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counts, it seems but fair to insert a few particulars, from the C H A P. annexed letters of the French ministers.--From that of the minister, M. de B. to Meff. de T. and M. Governor and In- MADAGAStendant, of the Ille de France, dated Mar. 19th 1773, it appears, that the chief end originally propofed by forming this colony, was the supply of the I. de France, with provisions. The Count had a duplicate of this letter,as containing instructions for him, as well as M. de T. and M. and he is strictly ordered to employ mild negociation alone, with the Malgachees, or natives.-The fubsequent letters are addressed to the Count, by the minister M. de S. In that dated Versailes, July 17th 1775,

M. de S. admits, that all former attempts have been attended with great violence to the Malgachees. He enjoins pacific meafures towards them, the preservation of the Count's own people, and the stričbest oeconomy.-March zoth, 1777, M. de S. repeats his pacific injunctions; because the chief objects are agriculture and commerce, which, depending on the exertions of the natives, they must, therefore, be conciliated and civilized.--April 6th 1777, The fame injunctions are repeated; and M. de S. expresses his disapprobation of the Count's acrimonious contests with the administration of the Ifle de France. These two letters, dated in 1777, the Count could not have received, in Madagascar, which he left in 1776 (See 5 290.)-The last ministerial dispatch to the Count, is not dated; but it ends with a paragraph, which somewhat elucidates the conduct both of the Count and of the ministry:-“I have read with plear Curious pasure," says M. de S. “. your reflections respecting the COLO

ragraph. NY'at Madagascar. I think with you, that the flave-trade would be it's ruin, and that all the views ought to be direct: ed' to trade and agriculture. I had already consigned these truths, in the particular instructions of Meff. de: Bellecombe and Chevreau. (the commissaries, fee : 286); " so that you

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COLONIES IN AFRICA, ON

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The Count's
Decl and

His Britan. nic Majesty.

170
Ć H A P. will not have had any difficulty in bringing them to approve

your principles, which do not differ from mine. I do not
much differ from you, with regard to the Europeans; but
this question will not be entirely resolved, till I can positive-
ly assure you, that His Majesty intends to have a Colony in
Madagascar.—The only comment which this paragraph
seems to require, I have anticipated, in $ 278. But, how-
ever inconsistently M. de S. talks of the Madagascar colony,
it would be wrong to accuse him of having TALKED, for seven
years, about prohibiting the slave-trade; while another Eu-
ropean minister, without talking about it at all, has actually
adopted an effectual plan for it's abolition, as will be seen, in
the ad part of this work.

292. But, to dismiss ministerial manæuvres—the last paPropof. to

pers in the Count's Memoirs are " A Declaration," &c. and

Propofals, &c.” to the ministry of His Britannic Majesty, to be presented at London, Dec. 25th 1783." But whether or not they ever were presented, does not appear. In these papers, the Count respectfully represents, inter alia, That, having succeeded in forming a colony for France, in Madagascar, the French ministry sent orders to him to change the system of alliance agreed upon, into an unlimited submission of the chiefs and people of the island, a violation of treaty which induced him to renounce the service of France: (To this change of system, the Count alludes in his answer to the 25th query of the commissaries.) That the chiefs and people, having conferred on him the charge of supreme judge and chief of the nation, had empowered him to form connections in Europe, for trade or friendship: That, having since been violently persecuted by the French ministry, he had entered into the service of His Imperial Majesty, in hopes of obtaining his assistance for Madagascar; but, that the emperor not being disposed to promote his

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views, he had, two years before, regularly quitted his ser- C H A P. vice. And, now, in the name of an amiable and worthy nation, he proposes and submits to His Britannic Majesty, to acknowledge him Suzerain (Lord Paramount) of Madagascar; the interior government, and all the regulations of civilization, police, cultivation and commerce, remaining independent; the chiefs and people being only vassals to His Majesty. In this quality, they engage to furnish His Majesty with 5000 men, to act in India, under their own officers, Offers 5000 subject to the orders of His Majesty's Generalissimo, and 2000 sea2000 feamen, to serve in India, on board the British men of men. war, which they oblige themselves to victual, &c. &c. (The Count, in his answer to the 22d query of the commissiaries, states, that the islanders are accustomed to navigation.)

293. Being ignorant of the fate of the Count's “Declaration” and “ Proposals," and whether they ever came before the British ministry, I must now turn to Mr. Nicholson's well written preface, where the Count's remaining transactions, together with his final catastrophe, 'are recorded. The substance of both is as follows.

294: The Count and his family, with some associates, ar. The C. fails rived at Baltimore in Maryland, July 8th 1784, in the Ro- to Baltimore. bert and Ann, Capt. M.Dougall, from London, with a cargo, suited to the Madagascar market, worth near £ 4000 fter. This seems to have been subscribed in London; for Mr. Nicholson tells us, that the late celebrated Mr. Magellan, with a spirit of enterprize worthy of his name, contributed a very considerable fum*. : A refpectable house in Baltie:

* I have been told that Mr. Magellan was lineally descended from the famous Portuguese navigator, who discovered the Straits which bear his name. The Count left with Mr. Magellan, the MSS. of which Mr. Nicholson formed the Memoirs. See Preface,p. 2.

more

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from Balti.

CHA P. more, furnished the Count with a ship of 450 tons, carrying

20 guns and 12 swivels; the ship and stores amounting to MADAGAS- above £4000 fter. exclusive of the goods brought from Lon

don. On the 25th of Oct. 1684, the Count failed for Mamore to Ma- dagascar, leaving his family in America, on account of the dagascar;

pregnancy of Mme. de Benyowfky. Every one on board was, by agreement or oath, subject to his abfolute command; though the captain and fupercargo were to affist him, and to bring back the ship. He did not put in at the C. of Good Hope, probably for the fame reafon which, as we fhall foon fee, induced Colonel Bolts also to pass by it, namely, the fear of alarming the commercial jealousy of the Dutch,

295. The Count first touched at Sofala, where he remained fome time, for refreshment: and, on the 7th of July, 1785,

anchored in Antangaia1 Bay, 'ro leagues SW. of C. St. Sed Madagascar,

bastian, in Madagascar, and the cargo having been landed there, the Count intending to go over land to Antongil Bay, whither the ship was to proceed. It appears, by letters, that the Count's old friend, the King of the North; came to pay his refpects, and the chief of the Seclaves, his former, enemy, with a body of meni encamped near the Count, who propofed to him the usual oath, which the chief declined.

The master's protest states, that, on the night of the ist of Aug. a firing was heard and seen on shore, at the Count's encampment; that at day light neither white men nor effects were to be seen; that their own danger, and the pro bability that the Count and his party were cut off by the natives, compelled them to set sail for the Island of Joanna; and that’at Oibo, on the opposite continent, the supercargo sold the ship.

lands in

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296. A letter from a man on board, states that the writer C H A P. and another person, though not convinced that the firing was from the natives, were forced to sign the protest. A letter from an officer, brought prisoner to the I. de France, after the

is attacked, destruction of the Count's party, confirms the preceding, as far” says Mr. Nicholson, as relates to the destruction of the Count and his party, by the French.The writer mentions the firing in the night ; but, contrary to the protest, affirms that the ship failed away in sight of those on shore, who could not overtake her in the country boats. From this letter, it appears, that the Count, at the head of a body of natives, commenced hostilities against the French, by seizing their store-house at Angoutzi. Here he began to build a town in the country manner; and thence detached 100 men to seize their factory at Foul Point, who defifted, on seeing a frigate at anchor there. On being informed of these transactions, the government of the Isle de France sent a ship with 60 regulars, who landed and attacked the Count, on the 23d of May 1786, in a redoubt he had constructed, mounting two cannon, and where he, with two Europeans, and 30 natives, waited their approach. The blacks fled, and killed, and Benyowsky, receiving a ball in his breast, fell behind the parapet, whence he was dragged by the hair, and expired in a few minutes. 297

The last mentioned letter, Mr. Nicholson obferves, “ in many respects, seems to want explanation;" like the protest and the other letters, relative to the Count's unhappy end. From such materials, it was impossible even for the abilities of the editor, to extract a consistent account; nor would the Court of France have derived much credit from a fair statement of a transaction which, I have good reason to believe, could not bear the light. The toА а

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