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CHA P. carried, for want of proper support. The Portuguese in
Angola, are said to be able, at any time, to bring into the
siderable number of ships for slaves, &c.
in behalf of his sovereign, King John of Portugal, formed an
up the river Congo, or Zaire, upon an eminence, in a
dral. Loango and
Of these countries I do not find any thing particular,
except that Benguela is very unhealthful. They are under the
206. Many of the Portuguese at Loando, Colombo, St. Sal-
200 Naves, and some of the more opulent are the masters CH A P.
207. In Congo, christianity was preached soon after the Millionaries.
208. To the farther credit of that nation, it ought to be Portuguese noted, that they carry on the slave-trade from the countries just mentioned, with as much humanity as it is possible to unite with such a traffic. Great numbers of flaves who come from the remote inland countries, are shipped from Congo, Angola, &c. None, however, who belong to these last countries, are sent as slaves to the Brazils, except black convicts; and even these, before they are put on board, are catechised and receive baptism, a rite which has been found to console their minds under their unhappy circumstances. The Portuguese Nave-ships are never over crowded, and the sailors are chiefly blacks, called Negros Ladinos, who
C HA P. fpeak their language, and whose business it is to comfort
and attend the poor people on the voyage. The confe-
209. So vast are the territories possessed by, or tributary eine Black of to, the Portuguese on the east of Africa, that they may, or Africa. might have been faid to be masters of a great part of that
whole coast. They are never interrupted there by any other European nation, except occasionally by ships in diftress, on their return from India ; for, in going out, they steer quite another courfe*.
210. The Portuguese possessions on the East of Africa Puado.
begin about 25° south latitude, according to Postlethwayt. Here they trade for ivory and gold, and they abound so much with cattle, that they'yearly furnish numbers to the Dutch at the Cape of Good Hope.' St. Martin and Puado are two islands in the River Cumana, where the Portuguese and the natives plant provifions for the shipping, and whence they have some trade with the inland negroes.
211. The kingdom of Sofala extends about 30 leagues along the coast, and about 80 up the country. It is, 'or was governed by a Mahometan prince, tributary to the King of 10 baci odc593:
2.b. * The Portuguese, bowych, do not appear entirely to exclude other nations from a participation in some parts of the trade of the eastern
parts For, when I was at Havre de Grace in 1787, fome lave-merchants in that city wore sending a few ftips to Mosambique for flaves. They told me, that, although, in the long, cold and farmy, voyage round the Cape of Good Hope, many more of the slaves, died, than even in the paslage from the coast of Guinea to the West Indies; yet that their cheapness at-Mofambique fully compensated for their increased mortality.—So 'cooly do inerchants talk of facrificing the lives of mankind, at the Ihrine of the “ Mammon of unrighteousness!!”
Portugal. The sands of the river of Sofala have a very con- C HA P. siderable admixture of gold-dust. The inhabitants of the town and kingdom of Sofala are a mixture of Mahometan Arabs, idolatrous caffres and bad Portuguese christians. 212. From the mines of Sofala, more than 2,000,000 of Great quan
tity of golds merigals of gold are said to be yearly extracted, the value of which, M. Savary computes, at 28,000,000 livres. Tournois, or £ 1,166,666 sterling. These riches are divided between the Portuguese, the Arabians of Ziden and Mecca, and the native traders of Quiloa, Monbafe and Melinda. These last come in small barks, called zambucks, bringing dyed and white cottons, silks, ambergris and succinum, or yellow and red amber. The Arabians exchange goods from the East Indies and the Red sea, to the amount of £ 140,000 fterling per annum, for ivory and gold. The merchants of Sofala also exchange European and Asiatic goods for the gold of the inland country of Monomotapa, which comes down in such quantities, that the Portuguese call the Prince of Manomotapa, the golden emperor.
213. On the west of Sofala, is the kingdom of Mongas, Mongas. chiefly remarkable for the quantity of gold it yields, particularly at Maslapa, Maninas, and the mountain of Ophir, Mount
Ophir. whence, it is believed, Solomon's treasures were brought*. At Mafsapa, the Portuguefe are settled, under the authority of the Governor of Mozambique. 214. This emporium, is on an island in latitude 15° fouth Mazami
bique. (D'Anville.) It is extremely populous, one half of the inhabitants being Portuguese and the rest negroes. The island abounds with cattle, poultry, fruits and provisions of
* Some, however, are of opinion that Solomon brought his gold from Sumatra, on the north end of which there is likewise a mountain which to this day is called Ophir.-See Bolts on Indian Affairs, Vol. I. p. 6. S 2
C HA P. all kinds ; so that, in this respect, it is a very proper place
of refreshment for the Portuguese East Indian Thips, especi.
215. When the European goods arrive at Mozambique
of Portugal. Zanguebar. 216. Lamo, Pata and Ampasa, on this coast, are, or were,
governed by chiefs dependent on the Portuguese.
217.. This large country, was for many years, governed by a prince tributary to the same nation. But the circumstances are now reversed; for the Portuguese are obliged to purchase by annual presents, permission to trade, and to explore the country for gold—a revolution probably caused