Page images

filbert orchard, the defect can readily be supplied, when the female blossoms (which are easily known by being sessile and solitary, or in small clusters, and of a bright scarlet colour) are expanded, by collecting male blossoms from wild trees, or any others where they can be spared, and suspending them on the upper branches of the tree. The Rev. G. Swayne has proved the utility of this practice, both in his own case, and in that of some of his neighbours. (Ibid., vol.v. p. 316.; and Encyc. of Gard., ed. 1835, p. 944.) Rogers remarks that the kind of pruning which is found the best for the currant is also the best for the filbert. Filberts intended for long keeping, this author observes, “should remain on the tree till they are thoroughly ripe; which is easily known by their rich brown colour. They should be laid on a dry floor for a few days, and afterwards stored in jars of dry sand, where they will keep sound for a great length of time.”. (Fruit Cultivator, p. 190.) Filberts are always kept in the husk, and sold by the pound; while nuts are kept without the husk, and sold by the peck or bushel. The Barcelona nuts are iinported in boxes, and kept in them till sold; while the English nuts are brought to market in sacks, and kept in them, or on the floors of lofts, or in dry cellars, till they are taken out to be exposed for sale. Filberts are brought to market, by the growers, in boxes; and are preserved, by the fruiterers, in layers in lofts, or in dry sand in cellars. After some time, the husks lose their colour, and appear black and mouldy; when they are slightly fumigated with sulphur, till their colour is restored. This operation is performed by putting them on trays, pierced with holes, and holding them over a chafingdish of charcoal, on which a little powdered sulphur had been thrown when the charcoal was red-hot. The tray should be gently shaken, and the filberts spread on it very thinly, that the fumes of the sulphur may penetrate all round them.

Insects. The common nut is attacked by numerous species of insects, especially by the caterpillars of various moths and butterflies, which feed upon its leaves. Amongst these are to be mentioned, as partially (indicated by a star), or entirely indicated by a dagger), feeding upon this tree, *Vanessa C. álbum (or small tortoiseshell butterfly),* Staúropus fàgi (the lobster moth, so named from the remarkable form of the caterpillar, the fore legs of which are greatly elongated, and the front part of the body generally carried erect), * Notodonta Dromedàrius, * E'ndromis versicolor (the rare glory of Kent moth), * A'glae taú (the tau emperor), + Dèmas córyli (the nut tree tussock), * Cósmia trapezina, * Brèpha nòtha, * Hipparchus papilionàrius, • Cabèra pusària, * Harpályce corylàta, Lozotæ'nia corylana, * Roxana arcuàna L. (Tortrix), † Semióscopis avellanélla (Tinea 8. C.). The coleopterous insects are confined to the families Curculionidæ and Chrysomélidæ. Amongst the former is especially to be noticed the Balaninus nùcum Germar (Curculio nùcum Linn.), the larva of which is the white fleshy maggot so often found feeding upon the kernel of the nut. (See fig. 1947.) The perfect insect is a pretty beetle, about a quarter or a third of an inch long, with a very long and slender black horny beak, having the elbowed antennæ inserted near the middle. The body is, or, rather, the elytra, when shut, are, somewhat of a triangular form; and the general colour of the insect is fine greyish brown, with deeper shades, and irregularly waved bands. The female beetle deposits its eggs in the nut whilst in a young and immature state, the wound soon healing. This accounts for the larva being found within the shell, without any hole being seen by which it might have entered. It is said that the passage for the introduction of the egg is made by the female drilling through the rind with its rostrum. A single egg, of a brown colour, is introduced into each nut, from which the grub is hatched in about a fortnight; but it does not attain its full size until the whole of the interior of the nut is consumed; the kernel being the last part which it attacks. At this time the shell is found to be filled with black powder, which is nothing but the excrement of the larva. When full grown, the time for the fall of the nut is arrived; and the larva then, or sometimes while the nut remains on the tree, eats a hole through the shell with its strong jaws, and pushes itself through the aperture thus made; although it appears too small to admit the body, which contracts itself to get through, and then falls to the ground, having no legs to support itself on the husk. Legs, however, would be an incumbrance to the insect, as it is born in the midst of its food; and when this is consumed its feeding time has terminated, and it is ready to make its way into the earth; where it forms an oval cell, and changes into a pupa ; soon after which the perfect insect makes its appearance. In fig. 1947., a shows the wound made by the introduction of the egg into the young fruit; b, the hole in the mature fruit, by which the larva, has made its exit; c is the larva; d, the pupa; and e, the perfect insect (these last three figures being represented about one third larger than the natural size). The tip of the rostrum, magnified, is shown at


1947 f; g being the jaws, and h a side view of a single jaw. In addition to this insect, Orchéstes avellanæ (one of the small fea weevils), Strophosòmus córyli, Apóderus córyli, Attélabus curculionides, Tropíderes niveiróstris, Rhynchìtes Bacchus, and Polydrùsus argentàtus, are found in the nut; as well as the following, belonging to the Chrysomelidæ :- Chrysomela coccineaand hemisphæ'rica; Clythra longipes, 4-punctàta, tridentàta, andaurita; Cryptocephalus bipunctatus, córdiger, córyli, and 6-punctàtus ; and Hispa pectinicórnis. Amongst the Linnæan Hemíptera are : Cimex córyli

, avellànæ, and annulàtus Linn; Cicada aurita, bicordata, and córyli ; A'phis córyli; and Cóccus córyli. Hemeròbius hírtus, amongst neuropterous insects; and Allántus córyli

, amongst the saw-flies, complete the list of the chief species of insects which feed upon the common nut.

Fungi on the Hazel. On the wood and fallen branches : Agaricus galericulàtus Scop., Sow. t. 165., and fig. 15883. in the Encyclopædia of Plants ; A. polygrámmus Dec., syn. A. fistulòsus, Bull. t. 518., and fig. 15884. in the Encyclopædia of Plants; and A. striátulus Pers., a minute resupinate species; Theléphora rugosa Pers., syn. T. corýlea Pers., remarkable for its blood-stained hue, when rubbed or scratched; T. Avellanæ Fr.; Clavària Ardènia Sow. t. 215., and fig. 16171. in the Encyclopædia of Plants ; Peziza furfuracea Fr.; Sphæ'ria fúsca Pers.; S. verrucæfórmis Ehrh.; S. decedens; Demàtium gríseum Fr.; Tórula antennata Pers. On the roots, Agáricus radicàtus Relh. On the leaves : S. Avellànæ Schmidt, a highly curious species which has, in the present year, occurred abundantly in Northamptonshire, but appears not to have been found before, since its first detection by Schmidt; Sphæ'ria gnomon Tode ; Erysiphe guttata Schlecht. On the nuts, Peziza fructígena Bull., already noticed under the beech, fig. 1900. p. 1974.

Commercial Statistics. The price of plants, in the London nurseries, is : oneyear's seedlings, 10s. per thousand; two-years' seedlings, 15s. per thousand; transplanted, from 1 ft. to 2 ft. high, 30s. per thousand ; transplanted, from 2 ft. to 3 ft. high, 50s. per thousand. Plants of the different varieties are ls. each. Price of English nuts, in Covent Garden market, from 28. to 3s. per peck; of Barcelona nuts, from 5s. to 68. per peck; of English filberts, from ti. 108. to 5l. per 100 lb. Price of plants, at Bollwyller, of the varieties, from 2 francs to 5 francs each; at New York, the varieties are from 25 cents to 50 cents each.


* 2. C. COLU'RNA L. The Constantinople Hazel. Identification. Hort. Cliff., 448.; Roy. Lugdb., 81. ; Mill. Dict., No. 2. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 472. ;

N. Du Ham., 4. p. 20.; Lodd. Cat., 1836. Synonymes. C. byzantina Herm. Lugdb., 91., Seb. Mus., 1. t. 27.; Avellana peregrina humilis Bauh. Pin., 418.; A. pumila byzantina Clus. Hist., 1. p. 11. ; C. arbòrea Hori.; le Noisetier de

Bizance, Fr.; Byzantinische Haselnuss, Ger. Engravings. Seb. Mus., 1. t. 27. f. 2. ; Dend. Brit., t. 99.; our fig. 1948. ; and the plates of this tree

in our last Volume. Spec. Char., fc. Stipules lanceolate, acuminate. Leaves roundish ovate,

cordate. Involucre of the fruit double; the exterior many-partite, the interior 3-partite; divisions palmate. (Willd.) A tree, 50 ft. or 60 ft. high ;

a native of Turkey and Asia Minor. Introduced in 1665. Varieties. * C. C. 2 intermèdia ; C. intermèdia Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; is probably a

hybrid between C. Colúrna and C. Avellana. * C. C. 3 arboréscens Fisch., and our fig. 1949., differs from the species, chiefly in the calyx

of the nut being cut into shreds. Description, &c. The Constantinople nut forms a handsome somewhat pyramidal tree, 50 ft. or 60 ft. high; with a whitish bark, which peels off in strips. The branches spread out horizontally; the leaves are more angular, and softer, than those of the common hazel; and the stipules are linear. The nuts are small, round, and almost covered with the calyx, which is double, and deeply laciniated, or fringed, with the points recurved. The tree grows rapidly, and with great vigour, in the climate of London. It was at first supposed to be a dwarf shrub, and is described as such in the old books relating to trees; but it was soon discovered to be a lofty tree. It is a native of Asia Minor and Turkey; but it bears the climate of both Paris and London without the slightest injury. Desfontaines tells us that Clusius first cultivated the

1948 Córylus Colúrna; and that it was sent to him froin Constantinople in 1582 (Hist. des Arbres, ii. p. 540.); and Prof. Martyn tells us it was reintroduced four years afterwards by David Ungnad Baron in Zorneck.” It appears to have been first cultivated in England by Rea, a florist, who, in his Flora, published in 1665, says that he had then “ many

1949 goodly plants of the filbeard of Constantinople.” (p. 224.) It is also mentioned by Ray, the celebrated botanical author, in his Historia Plantarum, published in 1686, among "the rare trees and shrubs " which he saw a short time previously in the Palace Gardens at Fulham. (See p. 41.) Notwithstanding its beauty, and the ease with which it is cultivated, the Constantinople nut has never been much in demand in English gardens. It will grow in almost any soil, but does best in one similar to that adapted for the common hazel. It is easily propagated by seed, grafts, or layers. Grafting on the common hazel is, however, the most general way, as the nut often proves abortive, both in French and English gardens. The largest tree in the neighbourhood of London is that at Syon, of which a portrait is given in our last Volume. There are also large trees at Ham House, Purser's Cross, and in the grounds of Farnham Castle, which bear fruit most years. Price of plants, in the London nurseries, Is. 6d. each; at Bollwyller, 50 cents; and at New York, 50 cents.

* 6 P 8

[ocr errors]

3. C. ROSTRA'TA Ait. The beaked, American, or Cuckold, Hazel. Identification. Ait

. Hort. Kew., 3. p. 364. ; ed. 2., 5. p. 303. ;, Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 471.; Michu. Amer., 2. p. 201 ; N. Du Ham., 4. p. 21. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Synonymes. C. sylvéstris, &c., Gron. Virg., 151.; C. cornuta Hort. Spec. Char., fc. Stipules linear-lanceolate. Leaves ovate-oblong, acumi

nate. Involucre of the fruit tubular, campanulate, larger than the nut, 2partite; divisions inciso-dentate. (Willd.) C. rostrata is a bushy shrub, seldom exceeding 4 ft. or 5 ft. in height, resembling the common European hazel, but distinguished from it by its fruit being covered with the calyx, which is prolonged in the form of a long very hairy beak ; and hence the name. The kernel is sweet, but not worthy of cultivation for the table. The plant is found, according to Pursh (ii. p. 635.), on mountains, from Canada to Carolina; but is not common on the plains, and rarely occurs so far south as Boston. The American hazel was introduced into Eng. land, in 1745, by Archibald Duke of Argyll, but has never been much cul. tivated. Plants, in the London nurseries, are 1s. each ; at Bollwyller, 2 francs; and at New York, 25 cents.

4 4. C. AMERICA'na Michx. The American Hazel. Identification. Michx. Amer., 2. p. 210.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 471. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Synonymes. C. am. humilis Wang: Amer., 88. t. 29. 1. 63.; Dwarf Cuckold Nut, wild Filbert, Amer. Engraving. Wang. Amer., 88. 1. 29. f. 63. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves roundish, cordate, acuminate. Involucre of the fruit roundish, campanulate, longer than the nut; limb spreading, dentately serrated. (Willd.) The American hazel is a shrub, growing, according to Pursh, to the height of from 4 ft. to 8 ft. It differs from C. rostrata about as much as the filbert from the European hazel. The calyx is larger than the included nut, the flavour of the kernel of which is said to be very fine. It is found in low shady woods from Canada to Florida. It was introduced, in 1798, by the Marchioness of Bute. Plants, in the London

nurseries, are 28. each ; at Bollwyller, 14 francs; and at New York, 25 cents. App. i. Species of Córylus

1950 not yet introduced. C. faror Wall. Pl. As. Rar., t. 87., and our fig. 1950., in which a is the nut with its deeply laciniated calyx; b the nut; c the kernel ; and d a'longitudinal section of the nut, with the kernel enclosed. The leaves are oblong, and much pointed. Stipules linear-lanceolate. Nut compressed, and half the length of the villous, 2-parted, ragged, and spinous involucre. (Wall.) “ A native of the top of the mountain Sheopur, in Nepal ; flowering in September, and bearing fruit in December. A tree, 20 ft. high, with a trunk sometimes 2 ft. in circumference, and somewhat glabrous ashcoloured bark. Branches twiggy, smooth, cylindrical, brownish, dotted; the young ones silky. Buds conical-oblong, covered externally with soft down. Leaves 3in. or 4 in. long, covered on both sides with adpressed down; dark green above; rough, and of a pale colour, beneath. The wood of this tree is light, compact, and of a pale tinge. The nut is small, and precisely like the common hazel nut in taste. The shell is exceedingly hard and thick.” (Wall. Pl. As. Rar., t. 87.) This species has not been yet' introduced; but, from the elevation of its native habitat, it would doubtless prove hardy. From the laciniated calyx of this nut, it appears nearly allied to C. C. arborescens Fisch. (See p. 2029.)

[ocr errors]


LONDON : Printed by A. SPOTTISWOODE, New-Street-Square.

[ocr errors][ocr errors]
« PreviousContinue »