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by several chiefs.

by commif

CHA P. Count) was noted in his journal, February 2d 1775,

when he mentions his determination to take advantage of it, and to conduct that brave and generous nation to a civilized

state, and the establishment of a solid and a permanent goledged suchvernment, founded on national liberty. At the same time,

he laments the blindness of the French minister to the true
interests of his country.! Several of the chiefs, soon after-
wards, actually chose the Count as their Ampansacabe,

made their submission, and swore allegiance.
Interrogated 286. On the 22d of August 1776, two commissaries, Mes.
fioners from de Bellecombe and Chevreau, arrived from France to take

cognizance of the Count's proceedings. They digested
their business into 25 queries, to which the Count’s replies
were so perfectly satisfactory, that they gave him a dis-
charge for his past conduct, and accounts, certifying that
he had advanced to the French treasury, 415,000 livres *.
This done, the Count, on the 28th, delivered them his re-

signation, with which they failed for the Isle de France. Interesting 287. The queries and answers, I think, may fairly particulars.

be considered as forming an authentic official document;
and it contains very interesting information. Among many
other important particulars, the Count states to the commif-
saries, that the subsidies he received from the chiefs in



* The only statement of receipts and disbursements, inserted in the work before me, is that which the Count transmitted to the French ministry on the 22d March,

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1776, in sugar, indigo, cotton, &c. amounted to 940,000 li- C HA P. vres, and that they can raise 123,000 warriors; that they willingly grant lands to the French, who would be welcome Madagasand fafe throughout the whole island, provided no impolitic and imprafticable attempts were made to deprive the ria. tives of their liberties, of which M. de Laly and other French officers had given them too much reason to be jeaYous; that they are industrious, and example would make them more so, are imitators and disposed to learn trades, being already tolerable goldsmiths, potters, turners, carpenters, weavers, &c. but their “ most respected bufiness is the manufacture of iron and steel. They are very expert in fufing the ore anđ în forging utensils;" (See $ 71) that their houses are of wood, sometimes covered with

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Neat profit*

340,398 9 11 • This sum is not neat profit. The result of this account is, that the colony coft the French Livi 455,650 2 8 and Liv. 245,000 (which he advanced) making together Liv. 700,650 2 8. This is not equal to the whole charge or Liv. 854,252 18. But the colony paid the difference, Liv. 153,562 15 4, and also supplied the I. de France and the king's ship's with Liv. 286,835 11 7 This laft fum is the only' return, and if taken from the whole sum advanced, will leave Liv. 413,814, 10, or the balance due to the French government, at this period of the undertaking:-Note of the editor.






CH A P. leaves, all neat, and those of the Rohandrians, elegant ;

that they raise good crops of rice, have vast numbers of oxen, sheep, goats and poultry, and trade considerably, in produce with the Arabians, &c. that the whole east coast affords very few slaves, a trade in whom it would be necessary to prohibit; that, in ten years, a colony might be established in Madagascar, on the plan stated below*. For other particulars, I must refer to the work itself.


* The Count, in his answer to the 25th query of the commissaries, states his plan, the substance of which is, that, if the king supply 600 men, and 200 men at the end of each of the two following years, permitting him to chuse husbandmen in the troop, to marry with the women of the country, unrestrained on account of religion; and also to import annually 200 foundlings, 12 or 14 years of age, and likewife Malabar and Chinese families: in this case, a colony would, at the end of three years, be formed, which, connected with all Madagascar, would begin to have some value. The expense would not exceed a million (of livres) per year, exclusive of the expense of a vessel of 600 tons, another of 200, and 6 galliots, for transports and the communication of posts. At the end of three years, the colony would support itself, and increase, by the product of it's united capital of Liv. 3,000,000, till the tenth year, when it would be sufficiently strong to fear no sudden revolution, and be able, by it's commerce (which the Count seems all along to view as a secondary object, to be promoted by no other means than the cultivation of the country. See particularly, vol. 2. p. 249, 254) to reimburse the expenses of it's establishment.

The Count's eftinate at p. 347 vol. 2. differs from the above; probably because he had not sufficiently considered it. The title of the paper, of which it is a part, fhows what were his views, and makes it probable, that the paper, itself was never presented officially to any minister; for it is not dated,"Reflections upon the proje&t of a colony at Madagascar, in case any power should adopt the system of civilization, founded on the basis of an alliance." of the estimate, which forms the first article, the following is an abstract.—The colony of Madagascar may be formed, in ten years, with Liv. 3,000,000 and 720 military sent the first year; 200 yearly for the ed and 3d years; and 150 yearly for the 7 following years; exclusive of an annual impor:ation, for the whole 10 years, of 120 European husbandmen, 30 creoles, and 50

natives of India or China. In all, about 4170 persons who, says the Count, will annually produce 600 children, the total of whom, at the end of the tenth year,




The C. re

288. But the Count, on quitting the French service, does C H A 7. not seem to have abandoned his prospects in Madagascar. Several chiefs, he tells us, required him to assume the government. Accordingly, a congress was summoned, and on the oth of Oct. 1776, the Count actually saw above thir- figns his Fr. ty princes and chiefs, and at least 50,000 of their people and is de prostrated before him, as their liege lord. The oath (or clared Am

pansacabe. rather engagement) indited by the chiefs, in their own language, having been thrice read aloud, was signed, in name of the nation, by Hiavi, King of the East; Lambouin, King of the North; and Raffangour, Rohandrian of the Sambarives. Instead of an appeal to Heaven, it contained this remarkable sanction, “ Cursed be our children who shall Singular not obey our present will.—May the most horrid slavery the chief's confound them.They acknowledge, however, and adore Oath. one God, the Creator and Preserver of all things; for Raf. Natives ac

knowledge fangour, an aged chief, opened this meeting, with a short, but truly eloquent speech, which began thus, “ Blessed be

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sanction of

one God.

will amount to 6000 creoles, and 3370 Europeans, a sufficient number to fix the epoch
of a colony.These last are the Count's own words, which I have inserted, because
they imply an approbation of the soil and climate, which more effetually con-
vince me of their general excellence, than the direct encomiums he often bestows
on both. The mortality of his troops proves nothing against the climate; for, I
apprehend, if they had been landed on any coast in the world, and liad experienced
the same severe labour, and equal hardthips, of every kind, the very fame mortality
would have ensued.-- For want of time and rocm, I have omitted many fa&ts; but the
Count's bill of mortality I really have forgotten; and the page, where it should have
stood, being printed off, I hope to be excused for inserting it here. His corps original-
ly consisted of 300 men levied in Old France (p. 96) and he appears to have received
fume few recruits from the Isle de France. In 1774, there died 113 of his men, in
1775, only 11 (Vol. II. p. 289.) In particular, on O&t. 3d 1775, there was not a
man fick. The state of health, in 1776, does not appear.—The Count lost his only
son in Madagascar, he and the Countess narrowly escaping.–But the first hardships
experienced there, have seldom been exceeded.
Z 2




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Chiefs em

power him to
treat with

C HA P. Zahanhar (God), who has returned to his people. Blessed be

the law of our fathers, which commands us to obey a chief
descended from the blood of Ramini. Qur fathers and our.
selves have experienced that disunion is the punishment of
God.” &c. (See Memoirs, Vol. II. p. 264.) The Count
seems to have borne his new dignity with moderation; for,
instead of grasping at the extensive power exercised by
former Ampansacabe's, he proposed a constitution, which
seems to have been well calculated to promote the happi-
ness of a people imperfectly civilized, and in which the
chiefs unanimously acquiesced.

289. On the 23d of Oct. the same three chiefs, iņ name

of the “ kings, princes, chiefs and people of the north and
France, &c. eastern coasts of Madagascar,” signed full powers to the

Count, as their Lord Ampansacabe, to go to Europe, and
from treaties of alliance and commerce, with the King of
France; and, in case he should not accept the offer, with
any other European king, or nation. The Ampansacabe,
on his part, engaged them to acknowledge, in his absence,
Raffangour, the president of the new fupreme council, or,
he failing, the Chief Sancé, a mulatto.

290. On the 14th of Dec. 1776, the Count, having assisted
the French commandant at Louisbourg * with his advice,
embarked on board a French ship, for the Cape of Good
Hope, on his way to Europe; the native chiefs and he shed-
ding tears of affection and regret, and mutually blessing

each other, in the name of Zahanhar.
The Frepch 291. Here the Count's journal ends, and, before we no-
in/tructions, tice his few remaining transactions, of which we have ac-

* This place is often mentioned in the Count's journal, being the name of the
town he founded, as appears by one of the plates, where it would appear allo, that
he first imposed the name, a circumstance not mentioned, I think, in ihe journal.


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He embarks
for France.




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