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CHA P. carried, for want of proper support. The Portuguese in

Angola, are said to be able, at any time, to bring into the
field 3000 well armed men, of their own nation. Their
power is chiefly situated in the interior parts; for the trade
of the coast of Angola, &c. has always been open;

and
thither the French, English and Dutch send yearly a con-

siderable number of ships for slaves, &c.
Congo. 201. In 1484, Congo was discovered by Diego Cam, who,

in behalf of his sovereign, King John of Portugal, formed an
alliance, with the King of Congo, which has continued to the
present day, with some interruptions, on the part of the Por-
tuguese. Their chief town, St. Salvadore, is situated 150
miles

up the river Congo, or Zaire, upon an eminence, in a
country well cultivated and most uncommonly salubrious.
(See $ 76.) It is a very extensive place, but not proportion-
ably populous, as the houses are intermixed with spacious
gardens, which, doubtless, is one cause of it's salubrity.
Yet it's inhabitants must be very numerous, as it is said to
have twelve churches and seven chapels, besides the cathe-

dral. Loango and

205

Of these countries I do not find any thing particular,
Benguela.

except that Benguela is very unhealthful. They are under the
power or influence of the Portuguese; and, I believe, are ge-
nerally included in descriptions of Congo and Angola.--In
the interior parts of these last countries, it appears that the
Portuguese have many presidios, or garrisons, who, with the
assistance of the natives, have cleared and cultivated the land
in their respective vicinities, raising maize, calavances,
yams, bananas and other provisions and fruits.

206. Many of the Portuguese at Loando, Colombo, St. Sal-
vadore and other places in this part of Africa are exceedingly
rich. It is common for a Portuguese to possess 50, 100 and

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200 Naves, and some of the more opulent are the masters CH A P.
even of 3000. A religious society, at Loando are the pro-
prietors of no fewer than 12,000 slaves, who being black-
smiths, joiners, turners, stone-cutters, &c. earn, by their
work, from 4 to 500 rees per day, for the society.—How far
this sort of revenue is compatible with the intention of such
an institution, it is not my present business to enquire.

207. In Congo, christianity was preached soon after the Millionaries.
arrival of the Portuguese; and missionaries are still well re-
ceived there. Encouragements have been offered at differ-
ent times, particularly in the beginning of the present reign,
to the religious in the convents of Portugal, to labour in
the conversion of the natives of Congo, Angola, and their
other African possessions. Many missionaries have accord-
ingly undertaken this pious work, at different times. Their
success appears to have been considerable, and, had they
been steadily supported, there is reason to believe it would
have been compleat. Many Portuguese bishops reside in
this part of Africa, and numbers of the natives have been
regularly ordained priests.

208. To the farther credit of that nation, it ought to be Portuguese noted, that they carry on the slave-trade from the countries just mentioned, with as much humanity as it is possible to unite with such a traffic. Great numbers of flaves who come from the remote inland countries, are shipped from Congo, Angola, &c. None, however, who belong to these last countries, are sent as slaves to the Brazils, except black convicts; and even these, before they are put on board, are catechised and receive baptism, a rite which has been found to console their minds under their unhappy circumstances. The Portuguese Nave-ships are never over crowded, and the sailors are chiefly blacks, called Negros Ladinos, who

S

speak

flave-trade.

C HA P. fpeak their language, and whose business it is to comfort

and attend the poor people on the voyage. The confe-
quences are, that they have little or no occasion for fetters,
fó constantly used in the other European flave-ships, and
that they perform their voyages from Angola, &c. to Brazil
with
very

little mortality

St. Martin,

Portuguese

209. So vast are the territories possessed by, or tributary eine Black of to, the Portuguese on the east of Africa, that they may, or Africa. might have been faid to be masters of a great part of that

whole coast. They are never interrupted there by any other European nation, except occasionally by ships in diftress, on their return from India ; for, in going out, they steer quite another courfe*.

210. The Portuguese possessions on the East of Africa Puado.

begin about 25° south latitude, according to Postlethwayt. Here they trade for ivory and gold, and they abound so much with cattle, that they'yearly furnish numbers to the Dutch at the Cape of Good Hope.' St. Martin and Puado are two islands in the River Cumana, where the Portuguese and the natives plant provifions for the shipping, and whence they have some trade with the inland negroes.

211. The kingdom of Sofala extends about 30 leagues along the coast, and about 80 up the country. It is, 'or was governed by a Mahometan prince, tributary to the King of 10 baci odc593:

2.b. * The Portuguese, bowych, do not appear entirely to exclude other nations from a participation in some parts of the trade of the eastern

parts For, when I was at Havre de Grace in 1787, fome lave-merchants in that city wore sending a few ftips to Mosambique for flaves. They told me, that, although, in the long, cold and farmy, voyage round the Cape of Good Hope, many more of the slaves, died, than even in the paslage from the coast of Guinea to the West Indies; yet that their cheapness at-Mofambique fully compensated for their increased mortality.—So 'cooly do inerchants talk of facrificing the lives of mankind, at the Ihrine of the “ Mammon of unrighteousness!!”

Portugal.

Sofala.

of Africa.

X.

Portugal. The sands of the river of Sofala have a very con- C HA P. siderable admixture of gold-dust. The inhabitants of the town and kingdom of Sofala are a mixture of Mahometan Arabs, idolatrous caffres and bad Portuguese christians. 212. From the mines of Sofala, more than 2,000,000 of Great quan

tity of golds merigals of gold are said to be yearly extracted, the value of which, M. Savary computes, at 28,000,000 livres. Tournois, or £ 1,166,666 sterling. These riches are divided between the Portuguese, the Arabians of Ziden and Mecca, and the native traders of Quiloa, Monbafe and Melinda. These last come in small barks, called zambucks, bringing dyed and white cottons, silks, ambergris and succinum, or yellow and red amber. The Arabians exchange goods from the East Indies and the Red sea, to the amount of £ 140,000 fterling per annum, for ivory and gold. The merchants of Sofala also exchange European and Asiatic goods for the gold of the inland country of Monomotapa, which comes down in such quantities, that the Portuguese call the Prince of Manomotapa, the golden emperor.

213. On the west of Sofala, is the kingdom of Mongas, Mongas. chiefly remarkable for the quantity of gold it yields, particularly at Maslapa, Maninas, and the mountain of Ophir, Mount

Ophir. whence, it is believed, Solomon's treasures were brought*. At Mafsapa, the Portuguefe are settled, under the authority of the Governor of Mozambique. 214. This emporium, is on an island in latitude 15° fouth Mazami

bique. (D'Anville.) It is extremely populous, one half of the inhabitants being Portuguese and the rest negroes. The island abounds with cattle, poultry, fruits and provisions of

* Some, however, are of opinion that Solomon brought his gold from Sumatra, on the north end of which there is likewise a mountain which to this day is called Ophir.-See Bolts on Indian Affairs, Vol. I. p. 6. S 2

all

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C HA P. all kinds ; so that, in this respect, it is a very proper place

of refreshment for the Portuguese East Indian Thips, especi.
ally as the harbour is very good ; but the air is reckoned
none of the best. At Mozambique are numbers of monks,
some of whom are frequently sent, by the governor, to the
opposite continent; not so much, it is strongly suspected, on
fpiritual errands, as to dispose the natives to give his excel-
lency good bargains of their gold, ivory and ebony.

215. When the European goods arrive at Mozambique
from Portugal, they are taxed by the king's factor, who
sends them to Chilimani, at the mouth of the Senna, whence
they go very far up the river, to a Portuguese town,
whither the Africans come, sometimes from the distance of
two or three months travel, to buy, or take on credit, the
European goods, for a stipulated quantity of gold, and
which they faithfully bring or send. This barter yields
cent per cent, and indeed, may well be called the Chili and
Peru of the Portuguese ; gold being so common, that, at a
month's journey from the coast, household utensils and or-
naments are frequently made of it. Of the trade of Mo-
zambique, we may form fome idea from the governor's du-
ties which annually amount to between 60 and £70,000
sterling ; exclusive of the pay of the troops and garrisons,
and of a considerable tribute annually remitted to the crown

of Portugal. Zanguebar. 216. Lamo, Pata and Ampasa, on this coast, are, or were,

governed by chiefs dependent on the Portuguese.

217.. This large country, was for many years, governed by a prince tributary to the same nation. But the circumstances are now reversed; for the Portuguese are obliged to purchase by annual presents, permission to trade, and to explore the country for gold—a revolution probably caused

partly

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Melinda.

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