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Leona sent him sealed up in bottles. Although he found CH A P.

IV. them all putrid, especially that from the Senegal, he could not discover any animalcules in them, with a good microfcope, nor any uncommon contents, by chemical analysis. All of them, after being exposed some time to the open air, became perfectly sweet and good. Hence he concludes that the most effectual way of destroying the ova of animalcules, and of the Guinea worm * (if it be generated, as some Guinea suppose, in water) is first to let the water putrify, and then to pass it through a series of vessels placed under each other, having small holes in their bottoms; so that it may fall from one into another in drops, like a gentle shower—a process which, he assures us, will render it quite pure and wholesomet.

* As the Guinea worm is attended with great trouble and pain, though seldom with fatal consequences, unless when much neglected or mismanaged, I shall add Dr. Lind's description of it—" The less dangerous diseases,” says he, “wlrich attack Europeans in Guinea, are ihe dry belly-ach and the Guinea worm. This is a white round, slender worm, often some yards long, lodged in the interstices of the muf. cles, commonly in the legs, feet, or hands. When it attempts to escape through the skin, it occasions a swelling, resembling a boil, attended with great pain, until it's little black head appears in a small watery bladder, on the head of the boil. When this bladder breaks, the head of the worm is to be secured, by tying it to a small roll of linen, spread with plaister, and part of the worm is, once or twice a day, to be gently drawn forth with care not to break it, and wrapped round this roll, until it be brought away entire; then the ulcer generally heals foon: but if part of the worm breaks off, the part remaining in the flesh can be ejected only, by painful and tedious suppurations in different places. Dr. Rouppe observes that the disease of the Guinea worm is infectious. It may at least be prudent in Europeans, not to lie in the fame apartments, and to avoid too free a communication with such negroes as are afflicted with them. The dry bellyach and Guinea worm may be observed at any

season of the
year, and seldom

mortal.” EMay, p. 52.-" The dry belly-ach is the same disease here as in the West
Indies; but the Guinea worm seems peculiar to Africa, and a few parts of Asia.”
Id. P. 57
+ Elay on the Diseases of hot Climates p. 60.


53. Even

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53. Even very foul water may be rendered potable, by

letting it drain through a wine pipe, or deep tub, half fill-
To cool and
purify water.

ed with pure sand, with a number of small holes near the
bottom, covered on the inside with hair-cloth, or other

ous substance, to prevent the sand from being carried
through by the water.—These methods may be practised,
when a large quantity of clear water is wanted; but an or-
dinary family is very plentifully supplied by a drip-stone,
which is one of the most elegant methods of obtaining pure
water. If the stone transmit the water too freely, it may

be rendered less porous, by a mixture of water and lime; if too slowly, it's bottom should be thinned, by rubbing it down with another gritty stone. The sand-tub or dripstone, should be placed in the shade, where there is a free current of air; and the water should drop from the height of two or three feet into an unglazed earthen jar, not hard burnt, but fo porous as to allow the water to tranfude pretty freely; and thus the water will be kept constantly cool, by the evaporation from the surface of the jar. It may be brought to table in small pitchers, of the same porous texture. The reader will obferve, that this mode of keeping water cool depends on the fame principle with that of refrigerating liquors, by covering the bottles with wet linen cloths, and placing them in a stream of air. All the above methods of purifying and cooling water are practised in hot countries. But all of them, except that of cooling the water, are unneceffary in many parts of Africa, for all the high grounds that I have seen there contain springs of the purest water.

54. The following simple discovery, for rendering putrid water fit to drink, has been lately made by a Mr. Lowitz. Six ounces of charcoal powder, thrown into five gallons of


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putrid river water, and agitated, is sufficient to purify and C H A P. render it wholesome and drinkable. But the process is rendered ftill more efficacious, if to one drachm of charcoal be added two drops of strong vitriolic acid, which is sufficient to make four ounces of perfectly foul water sweet and clear, on being strained through a linen jelly-bag, containing charcoal powder *.

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S the Nave-ships never return directly to Europe, Slave thips

but proceed to the West Indies with their bring little wretched cargoes, it has never been the interest of their owners to bring home much of the produce of Africa.

56. Those called wood-vessels, might be supposed to deal Captains of only in produce. But this has by no means been the case. dealin flares. Besides their frequenting those parts of the coast, where the slave-trade is briskest, most of their commanders traffic in slaves on the coast; that is, buy Naves whom they sell again to the slave-captains. Yet, they have all along brought home some gums and gold, bees wax and ivory in confia derable quantities, a great variety of valuable and beautiful woods, for the use of the dyers and cabinet-makers; and of late, some palm-oil for the purposes of the sheep-farmers n d wool-combers.

* See the Appendix to the Monthly Review enlarged, Vol. 12. p. 606.

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African duce.


57. But I believe the principal cause why a trade in Afri.

can produce has never been encouraged, has been the irre. Welt Indian fistible influence of the East and West Indian interests. interests op- Those monopolists, unreasonably thought their commerce portation of would be affected by the introduction of African commodi

ties into the markets of Europe. Thus much is certain, that Mr. Norris, one of the Liverpool delegates for supporting the slave-trade, and therefore not to be suspected of partiality to Africa, stated, in his examination before the Privy Council, that he "once saw a quantity of African pepper of the quality of that brought from the East Indies. It wis fo good, that the East India company obječted to it's importation*.” We have before mentioned the formidable opposition made the West Indians to the establishment of the

colony at Sierra Leona. Produce rots 58. By such means, has the field of commerce been hiin Africa, for therto narrowed or shut


in Africa: and instances frequently occur of valuable commodities rotting on the coait, for want of a sale, or of the means of conveyance, to a foreign market. I myself saw one hundred bullocks hides publicly fold at Goree for about five shillings and three pence sterling; and on another occasion, four bullocks for about fifteen shillings and nine pence sterling. I could mention several other striking instances of the same kind.

59. Little as Africa is yet known, I can, from my own knowledge, assert several articles to be indigenous in that continent, which have hitherto been brought to our markets from the East and West Indies, at an expense far exceeding the price at which they might be cultivated in, and

want of conveyance.

* Privy Council's Report, Part. I. Article “ Produce" Mr. Norris and his two colleagues enumerated many other valuable productions, .


veyed from, Africa. What a strange inversion of natural C H A P. order, to exile from their native soil, both men and plants; the one to languish as slaves, and the other as exotics; the one to perish prematurely, and the other to fail every third or fourth



60. The cattle, in that part of the country of which we Cattie. treat, are smaller than the generality of European cattle, and not so fat as those of England and Holland; but their meat is juicy and palatable, and they give milk in abundance. Their inferior fize appeared to me to be the effect of the careless and unskilful management of the negroes. They must be raised on the coast, as foreign cattle do not thrive there. Even those from the Cape de Verd Islands, being accustomed to an uncommonly dry climate, do not well bear a transition to the continent. -The horses are of a Horses. middling size, strong, hardy, and fpirited. They are used in great numbers, for riding and carrying burdens, in the country between the Senegal and Gambia, and also on some parts lower down the coast; but there they are not numerous, and in some places there are none. -Camels, fo admir- Camels. ably adapted, by the Creator, to assist the labours of man in hot climates, are not so generally used by the negroes, as could be wilhed. I have not seen many asses; but Asses. there is an excellent breed at the Cape de Verd Islands, from whence great numbers of them, and also of mules and horned cattle, are exported to the West Indies, for the use of the sugar plantations. The whole coast is abundant- Hogs, sheep,


* On the extreme uncertainty of the West Indian crops, see Beskrivelse over St. Croix af H. Weft--and the Report of the British Privy Council passim.


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