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in whose service he had been extremely ill treated *. His C HA P. charter contained many advantageous ftipulations in his favour, with full powers from the Empress Queen for making commercial and colonial arrangements, with the chiefs of Africa and Asia. He, at the same time, received a commission as Lieut. Colonel. 316. Having formed a connection with some gentlemen in The Colonei

fails Sept. Antwerp, recommended to him by the Imperial ministers,

1776; Colonel Bolts finally sailed in Sep. 1776, from Leghorn, in a large ship, richly laden and well armed, with some soldiers to preserve subordination among a numerous body of people, from almost all the countries bordering on the Mediterranean. Before the ship sailed, the mean opposition of commercial bodies had shown itself. It was again is opposed manifested at Madeira, and in short, the Colonel was fol. cial bodies; lowed to India by such orders from the English East India company to their presidencies, and from these to the Nabobs, under whose names they act when convenient, as were contrary to the rules of friendship between civilized nations, and even to common humanity.

317. As it would have been extremely imprudent to rely on the accidental good reception of any nation actuated by that pest of society, the jealousy of commerce, Colonel Bolts, instead of touching at the Cape of Good Hope, resolved to push on to Delagoa Bay t. Having arrived there, arrives at the security for shipping in the river Mafoômo, the re

Delagoa bay; sources he saw in the country, and the facility of treating with the chiefs, through a Mahommedan from Bengal, whom he found settled there, convinced him that it was a proper place for forming an establishment. After a short residence,

* See his Considerations on India Affairs, 3 vols. 4to. in 1772.

+ See 5 294

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CHA P. with the help of presents, and the influence he acquired by

performing some ordinary operations with an electrical maDELAGOA.

chine, the Colonel was fo fortunate as to gain the friendship
of Capell and Matôla, the chiefs of the opposite sides of the

river, though declared enemies to each other. buys land of

318. These chiefs possessed the country all round, could two chiefs ;

each raise 15,000 men, acknowledged no dependence on
any European nation, and had no intercourse even with the
Dutch and Portuguese, their nearest neighbours. Colonel
Bolts, therefore, in the name of her Imperial Majesty, pur.
chased from them a part of their respective territories on
each side the Mafoômo, and commanding it's entrance. The
goods agreed for were delivered, and the Imperial flag
hoisted, in presence of a great concourse of people, includ-
ing the crews of two British ships from Bombay, trading for
ivory and commanded by Captains M-Kenny and Cahill.

319. The ship remained in the river four months, dur. mouits, &c. ing which temporary houses and a brick warehouse were

erected; when Colonel Bolts, thinking his presence might,
for some time, be dispensed with resolved to make a voyage
in the ship, to the coast of Malabar, which appeared, on several
accounts, adviseable and even necessary. By the good will
of Capt. M'Kenny, a retreat on board his ship was pro-
vided, in case of necessity, for the resident, Mr. A. D. Pollet,

who was to remain, in charge of the infant fettlement.
begins a 320. The Colonel, having arrived on the Malabar coast,
trade;

bought and fitted out three vessels, with cargoes proper
for the trade, as well as the neceflities of the infant
settlement. One of them remained in the river Mafoômo,
as a floating battery, while the others were constantly
carrying ivory to Cambay, and returning to Delagoa, with
articles fuited to the African barter. ---By artificers fent

from

builds tem

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from Surat, the houses and warehouses were rendered more

сHAP. commodious and solid, and a 12 gun battery was erected

DELAGOA. on the south side of the Mafoômo. From Surat, the Colonel also sent a Mullah, or Mahommedan priest, with his family, sends a Main order to convert to his religion, those Africans who were millionary co attached to, or connected with, the colony, and whose num

to the colony. bers conftantly increased. For, seeing that, from their predeli&tion for polygamy, christianity was not likely to be agreeable to them, he judged (in conformity with the commercial principles on which it was his business to act) that for the purposes of civilizing, and then governing a rude people, any religion is better than none. Besides, their intercourse with the black Mahommedan crews of the vessels coming regularly from India, seemed to facilitate and encourage the attempt, by giving to precept the advantage of example. 321. The natives of this part of Africa are well made, Natives in

telligent. lively, active, intelligent, and imitative. Happily they did not then allow the flave-trade, and Colonel Bolts hopes, this barbarous custom has not yet vitiated them. Elephants’ teeth were then their only important commodities ; but cowries and fea-horse teeth were also occasionally exported. The Colonel, however, among other important objects, had in view the cultivation of cotton and sugar-canes, Wild cotton which are indigenous there, and grow luxuriantly all about

canes, gold, the

country. In time too, he hoped to open a trade in rice, &c. gold dust, with the independent inland chiefs, by the river Mafoômo, and particularly with a kingdom called Quitive, which, though faid to abound in gold, has hitherto been unexplored by the Europeans. Rice and other vegetables grow luxuriantly; though the natives feldom cultivate more than they think they want. By instructing and en

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the Portu

CHA P. couraging them to practise agriculture, all the tropical, and

- many other productions, might in time have rendered De

lagok almost as commodious a place of refreshment as the

Cape, and, in some cases, preferable.
The colony

322. But the Imperialists remained only three years in thrives,

possession of this promising colony. Colonel Bolts, after succeeding in every part of his mission, returned to Europe, where he found that the Empress Queen had died three

months before his arrival ; and, with her, vanished all his Bat, Prince hopes of support or justice. Prince Kaunitz, the minister, ,

. avowing it, on a protest from the court of Lisbon, had disavowed the guest break settlement; and, in consequence, a ship of war, with 300 it up. troops and two field-pieces, was sent from Goa to Delagoa,

where the Imperialists were treated in the same manner as we have seen the Dutch were, by the pirates, in 1727, their ships, effects, and men having been seized and carried off.

323. Thus were the extensive views of this able, enterterprising and public spirited man, frustrated, by the very court, for whom he acted, while he had the full powers of the Empress Queen in his pocket; and, at the hazard of his

own life and fortune, was bona fide labouring to promote the restorer

the Austrian East India trade-a trade which his indefatiarian Eat In- gable and well directed exertions had so compleatly re-es

tablished, that we have since seen eight and twenty India ships assembled at Oltend, exclusive of those at Leghorn

and Trieste, Claims of

324. The cause of Prince Kaunitz's disavowal of this co

lony, never transpired. But all Europe is acquainted with Portugal ri

the claims advanced by the courts of Portugal and Spain, on similar occasions. The argument of the former is short and simple.-" The natives of the country are infidels :

a subject

Col. Boits

of the Auf

Spain and

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buse of commerce exem

a subject of the crown of Portugal was the first christian C HA P. who set foot in that country : ERGO that country belongs to the christian crown of Portugal.” The logic of the court of Spain, in the affair of Nootka, Sound, was equally laconic and conclusive.—“ Some Spaniards are settled at California, and on the neighbouring parts of America: ERGO the whole northwest coast of America belongs to Spain.” Our potent casuists never once hint at the original inhabitants. These are savages and infidels, whose claims merit no attention from christians.

325. But the Spaniards and Portuguese are not the only Flagrant aEuropeans who have hitherto disregarded such primitive pretensions, as will appear from the following particulars, plified. which very strongly exemplify the abuse of commerce, one material part of my subject. In the year 1672, Charles II. was graciously pleased to give and grant, unto the Royal African Company of England," all and singular the lands, countries, havens, roads, rivers and other places in Africa, from Sallee, in South Barbary, to the Cape of Good Hope, for and during the term of one thousand years; with the fole, entire and only trade and traffic”. (N. B. in the persons of the inhabitants) “ into and from the said countries and places.” May it not be doubted, whether Swift himself, that great master of irony, ever penned any thing so consummately ridiculous, to say nothing of it's other qualities?--But Charles gave and granted to himself a participation of the above extraordinary privileges; for he and his brother, afterwards James II. were subscribers to this same company, and were both largely concerned in the slave-trade. Some other monarchs, however, were far from favouring that traffic; for Louis XI. of France, and the renowned Elizabeth of England, made no secret of their utter abhorrence of the

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