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50,000 guilders.-In the choice of colonists, their discern: CH A P. ment and prudence were conspicuous. They suffered no thieves and strumpets to poison the infant society with the vices for which they had been expelled from Europe. But, their choice by advantageous promises, faithfully performed, the com- of colonists. pany induced laborious peasants, and honest artificers to emigrate to the Cape *. They defrayed the expenses of the voyage ; and provided the colonists with subsistence, tools, implements of agriculture and cattle. To each, they gave a portion of land, on condition that, in three years, he should have cultivated enough to enable him to support himself, and to contribute to the defence of the colony t. They also agreed to bring back to Europe, gratis, those to whose conftitutions the climate might be unfavourable, and who had full liberty to dispose of their effects to the best advantage. For the reception of the colonists, the company erected vil lages, each containing 30 houses, a church, an hospital, a town-house and a public kitchen-garden. To furnish the colony with females, girls from the orphan-houses in Hol

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* Since I wrote Ø 128 and 129, I have heard it objected, that, in time of war, it would be improper to encourage colonization; as the people who might be expected to become colonists, are wanted for the armies.—The objectors, however, would do well to recollect, that, of all people, those who are disposed to become soldiers are, generally speaking, the most unfit for any new colonial undertaking; and that such being taken off by the war, a greater proportion of sober and industrious per. sons will be left, from among whom to make a prudent felection. Besides, that the war itself, and the general posture of public affairs, have disposed many worthy people, throughout Europe, to embark in any undertaking, likely to afford them more peace and security than they expect to enjoy in their respective countries.

+ The company, however, at present, never part with the property of the land; but rent is at the annual rate of about 25 dollars, for every 60 acres.

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land,

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Difficulties very

discouraging.

CHA P. land, were sent out, with superintendants to educate them

at the Cape ; and, on their marriage, the company assigned
them small dowries.

302.. The expense incurred by the company, in establish-
ing this colony, has been immense-not less, it hath been
computed, than a million of guilders annually, for the first
20 years; and in, 1713, above fixty years after it's first fettle-
ment, it still continued to be chargeable. But seldom has
the property of a joint-stock company been so beneficially
employed; for all difficulties are now furmounted, and the
colony amply repays the expenses of it's establishment.

303. Those difficulties were of a kind which nothing short af cool, Dutch perseverance could have overcome. This extremity of Africa consists of black and barren mountains of granite, without any volcanic productions. The cultivated spots near the town, are of tiff clay, with a little fand and small stones; but towards Falfe Bay, the arable soil is almost entirely sandy. The colony of Stellenbosh is said to have the best foil of any at the Cape, but even that produces no very extraordinary proofs of natural fertility*.-Lions, leopards, tyger-cats, hyænas, jackals, and several other wild beasts, infest the Cape, now and then, even to this day.

304. Yet this country is not without it's advantages.The air and water, as in most other mountainous tracts, are good, in the same proportion as the soil is bad. Though the summer heats are sometimes excessive, the winters are so mild that ice is scarcely ever seen about the town. But,

Climate.

* The Dutch have, ftri&tly speaking, four colonies in this part of Africa, namely the Cape, properly so called, Stellenbosh, Drakenstein and Waveren. The farms in many places are very much scattered.

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on the mountains, especially far inland, there are hard C HA P.
frosts, with snow and hail storms. The climate, however,
upon the whole, is fo falubrious, that the inhabitants are
rarely troubled with any disorders more serious than colds,
caused by the sudden changes of air, from the strong winds,
to which the Cape is exposed at all seasons; and strangers
foon recover from the scurvy and other complaints. The
fupport of so many wild beasts, implies the existence of nu- Animals,
merous tribes of milder animals; and accordingly an asto-
nishing variety, from the mighty buffalo and camelopard,
to the least of the beautiful genus of antelopes, and many
smaller quadrupeds, are common, in this part of Africa.
The elephant, rhinoceros and hippopotamus, formerly
came within a short distance of the Cape ; but they have
been so much hunted, and are so feldom seen at present,
that the government have issued an order against killing
them, within many miles of the town*.–The neighbouring
feas and bays abound with excellent fish.—I know not Metals.
whether the metallic ores of the interior mountains ought to
be mentioned as an advantage ; as it does not appear, that
the colonists can work them with profit, on account of their
remote and rugged situation. Some tribes of Hottentots,
however, extract both copper and iron from the ores they
find in their native mountains. See § 71, 287. But the grand A ftation for
advantage of the Cape, at least that which appeared such in Dutch East

ships.
the eyes of the Dutch East India company, was it's conveni-
ent situation, as a place of refreshment for their ships; and,
in this view, the bare inspection of a map of Africa, shows

* The flesh of the hippopotamus, is eaten at the Cape. In Mr Forster's opinion, it's taste is that of coarse beef, but the fat rather resembles marrow. It's tulks are the best of ivory.

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C HA P. it's superiority to all other parts of that continent. But it's

situation and climate are not now it's only excellencies, as a
port of refreshment; for it abounds with a variety of the
best greens and fruits, and, in particular, with some of the
finest grapes and oranges in the world_articles peculiarly

proper for seamen after long voyages.
Exports. 305. The prodigious expense, and the persevering atten-

tion which this colony cost, during the uncommonly tedious
period of it's helpless infancy, began at last to shew their ef.
fects, in the exportation of a little surplus corn. But, hav-
ing since arrived at a state of comparative maturity, the
Cape not only supplies the ships of all nations, which touch
there, with necessaries and comforts, in abundance, and at
moderate prices ; but supplies all the Dutch, and some fo-
reign, Asiatic settlements, with great quantities of corn,

flour, biscuit, wines of various forts, brandy, butter, cheese, Farming.

and salted provisions. —No country feeds a greater number
of cattle than this, nor is their flesh any where cheaper or
better. An ox commonly weighs from 500 to 6oolb. A
farm may make from 1500 to 3000lb. of butter, annually.
Many feed from 1000 to 6 or 8000 sheep, and a few have as
far as 15,000, and cattle in proportion.

306. The Dutch East India company seem, for some time,
evidently to have discouraged all new settlers, by granting
no lands in private property, and by prohibiting the
farmers from fixing their habitations within a mile of each
other; though many parts of the country are so barren,
that less land than a square mile, (640 English acres) would
scarcely make a proper grazing farm. The company are
certainly more solicitous, at present, to promote their East
Indian commerce, than the productions of this flourishing,
but still improveable, colony: otherwise, not only the cul-

tivation

Tenure of lands.

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tivation, but the manufacture, of several valuable articles, C HA P.
might be introduced with advantage. Dr. Sparrman*, who
makes this remark, gives several hints for the internal im-
provement of the colony ; but, being merely local, it is
unnecessary to insert them, especially as the company, while
they continue to attend almost exclusively to commerce,
are not likely to put them in practice.

307. Still the conduct of the company, or, perhaps more Dutch and properly, of their predecessors, has been liberality itself

, policy conwhen compared with the extortion and oppression of the trafted. Cape Verd company of Portugal. : (See § 234.) were not a little pleased,” says. Forster, “ with the contrast between this colony and the Portuguese island of S. Jago. There we had taken notice of a tropical country, with a tolerable appearance, and capable of improvement; but utterly neglected by it's lazy and oppressed inhabitants. Here, onthe contrary, we saw a neat, well built town, all white, Cape town. rising in the midst of a desert, surrounded by broken masses of black and dreary mountains; or, in other words, the picture of successful industry.” The town contains many store-houses of the Dutch East India company, and tolerable fortifications. Here, as in other Dutch towns,

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* I cannot help transcribing from Dr. Forster's voyage, which lies open before me,
his account of my friend and fellow traveller, which I can pronounce to be equally
liberal and just. “ We were fortunate enough,” says he,“ to meet with a man
of science, Dr. Sparrman, at this place, who, after studying under the father of
botany, the great Linné, had made a voyage to China, and another to the Cape, in
pursuit of knowledge. The idea of gathering the treasures of nature, in countries
hitherto unknown to Europe, filled his mind so entirely, that he immediately engag-
ed to accompany us, on our circumnavigation; in the course of which, I am proud
to say, we have found him an enthusiast in his science, well versed in medical know-
ledge, and endowed with a heart capable of the warmest feelings, and worthy of a
philosopher,” Voyage round the World, Vol. I. p. 67.
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their

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