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The

covered with a brownish moss.
tree is extremely patient of the knife;
and the wood unites readily when two
branches are bound together. The
hornbeam never grows very fast, but
still more slowly when it becomes old.
In the neighbourhood of London, the
rate of growth may be considered from
1 ft. to 18 in. a year for the first ten
years, and the tree will attain its full
size in between 50 and 60 years its
longevity may be considered as equal
to that of the beech. There is a hand-
some tree in the grounds of the Duke
of Devonshire's villa at Chiswick, of
which a portrait will be found in our
last Volume; and figs. 1933. to 1935.
are portraits of trees at Studley Park.
Fig. 1933. shows the natural form of the
head of the tree, where it has room to
expand. Fig. 1934. shows a beech
on the right hand, which is 85 ft. high,
and a hornbeam on the left, which is
73 ft. high. Fig. 1935. shows two horn-

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beams, one of which has a compound inosculated trunk, and is introduced to show that the hornbeam partakes of the liability of the beech to inosculate. The latter are between 50 ft. and 60 ft. high, with handsome well-shaped heads. The roots of the hornbeam are numerous, and not only extend far, but penetrate deeply into the soil; though the plant cannot be called taprooted.

Geography. The common hornbeam is indigenous in France, Germany, Italy, and throughout the whole of Central Europe; in Norway and Sweden, as far as 55° and 56°, but not to the north of Scania; in the south of Russia, and in Caucasus, Armenia, Asia Minor, and all Western Asia; but not in Africa. The general range of the hornbeam is in the temperate climates, as it seems alike averse from extreme heat and cold. It is a native of England and Ireland, and the south of Scotland. According to Watson, it is particularly abundant in Kent, Norfolk, Caernarvon, Chester, and Lancaster; (Outlines, &c., p. 255.); and Sir J. E.Smith informs us that it forms "a principal part of the ancient forests on the north and east sides of London; such as Epping, Finchley, &c." (Eng. Flora, iv. p. 156.) It is always found in cold, stiff, clayey, moist soils, where scarcely any other timber tree will grow; and in situations bleak, but seldom or never mountainous.

History, &c. The Greeks supposed the hornbeam to be a kind of maple, and called it Zugia, or the yoke tree, in common with the maple; from the use made of the wood of both trees for yokes for cattle. The Latins called it Carpinus; and under this name it is spoken of by Vitruvius, lib. ii. c. ix. Pliny classes it with the maples; though he adds that many naturalists suppose it to be a genus by itself. He says less about it than about any other forest tree; and only remarks that it will thrive equally well on the mountains and in the plains. Virgil does not mention it. Some of the old English writers considered it a kind of elm. Gerard calls it Betulus sive Carpinus; and his description of it is so curious, that we copy it below. He says that "it growes great, and very like unto the elme or wich-hasell tree; having a great body, the wood or timber whereof is better for arrowes and shafts, pulleyes for mils, and such like devices, than elme or wich-hasell; for, in time, it waxeth so hard, that the toughness and hardnes of it may be rather compared to horn than unto wood; and therefore it was called hornebeam or hard-beam. The leaves of it are like the elme, saving that they be tenderer :

among these hang certain triangled things, upon which are found knaps, or little buds of the bignesses of ciches, in which is contained the fruit or seed. The root is strong and thicke." He adds, that "it growes plentifully in Northamptonshire, and in Kent, by Gravesend; where it is commonly taken for a kinde of elme" (Herball, p. 1479.): and concludes by saying that he considers it as a kind of elm himself; and that it is called, in England, hornbeam, hard-beam, or yoke-elm, and in some places, witch-hazel. It was also sometimes called horse-beech. "This tree," says Parkinson, in his Theatre of Plants, "hath found about as many names as there have been authors that have written of it; but, by the judgment of the best, it is the Ostrya of Theophrastus, which he describeth so plainly in his 3d booke and 10th chapter, that it is a wonder so many learned men as have called it otherwise, should not better heede it; but, led by tradition or conceit, have rather taken it to be any other thing than what it is. Pliny (lib. iii. c. xxii.) describeth it; but maketh it like to Fraxinus, when he should rather have set Fagus; for it no way resembleth the ash, but very much the beeche. Tragus taketh it to be Ornus; and saith that he cannot agree to Ruellius, who said that Ornus was a species of Fraxinus. Matthiolus called it Carpinus. Dodonæus, in his Dutch book, maketh it his third kinde of elme, and doubteth if it be not the Ulmus sylvestris of Pliny. Lugdunensis giveth us the figure of it for Ulmus attinia; but Cordus or Dalechampius, I take it, first tooke it be Ostrya. Gesner, in Hortis, calleth it Fagus sepiaria; L'Obel, Betulus; and Clusius, Fagulus herbariorum." (Parkinson's Theat. Bot., p. 1406.) Parkinson himself calls it Ostrya. The author of An Old Thrift newly revived classes the "hornebeame" among the British timber trees. It "doth much," he adds, "resemble the beech tree in qualitie; and desireth the same kind of ground, husbanding, and dressing, as the beech tree doth ; but it is a more firme and solide kinde of wood." (p. 59.) The hornbeam was always a favourite tree for forming hedges and labyrinths; and, as these last appear to have been introduced at a very early period, it was, doubtless, among the first indigenous trees planted for garden purposes. In the Retired Gardener, and in James's Gardening, both of which are translations of French works published during the reign of Louis XIV., long details are given on the art of forming groves, labyrinths, alcoves, arcades, and "various other devices" of hornbeam; of which, the author adds, "Nature, of herself, hath provided enough for us to make what_compartments we please with it in our gardens." (Ret. Gard., ii. p. 740.) Evelyn speaks quite in raptures of the hornbeam hedges in the garden of London and Wise at Brompton; and of "the admirable espalier hedge in the long middle walk of the Luxembourg Garden at Paris (than which nothing is more graceful), planted of this tree; and so is that cradle, or close walk, with the perplexed canopy, which lately covered the seat in His Majesty's garden at Hampton Court." (Hunt. Evel., i. p. 140.) With the decline of the geometric style of planting, the lofty hedges and alleys with clipped sides, of hornbeam, fell into disrepute; and the tree was chiefly used to form garden and nursery hedges for shelter and for coppice-wood. In the present day, the tree is little used for either of these purposes; beech, or some species of evergreen, being found to grow more rapidly as a hedge; and undergrowth of hornbeam only being planted in the worst soils.

Poetical Allusions. The hornbeam does not appear to have been mentioned by Virgil, or any of the other Latin poets. It is also very seldom alluded to by any of either the French or English poets of the middle ages. Rapin, in his Latin poem, entitled The Gardens, speaks of the use of this tree for labyrinths :

"Let beauteous hornbeams one fair part adorn;
Another, cypresses with judgment shorn :
These mazy windings form a wilderness,
Which hornbeam hedges in trim neatness dress.
Along the alley sides their boughs expand:
Like verdant walls the firm espaliers stand;
And, while the eyes their various forms delight,
To private walks and shady bowers invite."

Book ii.

Fawkes, also, mentions them in his Bramham Park :

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Properties and Uses. The wood of the hornbeam is white, hard, heavy, tenacious, and very close-grained; but it will not take a good polish. According to Varennes de Fenille, it shrinks a great deal in drying, and loses considerably in its weight. Some German authors, however, deny that it loses either more bulk or more weight in drying than the oak. According to the table given in the Dictionnaire des Eaux et Forêts, it weighs, when green, 64 lb.; half-dry, 57 lb.; and quite dry, 51 lb. It is very seldom used in construction; partly because it is seldom found of proper dimensions, and partly because, when the tree attains a large size, the wood is apt to become shaky, like that of the chestnut. On this subject, Varennes de Fenille observes: "The trunk is rarely well shaped, being scarcely ever round; the arrangement of the fibres is singular, the annual layers never showing a regular circular line, like the layers of other trees, but being undulated and zigzag; and the transverse fibres, or medullary rays, stronger and wider apart than in most other trees. It is consequently very difficult to work: it is what the workmen call cross-grained, and is apt to rise in splinters under the workman's tool, peeling off in flakes, and rendering it very difficult to obtain a smooth section." These objections do not apply to the hornbeam in its young state. Its toughness and hardness (though the latter quality makes it difficult to work) render it excellent for all sorts of wheelwright's work, and other kinds of rural carpentry; particularly for the yokes of cattle, to which use the wood was applied (as we have already seen) by the Romans, and, since their time, in almost every country of which the tree is a native. It is particularly well adapted for mill-cogs, for which, according to Evelyn, "it excels either yew or crab." It is exceedingly strong; a piece 2 in. square, and 7 ft. 8 in. long, having supported 228 lb.; while a similar beam of ash broke under 200 lb. ; one of birch, under 190 lb.; of oak, 185 lb.; of beech, 165 lb.; and of all other woods, very much less. Notwithstanding its powers of resistance, the hornbeam has very little flexibility; it having bent, before it broke, only 10°; while the ash bent 21°, the birch 19°, the oak 12°, &c. Linnæus observes that the wood is very white and tough, harder than hawthorn, and capable of supporting great weights.

As Fuel, the wood of the hornbeam should be placed in the highest rank. In France, it is preferred to every other for apartments, as it lights easily, and makes a bright flame, which burns equally, continues a long time, and gives out abundance of heat; but, though its value in this respect surpasses that of the beech in the proportion of 1655 to 1540, yet the shape of the logs of hornbeam is so irregular, that a cord of it, measured as they measure willows (see p. 1470.), is not worth more, in Paris, in proportion to a cord of beech, than 1486 to 1540. In England, the hornbeam is considered to make lasting firewood; and, according to Boutcher, it burns as clear as a candle. (Treat., &c., p. 58.), Evelyn, also, says "it makes good firewood, where it burns like a candle; and was of old so employed: 'Carpinus tædas fissa facesque dabit.’’ And Miller speaks of it as excellent fuel. Its charcoal is highly esteemed, and, in France and Switzerland, it is preferred to most others, not only for forges and for cooking by, but for making gunpowder; the workmen at the great gunpowder manufactory at Berne rarely using any other. The inner bark, according to Linnæus, is used for dyeing yellow. The leaves, when dried in the sun, are used in France as fodder; and, when wanted for use in winter, the young branches are cut off in the middle of summer, between the first and second growth, and strewed or spread out in some place which is completely sheltered from the rain, to dry, without the tree being in the slightest degree injured by the operation. (Sec Dict. des Eaux et Forêts, art. Charme.)

For a Nurse Plant, and for Hedges, the hornbeam is particularly well adapted. The real "excellency of the hornbeam," says Marshall, "lies in its

fitness for screen fences for sheltering gardens, nurseries, and young plantations from the severities of the winter season. It may be trained to almost any height; and, by keeping it trimmed on the sides, it becomes thick of branchlets, and, consequently, of leaves; which being by their nature retained upon the plant after they wither, a hornbeam hedge occasions a degree of shelter nearly equal to that given by a brick wall." Plant, and Rur. Örn., ii. p. 52.) Boutcher also recommends it as a nurse, for its hardiness; and because he does not know "any useful timber tree that defends itself so stoutly against the winds; so that, being of quick growth, and clad in its numerous leaves all the winter, it is certainly one of the fittest plants to nurse and rear up other valuable or delicate trees." (Treat., &c., p. 58.) Hanbury says that horses and rabbits are so fond of it, that they will never bark other trees till the hornbeams are entirely destroyed. Evelyn recommends it to be planted in deer parks, as he says that deer will not touch it, and will not even rub their young horns against it.

Hornbeam Hedges. In France, a trained hornbeam hedge, or charmille, as it is called in that country, is formed in the following manner :-The ground is trenched one or two months beforehand. The plantation may be made either with plants 3 or 4 years old, or 6 or 7. The first method is the least expensive, and the most certain of success; but the latter soonest produces an effect. The plants, whether they are large or small, have their side shoots severely cut in; and they are planted in a single line, 6 in. or 8 in., or even 1 ft., apart, according to the height which it is intended the hedge should be. The plants are left to themselves for the first year. The second year, any strag gling shoots are shortened, and the vacancies are filled up, if any plants have failed. The third year, if the plants were tolerably large when put in, the hedge may be regularly clipped, or sheared; but, if they were small, the clipping should not take place till the fifth year. In general, when the hedge is wanted of a considerable height, the clipping should be postponed longer than when it is wished to be kept low. With regard to the after-treatment, M. Bosc recommends clipping the hedge only once every year, at midsummer, for the same reasons which we have already given respecting clipping the box. (See p. 1340.) A charmille, or clipped hornbeam hedge, 8 ft. or 10 ft. high, should never be less than 8 in. or 1 ft. thick; and in some cases they may be 2 ft. thick. When the hedge becomes old, it is cut in to the stem, or completely down to the ground; but the best way is to remove the plants, and trench the ground to the depth of 3 ft. or 4 ft., filling up the trench with fresh earth, before replacing them with young ones. In Westphalia, and other parts of the north of Germany, Dr. Hunter, quoting from the German author Agricola, tells us that the hornbeam is in great repute as a hedge plant :"When the German husbandman erects a fence of hornbeam, he throws up a parapet of earth, with a ditch on each side, and plants his sets (raised from layers) in such a manner as that every two plants may be brought to intersect each other in the form of a St. Andrew's cross. In that part where the two plants cross each other, he scrapes off the bark, and binds them closely together with straw. In consequence of this operation, the two plants consolidate in a sort of indissoluble knot, and push from thence horizontal slanting shoots, which form a living palisade, or chevaux de frise; so that such a protection may be called a rural fortification. These hedges, being pruned annually, and with discretion, will, in a few years, render the fence impenetrable in every part." (Hunt. Evel., i. p. 141.) Layers are recommended by Agricola in preference to seedlings, because the former are supposed not to grow so high, and to be more bushy.

In geometric Gardening, the uses made of the hornbeam appear to have been very numerous. The principal was, to form high hedges, or palisades, for dividing the garden into compartments; which compartments were afterwards diversified" into the star, the goose-foot, and walks winding variously for the greater ornament of parks, labyrinths, and groves." (Ret. Gard., ii. p. 741.) For the palisades, London and Wise direct the hornbeam plants to be

put into prepared ground, and treated as for the charmille; adding :-" That the hornbeam may grow to your liking, you must dig it four times a year, in March, May, July, and September. According as it comes up, you should keep it sheared, that it may grow in the form of an even palisade; and when it is of a good height, you make use of a hook. If the palisade runs very high, you should get a cart made on purpose; and the man who shears it gets up in it, and is drawn by one or two horses, according as the workman advances in his work." (Ibid.) A star consisted of five broad paths, with grass in the middle, and gravel on each side, cut through a wood of hornbeam, and radiating from a round grass-plot, surrounded by a ring of gravel. The wood was generally formed entirely of hornbeam; but sometimes the wood was of other trees, and only the avenues or alleys were lined by high hedges or palisades of hornbeam. The goose-foot may shortly be described as half a star; three walks or alleys, corresponding to the three large ribs in the foot of a web-footed fowl, radiating from one side of an oval or circle. "A labyrinth," says the author of the Retired Gardener, "is a place cut into several windings, set off with hornbeam, to divide them one from another. In great gardens, we often meet with them, and the most valuable are always those that wind most; as that of Versailles, the contrivance of which has been wonderfully liked by all that have seen it. The palisades of which labyrinths ought to be composed should be 10 ft., 12 ft., or 15 ft. high: some there are no higher than one can lean on, but they are not the finest. The walks of a labyrinth ought to be kept rolled, and the hornbeams in them sheared in the shape of half-moons." (Ibid., p. 743.) "Bosquets, or groves, are so called from bouquet, a nosegay; and I believe that gardeners never meant anything else by giving this term to this compartment, which is a sort of green knot, formed by the branches and leaves of trees that compose it, placed in rows opposite to each other. A grove, in this sense, is a plot of ground more or less, as you think fit, enclosed in palisades of hornbeam; the middle of it filled with tall trees, as elms or the like, the tops of which make the tuft or plume. At the foot of these elms, which should grow along the palisades at regular distances, other little wild trees should be planted; and the tuft that will by this means be found in the inside will resemble that of a copse. There are several ways of drawing out these groves; some in regular forms, the plots being answerable to one another; and some in irregular, or the meer effect of fancy." (Ibid., p. 744.) The paths in these groves were of gravel, well rolled, and kept very smooth; or of grass, well rolled, and closely shaven, "after the manner of green plots." The author of the Retired Gardener then adds: "I have named a great many sorts of compartments in which hornbeam is made use of; yet, methinks, none of them look so beautiful and magnificent as a gallery with arches." He then gives long details for executing this work; but what we have already extracted will suffice to give an idea of the use that was made of the hornbeam in geometric gardening.

Soil and Situation. The hornbeam will succeed in any soil not too warm and dry. It is naturally found on cold, hard, clayey soils, in exposed situations; but it attains its largest dimensions on plains, in loams, or clays that are not too rich. On chalk it will not thrive, in which respect it is directly the reverse of the beech.

Propagation and Culture. The seeds of the hornbeam ripen in October; and they are produced freely in England, but seldom in Scotland; the bunches, or cones, as they are called, which contain them, should be gathered by hand, when the nuts are ready to drop out; or they may be left on the tree till they drop; when, though a part of the seed will have fallen out, there will, in all probability, be enough left for future use, the tree being at present but very sparingly propagated in Europe. The nuts separate readily from their envelopes ; and, if they are sown immediately, many of them will come up the following spring, and all of them the second spring. If they are preserved in dry sand, or in their husks, and sown the following spring, they will come up a year afterwards: the usual covering is in. The plants may remain in the seed

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