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C. or Good
C H A P. their genius manifests itself in rows of trees and canals;
though experience proves the noxious effects of stagnant water; especially in hot climates, and most fatally at Batavia.—The company's slaves are lodged and boarded, in a fpacious house.-The large hospital for the East Indiamen, is generally pretty much crowded. For these ships sometimes carry 6, 7 or 800 men, to supply the regiments in India; and their confined situation, and short allowance of water and salt provifions, make such havock among them, that it is not very uncommon for an Indiaman, so freighted, to lose, between Europe and the Cape, 80 or 100 men, and to
send 2 or 300 to the hospital. It is a lamentable fact, that the Mortality of facility with which the Zeelverkoopers (Soul-mongers) inped by Duden veigle these unfortunate people, makes the company's serSoul-mongers. vants more indifferent than they should be about their pre
fervation. They are plentifully supplied, however, with an antifcorbutic diet, which, with the air of the place, certainly contributes more to their recovery than their doctors, who drench them all, indiscriminately, with the cheap con
tents of two or three huge bottles. No toleration 308. Toleration, which has been fo beneficial to Holland, at the Cape. is unknown at the Cape and at Batavia. In 1772, even a
Lutheran clergy man was not tolerated at the Cape; but the chaplains of Danish and Swedish ships, now and then offici
* I wonder that the Slave-mongers, in their distress for pretexts to justify their traffic, have never rentioned the Dutch Soul-mongers, whose practice would have afforded them this notable argument.--The Soul-mongers kidnap men in Holland: ergo the slave-mongers may lawfully steal or carry off men, women and children in Africa, and murder them, if they refft. But this argument will scarcely fatisfy those who reason on different principles, and who will never be convinced, that many thousands ought to be actually murdered in Africa, because some hundreds are virtually murdered by the Dutch Zeelverkoopers. See ý 20.
ated there. As in most other European colonies, no attention c' HA P. whatever is paid to the religion of the slaves. A few of them, however, who are believers in Mahomet, meet week. C. Goon ly, in the house of a free Mahometan, and read or chaunt
and chapters of the koran. 309. The governor depends immediately on the East In- Government dia company, and presides over a council composed of the sketched by second, or deputy governor, the fiscal, the major, the secret- Forfler. ary, the treasurer, the comptrollers of provisions, and liquors, and the book-keeper; each of whom has the charge of a branch of the company's commerce. This council manages the whole civil and military departments. The deputy governor presides over the court of justice, which consists of some of the members of the council. But no two relations can vote in either. The governor has a fixed falary, house and furniture, a garden and a table. He receives, besides, 10 dollars for every leagre (108 gallons) of wine, exported to Batavia. The company gives 40 dollars for each leagre, of which the farmer receives but 24. Of the remainder, the governor is paid two-thirds, said to be worth 4000 dollars annually, and the other third goes to the deputy, who directs the company's whole commerce here.-The fiscal is at the head of the police, and fees the penal laws executed. He is also appointed by the mother country, to whom alone he is accountable, as a check on the company's officers. The major commands the garrison.The designations of the other officers are descriptive of their departments. · 310. The above is the substance of the account of the
government of the Cape, given by Forster, whose work was published in 1777. But it would appear that some change in it has since taken place; for the author of Das Merkwurdigste,
CHA P. printed in 1787, says the government of the Cape is divided
into the eight following departments ift. The Great CounC. dr. Goon cil for the company's political and commercial business. It
also sometimes represents the States General, and corresponds, at all times, with Holland and Batavia.—2. The Great College of Justice, a deputation of No. 1. and the three burgomasters of the Cape town. This court is inde, pendent on the company; but, from it an appeal lies to the similar superior courts in Batavia and Holland.-3. The lesser College of Justice, also a deputation of No. 1. for deciding smaller matters.-4. The Matrimonial Court, which takes care that regular marriages are observed.-5. The Charity College, which has the charge of orphans, and the females cannot marry, without their consent.-6. The Church College, which regulates the concerns of external worship.—7. The Civil Court.-Every colony at the Cape has it's own Burgher Council, chosen from among the most respectable citizens, and changed every second year. This council decides small matters between man and man; and, upon the whole, is represented as somewhat similar to the corpora tions in England.-8. The Military College, which conducts all military affairs, including the militia.–Of the revenue and expenditure of the Dutch at the Cape, Menzell gives the following statement :
Guilders A tax on produce, yielding, communibus annis,.
206,617 Duties on imports from Holland and Batavia...
206,500 25 per cent. on all cash sent to the Cape from Europe....
Annual expenditure, civil and military, is estimated at...
Clear annual revenue of the company..
C. of Goon
But Kolben states the clear annual revenue, which the C HA P.
X. Dutch Eaft India company derives from the Cape, at above 300,000 guilders, annually. He appears, however, to in. clude the profits of that part of their East Indian trade, which is connected with the Cape. 311. There are 700 regular troops in this colony, includ- Military and
population. ing the garrison, of 400. The fencible white men form a militia of between 4 and 5000, of whom a great number may be assembled in a few hours, by signals of alarm. Hence we may estimate the whites of all ages and both sexes, at between 16 and 20,000. But a part of the colonists are so very far scattered, as to be able to afford little protection to one another, and to the community. There are in the colony
five or more slaves to one white man. These slaves are chiefly from Madagascar, with a mixture of Malays, Bengalese and some negroes.—The greater part of the colonists are Germans, with some French protestants and Dutch. They are industrious, hospitable and sociable; but fonder of good living, than of acquiring knowledge, for which they may plead the plenty of good cheer, and the extreme scarcity of good schools. Such colonists as can afford the expense, generally send their sons to Holland for improvement; but the education of their females is too much neglected.
312. The Bay of Delagoa, on the east of Africa (lat. about DeLAGOA, 26° S.) was discovered in 1545, by Laurenço Marquez, a Portuguese. In this bay his nation afterwards formed a Portuguese settlement, on the river Manyeessa, then the only one in settle ihere Delagoa, navigable for large ships. They built a fort of which the vestiges still remain ; but abandoned it, on the Manyeessa becoming unnavigable by an accumulation of
CH A P. fand: and their colony of Mozambique having then ac
quired strength, they did not find it worth while to renew their settlement in Delagoa Bay.
313. The waters of the Mafoômo, in the same bay, having,
in time, opened a channel of four fathoms over the bar, the and Dutch. Dutch formed a settlement there, which they held till 1727,
when a strong squadron of English pirates, who had their rendezvous at Madagascar, after plundering the Dutch warehouses, razed them and the fort to the ground*.
314. Such was then the increasing prosperity of their colony at the Cape of Good Hope, and its dependencies, that
the Dutch gave up all thoughts of re-establishing that of Large tracts Delagoa ; so that, from that day to this, a large and fine by Europe- country, on the east of Africa, from Cabo das Correntes to
the most eastern dependencies of the Cape colony, and on the west, a much larger tract, from Saldanha bay to Benguela, have been unoccupied by the Europeans, and aban. doned to the peaceable and rightful possession of the un
christianized Africans. Austrian at 315. In the spring of 1777, however, an establishment
was made on the river Mafoômo, on behalf of Her late Imperial Majesty, the Empress Queen, Maria Theresa. The circumstances and fate of this colony, as far as I have been able to collect them, were as follow :-With a view to recover the trade of the East, to the Austrian dominions in Flanders, Tuscany and the Adriatic gulph, which had been loft on the abolition of the Ostend East India company, in 1727, Her Imperial Majesty granted a charter, in 1775, to William Bolts, Esq. a gentleman who had been formerly employed in Bengal, by the English East India company,
tempt, under Col. Bolts.
* See an account of this settlement and its destruction, in the Dutch Reisen na Indien I. de Buckoi, and the English History of the Pirates.