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CHA P. flave-trade. But this was not Charles's only trade; for Sir.

T, Modiford, then Governor of Jamaica, having, by his sole authority, declared war against the Spaniards, his mas. ter not only approved of these predatory hostilities; but, in 1668, sent the governor an instruction, empowering him to nominate partners, to participate with His Majesty in the captures, they finding victuals, wear and tear." Charles was several years actually engaged in this privateering, or rather bucaneering, trade*.-He and his immediate successor appear, indeed, to have been par nobile fratrum, and to have left the British nation fufficient reason to remember them, and the day when an over-ruling Providence was pleased to remove their family from the throne, and to bless the nation with a constitution which has had considerable influence on the arbitrary governments of Europe, and the radical principles of which, it is to be hoped, they will all gradually adopt, as far as their various circumstances will permit.

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326. The late Gustavus III. of Sweden, who appeared to favour commerce more than agriculture, having heard of the abilities of Colonel Bolts, in colonial affairs, and his great knowledge of mercantile geography, prevailed on him (through his Ambassador at Paris, Baron Stael von Holstein) to go to Sweden, in order to consult with him about eftablishing a settlement for the convenience of the Swedish East Indian fhips. But, when the Colonel arrived at Stockholm, he found the King so deeply involved in the late unfortunate war with Russia, that he could attend to no other


* See Postlethwayt’s Dict. Art. Eng. Afr. Co.-Long's Hift. of Jamaica, Vol. I. p. 626, compared with Vol. II. p. 140.-Edwards's Ditto Vol. II. p. 35, 36.Hill's Nav. Hift.Labat Nouv, Relat. de l'Afrique.



business. After a long and fruitless attendance, the Colonel C HA P. returned to Paris, having received, by His Majesty's order, about £ 500 fter. a fum which, though perhaps as much as an almost exhausted treasury could well afford, was, however, very inadequate to the expense he incurred in collecting materials, not to mention the time and labour which the formation of estimates, and the arrangement of an extensive scheme, must have cost him. But though this plan be intimately connected with my subject, and may one day be carried into execution, I do not think myself at liberty to detail it's particulars, without the Colonel's express concur





: 327. I have just been informed that the gentlemen of the African association of London, perfevering in their design of exploring the interior parts of that continent, which reflects so much honour on this age and nation, have equipped two vessels, for a new expedition, which now wait for convoy ; and that they are to be generously assisted, by the British government, with the sum of £6000 sterling. The persons appointed to carry this plan into execution, are a Mr. Park, who is a good natural historian, and a Mr. Willis, on whom His Majesty, on this occasion, has been pleased to confer the rank of consul. Both the gentlemen have the character of being uncommonly well qualified for fuch an undertaking ; and they are to be attended by a captain, 60 soldiers, and proper assistants, of every description. Taking for granted,



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CHA P. that Goree has been abandoned by the French, they are first .

to proceed thither, where they will find a town ready built, and fitted for every purpose of health and accomodation, in a hot climate. From this first station, I understand, they propose to fail for Fatatenda, on the River Gambia, beyond which vessels of any considerable burden cannot conveniently proceed. From Fatatenda, it is said, Mr. Park takes his departure for Bambouk, whence he is to convey back intelligence of his arrival to Mr. Willis, who will then follow him thither. Both gentlemen having arrived at Bambouk, Mr. Willis will remain there, to preserve a communication with the ships, while Mr. Park will endeavour to penetrate to the River Niger, or to the city of Tombuctoo. I have been told farther, that the chiefs of the country are to be engaged to assist in the undertaking ; but, with a precaution which, I believe, has never before been taken: they are to receive no previous douceurs, and no rewards whatever, till they shall produce certificates, or other proofs, that they have actually performed their engagements; and then they will be paid the rewards stipulated, on board the vefsels, or at the places where the goods are secured.—If this be the plan, and I have reason to believe that the above are the principal heads of it, I must say that it appears to me, to be better laid, and consequently, to be more likely to succeed, than any one of the kind that has yet come within my knowledge.


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It would give the author great pain, if in delivering ibis free, but conscientious, opinions on subjects so very interesting to humanity; his language should unfortunately be misunderstood; especially fo misunderstood, as to suggest the repetition of Colonial attempts, on prin, ciples; merely pecuniary, mercantile, or, in short, mercenary. His meaning is to reprobate such principles. The impolicy and the inhue manity of acting, exclufively, on them, in colonial undertakings, he hinted at, in his pamphlet published in 1789, and has endeavoured to show, more at length, throughout the present work. The period indeed seems fast approaching, if it has not yet' arrived, when other principles will be acknowledged and acted upon ; when persons of property, discarding all false commercial maxims, and adopting those of benevolence, which is but another word for true policy, will successfully labour to reconcile self interest with the interests of mankind.

The author would respectfully intimate, that, from the late commencement of the work, and the tardy and sparing communication of materials which he reasonably expected from persons, who once appeared to favour bis undertaking, he, at last, found himself


much hurried, and circumscribed in point of time. These circumstances, which he could not control, have embarrassed him much; and, it is hoped, will sufficiently account for the delay of the publication, beyond the time he proposed; as well as for such inaccuracies as, he fears, may have escaped him. It is hoped, that the candid reader will easily perceive, that his fincere intention, throughout, is to improve, not to offend.—DELECTANDO, pariter que monendo, will be allowed to be a more proper motto for a literary essay, than for one intended to promote arduous undertakings.

Perhaps the reader will not be displeased, at finding the subject much more fully treated, than was promised in the proposals; nor at the interspersion of many particulars, perhaps more interesting than known, in addition to such remarks as arose from the author's


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own travelling experience. On the extenfion of the plan, a change
of the title became necessary : hence the prefent one (“ An Essay on
Colonization,”' &c) has been substituted for that which was announced
in the propofals. The enlargement of the work, also gave rise to it's
divifion into two parts, corresponding to the important diftin&ion be.
tween the Colonies already established, or attempted, in Africa and it's
iffands, on the principles of commerce--and those now forming there
(by the British and the Danes) on the principles of humanity. (See the

To the whole, will be subjoined an appendix, confifting of papers.
and documents, illuftrative of the work; alfo a nautical map, and
fome other engravings, one of which will include a likeness of a gen-
tleman whose modest and unaffected, but ardent, unwearied, and truly
Christian beneficence has long been (and long may it be!) an orna.
ment to the British nation, and to human nature itself.

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A table of errása, &c. will be given in the second part,

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