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CH A P.
tracts. Without laws so framed and executed, no comprehensive design can be promoted or accomplished; nor can the community exert that united strength which it's subsistence and security indispensably require. Nothing therefore can be more important than due social subordination, which depends essentially on the form and organization of it's internal order, and the prompt, impartial and exemplary execution of the laws. Without this, a society (if it would deserve the name) would be nothing but a chaos of discordant elements, and destructive passions. But in the same proportion as vices are prevented or restrained, and evil habits corrected or eradicated, by wholesome laws, the civilization and improvement of the people are promoted, and the design of the social union fecured.
157. All laws may be reduced to the following classes, Laws. viz. judicial, political and economical.
158. (1.) Judicial. A community without laws of justice, Judicial. may compared to the body of a man without a head; that is, to something so monstrously and unnaturally defective, that it's existence would imply a contradiction. Accordingly no nation, which is more or less civilized, is destitute of distinát ideas concerning good and evil; however those ideas may be limited and diversified. Nor does there exist
any such nation which does not endeavour to encourage the free course of moral and social good, and to prevent or eradicate the opposite evils; and this in a greater or less conformity to the laws of the decalogue, which is the most ancient and universal code.
159. (2.) Political, or laws of police. Every community is Political. composed of individuals in greater or smaller numbers, and distributed into different classes or orders, all of which must, each in his proper sphere, co-operate with the rest, in
CH A P. order to give strength, consistency and regularity to the
whole. For a community without political laws, is like a
160. (3.) Economical. These resemble a man's cloaths,
161. If christianity is to be promoted and encouraged, in a new colony, it seems indispensably necessary that the order which characterizes this divine religion should be observed, in it's outward forms or rites. This order may be reduced to the three following primary articles of external worship, under which all the more minute parts may be comprised.
1. Baptism, or the first ceremony of introduction into a christian community, ordained by the great Institutor of christianity himself.
II. Confirmation, a ceremony performed when a person comes of age, and is thenceforth to be answerable, for his own conduct and actions, to the community.
III. The holy fupper, an ordinance of the greatest importance, on the right and sincere use of which depends entirely the union of every individual with his Creator.
162. If what has been remarked on the subject of health Health. (in Chap. VI.) has had due weight with the reader, he will see the necessity of instituting a distinct department, in the government or direction, to superintend it. This department will have under their inspection,
I. The practice of medicine, in curing internal diseases; and, as this is connected with the mental, as well as the corporeal, powers of man, it includes also physiology and the kindred sciences.
II. The praćtice of furgery, for the external, or the merely mechanical derangements of the human system. It may include midwifery and it's sister arts.
III. The practice of pharmacy, for the preparation of drugs and medicines.
of raw ma
163. In addition to what has been remarked on cultiva- Cultivation tion (§ 131 et seq.) it does not seem necessary to add more terials. than that there ought to be in the direction, a department for promoting, in a systematic, economical and scientific manner, the production of raw materials,
I. Of the animal kingdomí,
tures to be
164. It is needless to exhaust time in showing that, in Colonial every conceivable mode of civilized life, the manufactures manufacsubfervient to food, cloathing, lodging and domestic accom- encouraged. modation, are absolutely necessary.—Those articles must either be procured from abroad, or fabricated at home.
CHAP. The former mode of supply encourages external commerce,
the latter internal industry. Commerce should rise out of,
165. This article, like feveral of the preceding, has been pretty largely treated of in Chap. VII. (see ý 113, et feq.) whence may be seen thé necessity of instituting a distinct department in the direction to promote,
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1. The internal, or colonial, trade.
III. The importation commerce ;
DEFENCE. 166. On the internal polity and external defence of a Internal ponew colony, I have bestowed much thought; and, on the fence, by whole, the ancient English system of frankpledge appears
frankpledge. 'to me to be the best calculated to secure both these ob
167. In this, as in many other particulars, I so entirely agree with the Right Hon. Paul le Mesurier, the present worthy and spirited Lord Mayor of London, that I hope he will pardon me for taking the liberty to insert an extract from a few hafty, but judicious remarks, with which he was pleased to honour me.-" The common law and polity of England,” says his lordship, “ being founded on the system offr ankpledge, will naturally form the basis of the internal
* This system is explained at large in “ An account of the constitutional English polity of congregational courts," &c. by the excellent Granville Sharp, Esq. who has applied it to the case of a new colony, in his “ Short sketch of temporary regulations for Sierra Leona."