions on the subject of this work stand recorded in these words: The question being put to Mr. Wadstrom and to Dr. Sparrman, whether they thought that by any and what encouragement the natives of that country might be induced to cultivate the above articles” (viz. cotton, indigo, the sugar cane, &c.) “ so as to make them objects of commerce? -Mr. Wadstrom gave it as his opinion, that the only encouragement would be by settling a colony of Europeans there, and though they would proceed by very slow degrees, yet they would gradually reconcile the princes and natives of the country to it; and he added, that he should himself be glad to be one of the first to engage in such an undertaking." “ Dr. Sparrman thinks also this might be accomplished by planting colonies among them, and paying them

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