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2. C. PUMILA Willd. The Dwarf Chestnut, or Chincapin. Identification. Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 461.; Michx. Amer., 2. p. 193.; Mill. Dict, No. 2.; N. Du Ham., iii. p. 79.

Synonymes. Fagus pùmila Lin. Sp. Pl., 1416., Gron. Virg., 150., Du Roy Harbk., 1. p. 275.,
Wang. Amer., 57. t. 19. f. 44, Abbott Insect., 2. p. 113. t. 57.; Castanea pumila virginiana, &c.
Pluk. Alm., 90., Cat. Car., 1. p. 9. t. 9., Du Ham. Arb., S.; Châtaigner Chincapin, Fr. ; zwerch
Kastanie, or Castanje, Ger.

Engravings. Wang. Amer., 57. t. 19. f. 44.; Abb. Ins., 2. t. 57.; Cat. Car., 1. t. 9.; Pluk. Alm,
90. t. 156. f. 2.; Michx. N. Amer. Syl., 3. t. 105.; our fig. 1927. from Michaux; and fig. 1928.
from the tree in the Horticultural Society's Garden.

Spec. Char., &c. Leaves oblong, acute, mucronately serrated; covered with white tomentum beneath. (Willd.) A shrub, 7 ft. or 8 ft. high, but sometimes attaining the size of a tree 30 ft. or 40 ft. high. It is a native of North America, where it forms a shrub rarely exceeding the height of 7 ft. or 8 ft. in New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland; though in South Carolina, Georgia, and Lower Louisiana, it is sometimes 30 ft. or 40 ft. high, with a trunk from 12 in. to 15 in. in diameter. The leaves are 3 in. or 4 in. long, sharply toothed, and similar in form to those of the C. v. americana; from which they are distinguished by their inferior size, and the whiteness of their under surface. The fructification also resembles that



of C. v. americana in form and arrangement; but the flowers and fruit are only about half as large, and the nut is convex on both sides. (Michaux.) The chincapin is bounded to the northward, in America, Michaux adds, by the eastern shore of the river Delaware, on which it is found to the distance of 100 miles from

Cape May. It is more common in Maryland, and still more so in the lower part of Virginia, in the Carolinas, Georgia, the Floridas, and Louisiana, as far as the river Arkansas. In West Tennessee, it is frequent in the prairies enclosed in the forests; and it abounds throughout the southern states, wherever the common American chestnut is wanting. The wood, Michaux informs us, is more compact, heavier, and finer-grained, than that of the American chestnut; and, as posts, it will last in

the earth more than 40 years. The saplings, however, become loaded "with branches while they are no thicker than the finger, and are thus rendered too knotty for hoops." The fruit, which is about the size of the wild hazel, is brought to market in America, and is eaten raw by children. The tree requires a cool and fertile soil, with a mild climate; as, even in the south of the United States, it becomes stunted when it grows in arid land, and does not exceed the height of 6 ft. or 7 ft.; it is, however, one of the most common shrubs in the southern states of North America, as it



springs up spontaneously wherever the ground is not covered with water. It was one of the earliest-imported American plants, having been introduced by the Duchess of Beaufort in 1699. In British nurseries, this species is propagated by inarching on the common chestnut, or by layers. There are handsome small bushes of it in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and at Messrs. Loddiges's; and it is occasionally met with in collections. Seeds are also sometimes imported.

App. i. Species of Castanea not yet introduced into European Gardens.

Several species of chestnuts have been discovered in Nepal and Java; some of which were, at first, supposed to belong to the genus Quércus, but which have been separated from that genus, and referred to Castanea, by Dr. Lindley; and others, which have been described and figured by Blume, in his splendid work on the plants of Java. Dr. Lindley has given a synoptical list of the Indian Castaneæ in Dr. Wallich's Pl. As. Rar., in which he enu

[graphic][graphic][merged small][subsumed]

with a thick trunk; a native of mountains in the west of Java. The wood is used for beams and the axletrees of waggons; and the acorns are eaten when boiled or roasted. (Blume.)

C. Tungurrut Blume Bidr., Fl. Jav., t. 22., and our fig. 1930., has the leaves elliptic-oblong, acute, and ash-coloured beneath. The veins and catkins are downy. It is an immense tree, 150 ft. high and is found in the province of Bantam, at an elevation of from 4000 ft. to 6000 ft. above the level of the sea. The natives call it Tungurrut, or Tungerreh. (Blume Fl. Jav.)

C. javánica Blume Fl. Jav., t. 23, 24, and our fig. 1932, has the leaves falcate, oblong-lanceolate, sharp at both ends, glabrous, ochreous beneath; the younger ones streaked underneath with dark yellow. A lofty tree, attaining the height of 120 ft., with a trunk 7 ft. in girt. Common in the woods of the volcanic mountain of Gedé. Blume mentions two varieties: C. j. montana, C. montana Blume Bjdr., 10. p. 526.; and C. j. fucéscens. (Blume.)

C. inermis Lindl. in Wall. Pl. As. Rar. is a native of Singapore.

C. chinensis Spreng. is mentioned in our Hortus Britannicus.


CA'RPINUS L. THE HORNBEAM. Lin. Syst. Mono'cia Polyándria. Identification. Lin. Gen., 497.; Juss., 409.; Fl. Br., 1029.; Tourn., t. 348.; Lam., t. 780.; Gærtn., t. 89.; Willd. Sp. PL., 4. p. 467.; N. Du Ham., 2. p. 197.

Synonymes. Charme, Fr.; Haynbuche, or Hainbuche, Ger.

Derivation. According to some, from car, wood, and pix, the head, Celtic; from the wood being used to make the yokes of oxen: and, according to others, from the Romans using the wood for making a sort of chariot, which they called carpentum, and which the Swedes still call karm. The French name, Charme, is evidently from the same origin. The English name of Hornbeam alludes to the horny texture of the wood; and the German one of Hainbuche, to the use of the wood for making groves in the geometric style of gardening.

Description, &c. Deciduous trees, mostly of the middle size; natives of Europe, Asia, and America; little valued either for their timber or ornamental effect; but one species valuable as a garden hedge plant.

1. C. BE'TULUS L. The Birch, or common, Hornbeam.

Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 1416.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 467.; Fl. Br., 1029.; Eng. Bot., t. 2032.; Hook. Scot., 274.; Fl. Dan., t. 1345.; N. Du Ham., 2. p. 198.; Eng. Fl., 4. p. 156.; Hook. Br. Fl., p. 405.; Mackay FL. Hibern., p. 256.; Lindl. Synop., p. 240.

Synonymes. Carpinus Matth. Valgr, 1. p. 131., Cam. Epit., 71., Dod. Pempt., 841., Hall. Hist., 2. p. 298. No. 1627.; O'strya Bauh. Pin., 427., Raii Syn., 451.; O'rnus Trag. Hist., 1109.; Fagus Bauh. Hist., 1. p. 2. 146. f.; Bétulus Lob. Ic., 2. 190. f.

Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 2032.; Fl. Dan., t. 1345.; Lob. Ic., 2. p. 190., f.; N. Du Ham., 2. t. 58.; and the plates of this tree in our last Volume.

Spec. Char., &c. Bracteas of the fruit flat, oblong, serrated, with two lateral lobes. (Smith.) A deciduous tree, a native of Britain, and of various parts of Europe, in magnitude and general character resembling the common beech.



C. B. 2 incisa Lodd. Cat., 1836; C. v. quercifòlia Desf.; C. v. heterophylla Hort.; has the leaves deeply cut. There are plants in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges; one at Cheshunt, 6 years planted, and 17 ft. high; and one at Kinfauns Castle, 15 ft. high, with a trunk 24 in. in diameter. C. B. 3 variegata Lodd. Cat., 1836, has the leaves variegated.

Description, &c. The hornbeam, according to Sir J. E. Smith, is generally rigid tree of humble growth;" but one which "when standing by itself, and allowed to take its natural form, will make a much handsomer tree than most people are aware of." (Eng. Fl., iv. p. 156.) Miller says that, when growing under favourable circumstances, it will attain the height of 60 ft. or 70 ft., with a tolerably straight trunk, and bushy head, particularly on cold stiff clay; but it is very seldom allowed to become a timber tree. Being ex


tremely patient of the knife, and forming excellent hedges, it is generally cut in when young; so that the few old trunks yet remaining in the country, of any size, are pollards. The trunk is generally flattened or irregular in its shape, being very rarely, if ever, round; and it seldom measures more than from 6 ft.


to 9 ft. in circumference, even in the largest trees; it is also generally much thicker at the base than at 1 ft. or 2 ft. from the ground. The head is large, tufted, and consists of a confused mass of branches, among which it is almost impossible to trace the leader. The leaves somewhat resemble those of the elm, but are smoother: they are doubly serrated, pointed, plaited when young, and have numerous parallel, transverse, hairy ribs; their colour is a darkish green, changing to a russet brown in autumn; and they remain on the tree, like those of the beech, till spring. The buds are rather long and pointed. The flowers appear at the same time as the leaves. The male catkins are loose, scaly, of a yellowish colour, and about 2 in. or 3 in. long; the female catkins are much smaller, and, when young, are covered with close brownish scales, which gradually increase, and form "unequally 3-lobed, sharply serrated, veiny, dry, pale green bracteas, each enveloping an angular nut, scarcely bigger than a grain of barley." (Smith.) These nuts ripen in October, and fall with the capsules. The branches of the hornbeam, says Marshall, "are long, flexible, and crooked; yet in their general appearance they very much resemble those of the beech: indeed, there is so great a likeness between these two trees, especially in the shrubby underwood state, that it would be difficult to distinguish them at a first glance, were it not for that glossy varnish with which the leaves of the beech are strongly marked." (Plant. and Rur. Orn., vol. ii. p. 51.) The wood is very tough and horny, and the bark smooth and whitish, or light grey spotted with white; and on old trees it is generally

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