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tracts. Without laws so framed and executed, no comprehensive design can be promoted or accomplished; nor can the community exert that united strength which it's subsistence and security indispensably require. Nothing therefore can be more important than due social subordination, which depends essentially on the form and organization of it's internal order, and the prompt, impartial and exemplary execution of the laws. Without this, a society (if it would deserve the name) would be nothing but a chaos of discordant elements, and destructive passions. But in the same proportion as vices are prevented or restrained, and evil habits corrected or eradicated, by wholesome laws, the civilization and improvement of the people are promoted, and the design of the social union fecured.

157. All laws may be reduced to the following classes, Laws. viz. judicial, political and economical.

158. (1.) Judicial. A community without laws of justice, Judicial. may compared to the body of a man without a head; that is, to something so monstrously and unnaturally defective, that it's existence would imply a contradiction. Accordingly no nation, which is more or less civilized, is destitute of distinát ideas concerning good and evil; however those ideas may be limited and diversified. Nor does there exist

any such nation which does not endeavour to encourage the free course of moral and social good, and to prevent or eradicate the opposite evils; and this in a greater or less conformity to the laws of the decalogue, which is the most ancient and universal code.

159. (2.) Political, or laws of police. Every community is Political. composed of individuals in greater or smaller numbers, and distributed into different classes or orders, all of which must, each in his proper sphere, co-operate with the rest, in







CH A P. order to give strength, consistency and regularity to the

whole. For a community without political laws, is like a
head without a body, or like some heterogeneous being,
that possesses neither form nor order.

160. (3.) Economical. These resemble a man's cloaths,
for, like them, they may not only be changed, to adapt
them to new circumstances; but a society without them is
like a naked man, exposed to every inclemency of the
weather.--I need therefore scarcely to add, that a de-
partment for the execution of contracts and laws should
be established in the government or direction.

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External worship

161. If christianity is to be promoted and encouraged, in a new colony, it seems indispensably necessary that the order which characterizes this divine religion should be observed, in it's outward forms or rites. This order may be reduced to the three following primary articles of external worship, under which all the more minute parts may be comprised.

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1. Baptism, or the first ceremony of introduction into a christian community, ordained by the great Institutor of christianity himself.

II. Confirmation, a ceremony performed when a person comes of age, and is thenceforth to be answerable, for his own conduct and actions, to the community.

III. The holy fupper, an ordinance of the greatest importance, on the right and sincere use of which depends entirely the union of every individual with his Creator.



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162. If what has been remarked on the subject of health Health. (in Chap. VI.) has had due weight with the reader, he will see the necessity of instituting a distinct department, in the government or direction, to superintend it. This department will have under their inspection,

I. The practice of medicine, in curing internal diseases; and, as this is connected with the mental, as well as the corporeal, powers of man, it includes also physiology and the kindred sciences.

II. The praćtice of furgery, for the external, or the merely mechanical derangements of the human system. It may include midwifery and it's sister arts.

III. The practice of pharmacy, for the preparation of drugs and medicines.


of raw ma

163. In addition to what has been remarked on cultiva- Cultivation tion (§ 131 et seq.) it does not seem necessary to add more terials. than that there ought to be in the direction, a department for promoting, in a systematic, economical and scientific manner, the production of raw materials,

I. Of the animal kingdomí,
II. Of the vegetable kingdoni,
III. Of the mineral kingdom.


tures to be

164. It is needless to exhaust time in showing that, in Colonial every conceivable mode of civilized life, the manufactures manufacsubfervient to food, cloathing, lodging and domestic accom- encouraged. modation, are absolutely necessary.—Those articles must either be procured from abroad, or fabricated at home.



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CHAP. The former mode of supply encourages external commerce,

the latter internal industry. Commerce should rise out of,
or follow, internal industry; but should never be suffered to
precede it, as it would do, if resorted to for articles which
a country has hands enough to fabricate. --Befides, external
commerce tends to injure, and internal industry, properly
regulated, to promote morality and civilization. In every
African colony, therefore, all the hands that can be spared
from cultivation, should be employed in the arts necessary
to prepare apparel, buildings, furniture, tools and such arti-
cles of food as require some artificial procefs. The natives,
whom I always suppose mixed with the colonists, will thus
not only be excited to use articles manufactured in the
European manner, but will be taught to fabricate them with
their own hands; and, having the paths of honest industry
opened to them, will no longer depend, as too many of
them have hitherto done, on a pernicious traffic, for a pre-
carious supply of foreign goods, baubles and trash. In
short, next to agriculture, their taste for, and employment
in, useful manufactures will be the most effectual means
of promoting their civilization. (See § 36, 37.) It seems ne-
cessary, therefore, that there should be a department, in the
government or direction, to superintend and inspect the ma-
nufactures, to deliberate on the introduction of new ones,
and to encourage, by rewards, or otherwise, those which
they may deem it expedient to establish.



165. This article, like feveral of the preceding, has been pretty largely treated of in Chap. VII. (see ý 113, et feq.) whence may be seen thé necessity of instituting a distinct department in the direction to promote,

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1. The internal, or colonial, trade.
II. The exportation commerce,

III. The importation commerce ;
to promote them, I mean, in such a manner, that surplus
produce may be taken off by exportation, without inter-
fering with the necessary and ample supply of the colony.
By promoting, however, I do not mean any thing like an
exclusive surrender of the colonial commerce into the hands
of the directors; but only that they should watch over, or,
as the name of their office imports, direct the general course
of commerce to the general good, leaving to individuals the
full, free and open exercise of all legal, commercial pur-


DEFENCE. 166. On the internal polity and external defence of a Internal ponew colony, I have bestowed much thought; and, on the fence, by whole, the ancient English system of frankpledge appears

frankpledge. 'to me to be the best calculated to secure both these ob

jects *

167. In this, as in many other particulars, I so entirely agree with the Right Hon. Paul le Mesurier, the present worthy and spirited Lord Mayor of London, that I hope he will pardon me for taking the liberty to insert an extract from a few hafty, but judicious remarks, with which he was pleased to honour me.-" The common law and polity of England,” says his lordship, “ being founded on the system offr ankpledge, will naturally form the basis of the internal

* This system is explained at large in “ An account of the constitutional English polity of congregational courts," &c. by the excellent Granville Sharp, Esq. who has applied it to the case of a new colony, in his “ Short sketch of temporary regulations for Sierra Leona."

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