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CH A P. Africa for a supply of labourers, in form of slaves. Here

commenced the Slave-trade, that scourge of the human race,
which has kept down a great part of the Africans in a state
of anarchy and blood, and which, while it's nefarious exist-
ence is tolerated, will prove the grand obstacle to their im-
provement and civilization. Early in the sixteenth century,
this traffic had assumed an appearance of system; for we
find that, in 1517, the Emperor Charles V. granted a patent
to certain flave-merchants for the annual supply of 4000
negroes to the islands of Hispaniola, Cuba, Jamaica and
Porto Rico. It has since been cherished with as much care,
as if the very existence of legitimate commerce depended
on it, and as if, in principle and practice, it perfectly ac-
corded with the feelings and sentiments of it's patrons.

5. Without undervaluing the West Indian sugar colotheir import- nies, we may venture to observe, that their importance, nay,

according to the planters themselves, their very existence,
depends on Africa. That continent supplies them with
Naves, whom they call by the soft name of “ Negro la-
bourers,” and who alone confer a value on their property.
Some affirm, with much probability, that they also owe to
Africa the very object of their labours. Certain it is, that
the sugar-cane grows spontaneously in Africa; but whe-
ther it be a native of the West Indies, is a controverted
point. Be this as it may, it was surely somewhat preposter-
ous to drag the Africans to the West Indies, there to drudge
amidst whips and chains, in cultivating a commodity which,
had they been prudently and humanely dealt with, they
might have been induced to raise, as an article of com-
merce, upon their own soil, and that much nearer to the
European markets than the nearest of the West Indian


ance from Africa.

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islands *. But the very vicinity of Africa, which should C HA P. have recommended it to the Europeans, may have operated to it's disadvantage; for mankind generally set the greatest value on things distant and difficult to be obtained. Diftance, like a fog, confuses objects, and lends them a magnitude that does not belong to them; and thus fascinates and milleads men of warm imaginations, often to their injury, sometimes to their ruin.

6. But the slave-trade, as carried on in Africa, not only Opposition of impedes the progress of the natives in the arts of industry and planters. and peace; but also now prevents the European merchants concerned in it, or in the sugar colonies, from countenancing the colonization of that continent, from an ill founded apprehension, that such new establishments may interfere with those in the West Indies. It is indeed well known, that the Sierra Leona Company experienced very great opposition from the selfish and ungenerous African traders, and West Indian merchants and planters. In justice, however, to several of the more liberal individuals of those bodies, we must observe, that, disregarding vulgar prejudices, they saw no cause of alarm from such establishments. They probably considered, that self-interest is always, in the end, best promoted by liberality; and that as all the cotton pro

* l'oyages from England to the nearest of the West Indian islands are performed, on an average, in about thirty day's; to the most diftant, in about six weeks---A voyage to Sierra Leona occupies about twenty days; but Mr. Falconbridge once arriv. cd there from England in seventeen days. Voyages home both from Africa and the West Indies, are longer than those to them, from the opposition of the trade winds; and homeward bound ships from Jarnaica, St. Domingo, Cuba, and the Ba. hamas are farther interrupted by the gulph stream...-In 1782, a French frigate arrived at Senegal from Brest in thirteen days, and returned in fifteen.-.-The Chevalier de Boufflers told me that he arrived at Senegal from Havre in twenty days, and that the vessel returned to Havre in the saine time.




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C HA P. duced in the British islands is quite inadequate to the de

mand of the British manufacturers, so the consumption of
fugar being rapidly increasing, in Europe and America, and
capable of indefinite extension, the time may not be very
distant when all the sugar that can be produced on the
West Indian plantations already settled, may be equally in-
adequate to the supply of the European and American
markets. I say on the West Indian plantations already set-
tled; for it is the opinion of persons well acquainted with
West. Indian affairs, that those plantations cannot, on the

present system, be profitably extended.
Objections a 7. Besides the foregoing obstructions to the colonization
sizing Africa of Africa, several well meaning people have stated some ob-

jections which ought to be answered.—First, They fear
that the colonization of Africa would introduce, among the
simple and innocent natives of that continent, the corrupted
manners of the Europeans.”—I answer, that the slave-trade
has already introduced, into those parts of Africa where it
prevails, the manners of the most corrupted of the Europe-
ans; but that a colony of sober, honest and industrious

ple from Europe, who will of course fix their residence
where there is little or no slave-trade, and who will support
themselves by agriculture, and not by commerce, need not
excite any alarm whatever on this head. “But the Europeans,

may be said, corrupted the aborigines of North America, though neither party dealt in slaves.” This is unfortunately true ; but it is equally true that this corruption was the work of European traders, and not of European farmers. Thegenius of commerce unfortunately prevailed, more than it ought to have done, in the first establishment of the European colonies, in the new world. Of the consequences of this unhappy ascendancy of commerce over agriculture, many


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melancholy instances might be given, were this a proper C H A P. place. Suffice it to observe, what will scarcely be denied, that the object of the European traders in America (as traders) was not to civilize the natives; but, like the white flave dealers in Africa, to turn their rude propensities for European liquors, gunpowder and baubles, to their own immediate profit, without looking forward to the advantages, to legitimate commerce, which, sooner or later, would have resulted from their civilization. Nor have governments seemed to be sufficiently sensible of those advantages; for while they strictly regulated the commerce of their subjects with civilized nations, they left them to push their trade with the uncivilized in any direction, and by any means, their own blind avarice suggested. Hence followed “ deeds unjust-even to the full swing of their lust." In the Portuguese colonies, indeed, of Grand Para and Maranhao, a Directorio was established in 1758, for regulating the dealings of the whites with the native Indians, who are there described as “ uncivilized and ignorant,” and “ universally addicted to debauch in liquors, furnished them by the whites.” It does not appear what effect these regulations have had in eradicating the evil habits which had been previoufly fostered in the Indians by the Portuguese pedlars. But they have, in some degree, civilized the native Africans in their settlements on the coast; and the progress of the Jesuits in Paraguay clearly proves that uncivilized nations may be improved, instead of being debauched, as hath too often happened, by an intercourse with the Europeans.

8. Secondly. It is objected, that “ Colonies in Africa would prove the means of perpetuating, and not of destroying the slave-trade.” This objection would no doubt have fome force, if commerce, and not cultivation, were to be


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C HA P. the primary object of such establishments; or even if culti

vation were to be carried on by human labour only, unal-
sisted by the labour of cattle. But commerce and human
labour are both very capable of limitation and regulation ;
and in this work I hope to prove that it is very practicable
so to limit and regulate them in Africa, as to check the
hurtful predominancy of the one, and to prevent the oppref-
sive tendency of the other.

9. Another objection is “ That the defence of colonies in
Africa would, like that of most of the American colonies, be
burdensome to the European governments, which should
favour their establishment.” To this it may be answered,
that, if according to the plan I mean to propose, the colonists
cultivate, from the beginning, an amicable coalition with the
natives, they will, like the above-mentioned establishment
of the Jesuits in Paraguay, soon acquire such a degree of
strength as to secure them from all wanton aggression.

10. It seems unnecessary to say more in this place, to satisfy objectors who, upon the whole, wish to promote the civilization of Africa, if they clearly saw how it could be effected: for one great end of this work is, to remove their conscientious scruples; most of which, however, appear to me to deserve attention, more on account of their motives, than of their strength.

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