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1973 mens, bears a strong resemblance to a well-grown pine-apple; A. bombycinus Schæff, t. 98., is also found on the beech, though this species is most frequent, in England, on the ash; Dædàlea gibbosa Pers., syn. Bolètus sinuòsus šow., t. 194., and our fig. 1886.; D. latíssima Fr., syn. Bolètus resupinatus Sow., t. 424.; Polyporus brumalis Fr., Helvélla píleus Schæf, t. 281., and our fig. 1887.; P. gigantéus Fr., syn. Bo

lètus imbricatus Sow., t. 86., and our fig. 1888., forming masses 2 ft. or 3 ft., or more, across, at the base of the trunks; P. cristàtus Fr.; P. spùmeus Fr., syn. Bolètus spùmeus Sow., t. 211.,

and P. conchàtus Pr. (which last,
though found on the beech, is more
common on the sallow). Hýdnum
corallöides Scop., Sow., t. 252., and

our fig. 1889., is one of the most
1887

beautiful of Fúngi, resembling, according to some authors, a cauliflower : like Hýdnum Erinaceus, it is esculent. Phlèbia merismöides Fr., Grev., t. 280.; Peziza repanda Wahl., Grev., t. 59.; P. melástoma Sow., t. 149., syn. P. àtro-rùfa Grev., t. 315., and our fig. 1890.; P. anómala Pers., P. rugosa Sow., t. 369.; P.

aurèlia Pers., Grev., t. 139., and P. æruginosa Pers.
Grev., t. 241., syn. Helvella æruginosa Sow., t. 347.
and our fig. 1901. “ The wood
on which it grows is almost al-
ways stained with the same
green colour as the fungus."
(Sow., 1. c.) Cryptómyces versi-
color Berk., syn. Stíctis versi-
color Fr. ; Sclerotium truncòrum
Tode, forming a nidus to Ag. tuberosus; Sphæ'ria

fragifórmis Pers., syn. Stromatosphæ'ria Grev., t. 136., Lycoperdon variolòsum Sow., t. 271., and our fig. 1902.; S. cohæ'rens Pers.; S. rùfa Pers., S. deústa Hoffm., syn. Stromatosphæ'ria deústa Grev.,

t. 324., and our fig. 1903.; S. máxima
Sow., t. 338; S. disciformis Hoffm., syn.
Stromatosphæ'ria disciformis Grev., t.
314., and our fig. 1894.; S. depressa
Sow., t. 216.; S, áspera Fr.; S. angulàta
Fr.; S, túrgida Pers.; S. quaternáta
Pers.; S. gyrosa Schwein., syn. s. fùens 1892

Sow., t. 423.; S. melogramma Pers.; S. trístis Tode; S. Peziza Tode, Grev., t. 186., and our fig. 1895.; Peziza hydrophora Sow., t. 23.; Hysterium rugosum Fr., syn. Opégrapha epiphèga E. B. t. 2282., and our fig. 1897.; Reticulària máxima Fr., syn. Lycop. echiniformis Sow., t. 400, f. i. The sporidia, when

subjected to considerable heat by Dr.
Wollaston, produced a phosphoric glass.
(Eng. Fl., vol. v. pt. 2. p. 308.) Stšlbum
turbinatum Tode, S. vulgàre Tode, and
our fig. 1896.; Corýneum macrospò-
rium Berk.; Næmáspora cròcea Pers.;

Stilbóspora asterospérma Pers.
The Fúngi on the Leaves of the Beech are: Agaricus ca-
pillàris Schum.; A. setòsus Sow., t. 302.; Peziza epiphylla
Pers.; Sphæ'ria artócreas Tode; Cratèrium leucocephalum
Ditm., Grev., t. 65., and our fig. 1898.

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1890

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The Fungi growing on Beech Mast are: Agaricus balaninus Berk.; Peziza fructígena Bull., Sow., t. 117. and our

fig. 1900.; Sphæ'ria carpophila Pers.:
esto es and, of those found attached to the

root, Mr. Berkeley only mentions Ela-
phomyces muricatus, syn. Lycoperdon

1896
Tuber L.

hege The most remarkable Fúngi growing beneath the Beech Tree, or among its fallen leaves, in British woods, are: Geoglossum víride Fr., Grev., t. 211., and our fig. 1899.; A'nthina flammea Fr., found abundantly in Rockingham and Sherwood

Forests, in 1836; Morchella esculenta
Pers., Grev., t. 68., syn. Helvélla escu-
lenta Sow., t. 51., in part, and our fig.

1902.; and Tùber cibàrium Sibth., Sow.
1898

t. 309., and our fig. 1901. Of these the
last two are celebrated luxuries for the table. Morchélla escu-
lénta Pers., the common morel, is a mushroom-like fungus, grow-
ing in great abundance in the woods of Germany and France,
particularly after any of the trees have been burned down. This

having been observed, led, in Germany, to the burning of the woods, in order to produce morels; and, consequently, great numbers of trees were destroyed, till the practice was forbidden by law. This fungus is much

used, also, in a dried state, for giving a flavour
to made dishes; and, in the countries where it
abounds, many persons gain their livelihood by
finding and drying the morels, which they do
by running a thread through their stalks, and
hanging them in an airy place. In England,
morels are comparatively rare; but Mr. Berke-

ley informs us that he has known them to be
1899 so abundant in Kent, as to be used for making

1909 a sort of catsup. There are many variations of form and size observable in this fungus; but M. esculenta Pers. (fig. 1902.) and M. pátula (fig. 1903.) are generally considered the best. When young and fresh, the morels are of a greyish brown, and have an agree

1902 able smell; but, when old, they become nearly black, and lose their fragrance. In the latter state they are not fit for the ta

ble; because the cup is generally found much perforated, and full of the larvae and eggs of insects. When dry, morels will keep good, and retain their flavour, for many years. The morel is always found in the spring, and is thus easily distinguished from the helvella, which is often used as a substitute for it, but which is generally found in autumn. Helvélla esculenta (our fig. 1904.) has a good flavour, but is far inferior to the genuine morel : it is, however, often confounded with it in Sweden, under the name of stenmurkla, and, in Germany, under those of gemeine morchel, stumpf morchel, and stock morchel. (See Dict. Class., &c., and Nouv. Cours d'Agri., art. Morille.) Tùber cibàrium (fig. 1901.), the common truffle, is, if possible, even more highly prized in cookery than the morel : it is also more difficult to find, as, instead of appearing above the surface, like a mushroom, it is buried in the ground, like a potato. It is black, covered with tubercles, and possesses a very strong but agreeable smell. When ripe, its flesh is brown, veined with white. It is generally found by dogs or pigs, trained to search

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for it; but, in those countries where truffles abound, in the
month of October (which is their season for ripening), all the
inhabitants repair to the woods, slightly stirring, or rather
scratching, the ground in those places which experience points
out to them as the most likely to contain the tubers. The high
price of, and constant demand for, truffles, both in France and
other countries, render this a very lucrative employment; and
experienced hunters are rarely deceived in the places where
they make their search. Nees von Esenbeck relates an instance
of a poor crippled boy who could detect truffles with a cer.
tainty superior even to that of the best dogs, and so earned a
livelihood. (Eng. Fl., vol. v. p. 288.) Truffles are generally
found, in France, in light dry soils, and particularly in forests on mountains.
They are most abundant in the vicinity of Grenoble, Avignon, Périgueux, and
Angoulême ; and on the mountains of Vivarais, Cevennes,
and Jura. In England, they are tolerably abundant in
beech woods on light soil ; but they are very rare in Scot-
land. The truffles of commerce are generally those of
Angoulême and Périgueux. The signs which are con-
sidered, in France, to indicate the habitats of truffles
are : 1. The absence of plants on the surface of the
ground; the quantity of nourishment required by the truffle generally famish-
ing their roots. 2. The cracking and undulations of the surface of the soil,
which appears as though it had been slightly raised by moles, or some
other animal under ground, in little hillocks, which are generally very small,
being seldom larger than a common hen's egg; where they are much raised,
the truffle is generally found only 2 in. or 3 in. below the surface. 3. The
appearance of numerous columns of small flies, which are attracted by the
smell of the truffle, and seek it in order to deposit their eggs. Pigs are
so fond of truffles, whenever they have once tasted them, that, when they find
them, though they are muzzled, they keep rooting up the earth with their
snouts, and are quite insensible to the calls of their masters, to whom they are
perfectly obedient at all other times. Many persons have attempted to pro-
pagate truffles artificially; and Bulliard and Baril have, to a certain extent,
succeeded, but not sufficiently to make the culture of the root become
general. The mode of propagation employed was, taking the earth up in
places where truffles were generally found, in the month of May, when the
first traces of them were discoverable; and, after placing this earth in a
garden, covering it with decayed beech leaves, which were shaded and kept
moist, in order to imitate the temperature of the natural habitat of the tuber.
In this manner truffles were produced, but neither in greater abundance, nor
of better quality, than in their native woods; and the trouble and expense of
rearing them was considerable. Other methods have been tried in Germany,
as noticed in Bornholz's Trüfflebau, &c. (see Gard. Mag., vol. ii.

p. 480.); and the culture has even been undertaken in England, though without success. (See Gard. Mag., vol. iii. p. 102.) Truffles are often preyed upon by a species of Leiòdes. They are very difficult to keep, and they are seldom good more than ten days or a fortnight. The best way of keeping them entire is, to leave them in the earth in which they are found till they are wanted for the table, or to bury them in sand immediately on taking them out of the ground; by which last method it is said to be possible to keep them two or three months. The most general way of keeping them is, however, to cut them into very thin slices, and either to dry them in an oven, or fry them in oil, and then preserve them in waxed paper or glass bottles. Truffles are never eaten raw: when fresh, they are cooked like mushrooms; or capons or turkeys are stuffed with them : but they are principally used dry for flavouring ragoûts, and other made dishes. It is said that a spirituous liquor may be extracted from them. (See Nouv. Cours d'Agri., art. Truffle noire ; Fischer's Anleit. zur Trüfflejagd, &c.; Bornholz Der Trüfflebau, &c.; Bulliard's Hist. des Champ. de

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France ; Roque's Hist. des Champ. ; &c.) Rhizopogon álbus Fr., Berk. Eng. Fl., v. part 1l. p. 229. syn. Tùber álbum Bull., t. 404., Sow., t. 310., and our fig. 1815.; T. álbidum Cæsalp.; Lycoperdon gibbosum Dicks. Crypt., ii. p. 26.; Truffle blanche, Fr.; the White Truffle; is also eaten. It is rare both in France and England; but is sometimes found, in both countries, in sandy woods, and is common in

1905 Germany. It has occurred in the Botanic Garden at Glasgow.

The price of morels, dry, in Covent Garden markel, varies from 16s. a pound to 20s.; and in Paris the fresh morels are from 50 to 60 cents the pottle. Truffles, when dry, are about 14s. a pound in Covent Garden market ; and fresh English truffles are from 3s. 6d. to 5s. 'a pound. Fresh truffles vary in Paris, according to their quality, from 50 cents to 3 francs per pound.

Lichens. We are informed by W. Borrer, Esq., tht the only lichens known to him, as peculiar to the beech, are, Opégrapha venosa and Parmelia speciosa. 0. venosa Eng. Bot., t. 2454., and our fig. 1816., is found on the trunks of beech trees in the New Forest, Hampshire. Sir J. E. Smith describes the ramifications of this lichen as being “deeply sunk into the crust, but convex above, and intensely black, with ob

1906 tuse terminations.” (See Eng. Fl., v. pl. 1. p. 148.) » The name of Opégrapha alludes to the supposed resemblance of the lichens which compose this genus to Hebrew characters inscribed on the wood. P. speciosa Ach. Syn., p. 221., Lichen speciosus Wulf. Eng. Bot., 1979., the elegant garland parmelia, is usually found on rocks; but Mr. Borrer informs us that it is also found on the beech. “ The fructification of this lichen has not been found in Great Britain; but it is described from specimens gathered in North America.” (Eng. Fl., v. pl. 1. p. 202.) Dr. Taylor, however, finds it “not very rare near Dunkerron, county of Kerry." (Fl. Hib., pt. ii. p. 149.); and a single specimen has occurred in St. Leonard's Forest, Sussex.

Statistics. Recorded Trees, The Great Beech, in Windsor Forest, of which an engraving is given by Strutt in his Sylva Britannica, and of which our fig. 1907. is a copy, reduced to a scale of 1 in. to 50 ft., is evidently of very great antiquity. It is supposed to have existed before the Norman Conquest; and it is mentioned by Cambden as "standing on a high hill (Sunning Hill), and overlooking a vale lying out far and wide; garnished with corn fields, flourishing

with meadows, decked with groves on either side, and watered with the Thames.” According to Jesse, the trunk of this tree measures, at 6 ft. froin the ground, 36 ft. round. “ It is now," he says, “protected from injury, and Nature seems to be doing her best to wards repairing the damage which its exposure to the attacks of man and beast had produced. It must once have been almost hollow but the vacuity (as shown in fig. 1908.), has now been nearly filled up. One might almost fancy that liquid wood, which had afterwards hardened, bad been poured into the tree. The twistings and distortions of this huge substance have a curious and striking effect; and one might almost imagine them to have been produced by a convulsive throe of nature. (See fig. 1907. in p. 1977., on a larger scale, copied from Jesse's Gleanings.)" There is no bark on this.extraneous substance; but the surface is smooth, hard, and without any appearance of decay." (Jesse's Gleanings in Nat. Hist., 2d, s, p. 112.) A beech at Bicton, in Devonshire, blown down in 1806, had a trunk which measured 29 ft. in circumference, and a head which was 103 t. in diameter, The Burnham Beeches stand in a tract of woodland above 4 miles from Stoke Pogis, in Buckinghamshire, which is celebrated as the scene of Gray's poetic musings. “ Both vale and hill," says Gray, " are covered with most venerable beeches ; " and in his Elegy he particularly mentions "the nodding beech, that wreathes its old fantastic roots so high." In Scotland, a very large beech stood at Nex. battle Abbey, in Mid-Lothian. It was measured by Dr. Walker, in 1789 ; when the trunk was found to be 17 ft. in circumference, and the diameter of the head 89 At. It contained upwards of 1000 ft.

It was blown down by a gale of wind about 1809. Dr. Walker thinks it must have been planted between 1540 and 1560. A beech tree at Preston Hall, Mid-Lothian, at 1 1, from the ground, measured 17 A. 3 in. in circumference; and at 4 ft., 14 ft. 6 in. A beech at Taymouth, seemingly coeval with that at Newbattle Abbey, was blown down when its trunk was above 16 ft.

A number of other fine beech trees, which existed in Scotland in the time of Dr. Walker, are noticed in his Essays on Natural History, to which Mr. Sang and Sir T. Dick Lauder have added several other remarkable examples. In Ireland, there are a number of large beech trees, the dimensions of which have been recorded by Hayes. At Shelton Abbey, near Arklow, there are 7 beech trees, the trunks of which measure from 13 it. 9 in. to 15 ft. in circumference; and there are upwards

1907

of timber

round.

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