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ever, (Mod. Trav.: Palestine.) who has collected the opinions of all these authors, doubts the correctness of all of them; observing, “ If it be anything more than a fable, it must have been a production peculiar to that part of Palestine, or it would not have excited such general attention. It is possible that what they (Tacitus and Josephus) describe may have originated, like the oak galls in this country, in the work of some insect.” A. B. Lambert, Esq., having received some of these far-famed apples (“ Mala insana") from the mountains east of the Dead Sea, whence they had been brought by the Hon. Robert Curzon, read an account of them before the Linnean Society, proving them to be galls of a species of oak containing an insect. No description is given by Mr. Lambert of the insect; but Mr. Westwood, who furnished this article, states that it belongs to the family Cynipidæ, and is infested parasitically by a species of the family Ichneumonida. Mr. Lambert, by some accident, was led into the supposition that the Dead Sea apples are identical with the galls of commerce (Linn. Trans., xvii. p. 446.); but this is not the case. Olivier, in speaking of this insect, and the gall produced by it, says that both differ from those of the tauzin oak (Q. pyrenaica: see fig. 1697. p. 1842.); and that 1825 the insect (fig. 1825.) has a body of brown and fawn-colour mixed, with the antennæ blackish. (Trav., Eng. ed. 2., p. 43.)
l. Libani Oliv., t. 49. f. 2., N. Du Ham., 7. p. 167. t. 49. f. 2., and our fig. 1826., has the leaves on petioles, oblong, smooth, shining, and den.
1826 tated, with mucros at the points of the teeth. The acorns are of a roundish oval, a little hollow at the summit. The scales of the calyx are placed close together, and scarcely imbricate. The branches are of a reddish brown, and perfectly glabrous. This oak, which bears some resemblance in its leaves to those of the chestnut, was discovered on Mount Lebanon by Olivier, who sent home specimens of it to Desfontaines. The leaves are perfectly glabrous on both sides, shining, and of a lively green above; and the teeth are distinctly marked by a sharp and conspicuous mucro. The acorns are sessile, or on very short peduncles; the nut is large, depressed, rather hollow at the summit, and enveloped for more than half its length in a cup, the scales of which are rather soldered together side by side, than imbricated : the centre of each only is a little prominent, like those of the cones of some kinds of pine. (N. Du Ham.) It does not appear that living plants of this species have ever been brought to Europe. The figure in the Nouveau Du Hamel, of which ours is a reduced copy, was taken from a dried specimen in the herbarium of Desfontaines. From the appearance of the cup, this would seem a very distinct species.
Q. rigida Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 434., N. Du Ham., 7. p. 161., Rees's Cycl, No. 36. ; ? I'lex aculeata, &c., Tourn. Cor., 40. Leaves oblong, undivided, with spinous serratures, smooth ; glaucous beneath; heart-shaped at the base. Footstalks bearded at the summit. Scales of the calyx rigid, spreading. (Willd.) A native of the coast of Caramania, in Asiatic Turkey. The branches are pale brown, dotted. The leaves are oblong, 1 in. or more in length, rigid, with spiny serratures; deep green and shining above; glaucous beneath ; heart-shaped at the base. Footstalks very short, smooth, but furnished on each side with a line of brownish hairs, which is carried on up the midrib of the leaf. The acorn is sessile; and the calyx is beset with rigid, woody, lanceolate, spreading scales.
Q. ibérica Stev. in Mém. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc., 4. p. 70. M. a., Bieb. Fl. Taur.-Cauc., 2. p. 402. No. 1913., 3. p. 620. Leaves ovate-oblong, downy beneath, sinuated; lobes short, blunt, somewhat serrated ; serratures blunt. Fruit almost sessile. Scales of the cup mucronate. (Eichwald Planta Caspico-Caucasice, 2 p. 40. t. 38.) A native of Georgia and Imiretir. Bark smooth, not corky, greyish. Petioles 2-4 lines long, somewhat downy or glabrous, semicylindrical. Leaves from 1 in. to 1} in. long, and from 2 in. to 3 in. broad; obovate-oblong, acute; truncated at the base, somewhat arrow-shaped; glabrous above; densely covered with white tomentum beneath ; sinuated ; lobes short, somewhat ovate, obtuse, or rather acute, somewhat serrated ; serratures blunt. Male flowers disposed in aggregate catkins, 2—5 springing from one bud; lateral, slender, interrupted. Rachis thread-like, pubescent. Perianth deeply 5-6-cleft; the divisions linear, ciliated. Stamnens 5—10. Female flowers unknown. (Ibid., 2. p. 41.)
Q. castaneæfolia C. A. Meyer. Bark smooth. Leaves on footstalks, oblong-lanceolate; hairy beneath; thickly serrated ; serratures somewhat mucronate. Cups sessile, solitary, hemispherical. Scales linear-lanceolate, thickly imbricated the contrary way. Nut oblong.cylindrical. A tree, a native of Mazanderan, near the town of Balfrush. A very distinct and beautiful species. Bark of the branches and twigs membranaceous (never corky), yellow, warted. Petioles in. to 1 in. long, slender, somewhat glabrous; flat above, convex beneath. Smaller leaves 24 in. long, and 9 to 10 lines broad; larger ones 4 in. to 4 in. long, and 14 in. to 14 in. broad; all of them oblong-lanceolate, round, and frequently unequal, at the base, more or less pointed, thickly
serrated; serratures blunt, pointed with small mucros (scarcely | a line long); shining above, rarely covered with stellate down; hairy beneath from minute stellate down, ash-coloured; veins parallel, prominent, having long hairs at their axils. Male flowers not seen. Cups lateral or terminal, sessile, hemispherical, 8 to 10 lines in diameter ; clothed in the inside with copious, soft, simple hairs; externally, with numerous, downy, linear-lanceolate scales, about 3 lines long; and, towards the base, 1 line broad, all of them more or less pointed, rigid, imbricated the contrary way. Nut 14 in. long, cylindrical, 3 or 4 times as long as the cup; thickish at the base, blunt at the apex; mucronale, smooth, reddish brown. (Eickuald Planta Caspico-Caucasice, 1. p. 9. t. 1. ; and our fig. 1827.)
Q. mongólica Fisch. A rare species, indigenous to the banks of the Argun in Tartary, and apparently of diminutive growth. There have been plants since 1835 in the Flötbeck Nurseries, which appear perfectly hardy. (Booth.) We trust that in 1838, or even before, this species will be introduced into England.
App. v. Himalayan Oaks not yet introduced. It is observed by Dr. Royle, that the Himalayan oaks vary much in appearance, and that, in all probability, the number of kinds at present enumerated as species will hereafter undergo "some reduction It has also been suggested to us by Professor Don, that several of the Nepal and Japan oaks described by authors under
different names are probably the same. Q. spicàta Smith in Rees's Cycl., No. 12., D. Don in Prod. FL Nep., p. 56., Wallich Pl. As. Rar.
Catkins long and slender, erect, axillary, solitary, in terminal fascicles. Fruit in fascicles, upon a very long spike. Nut roundish, smooth, terminated by a point. Cups very small, lamellar. (Wallich.
t. 46., and our fig. 1828.; Q. squamata Roz. Hort. Beng., p. 68.; Q. A'rculo Ham. MSS. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, quite entire, very sharply pointed ; acute at the base; sometimes obtuse, smooth. “This is one of the largest, as well as the commonest, sorts of oak in Nepal, where it attains the most gigantic size. The wood is exceedingly like the English oak in colour, and, most probably, equals it in other respects; but the mountaineers do not esteem it much, owing, as they say, to its speedy decay; a circunstance owing, no doubt, to their employing it in its green state. A similar prejudice prevails in that country against the other species. I ain unable to distinguish it,” Dr. Wallich adds, * from Dr. Roxburgh's Q. squamata, which is a native of the mountains vordering on the district of Silhet. It flowers in April and May, and the fruit is ripe in October.” (Wall.) “Female flowers on a separate tree (probably accidentally), crowded 3 together in sessile groups along the spikes. Acoms eatable, but not very good; the size and shape of a large filbert, even-pointed, dark brown; their cups short, scaly.” (Smith in Rees's Cycl.)
Q. obtusifolia D. Don Prod. Fl." Nep., p. 56. Leaves heart-shaped, oblong, quite entire ; tomentose beneath, rounded at the apex. Cups urceolate, campanulate, nearly sessile, extremely scaly, lomentose. Nuts globose, blunt. A tree, a native of Nepal.
2. grandifolia D. Don, Lamb. Gen. Pin., 2. t. 8., and our fig. 1829. The Magnolia-leaved Oak.
Branchlets round, glabrous. Leaves obovate-oblong or elliptic, quite entire, almost sessile; naked and shining on both sides ; auriculate at the base. Fruit terminal, in clusters. Cups sessile, rugged. Nuts roundish, having small mucrones. (D. Don.) A native of the woods of Nepal, where it was discovered by the collectors sent out by Dr. Wallich. A large tree, Leaves from 9 in. to 1 ft. 6 in, long, and from 4 in, to 6 in. broad above the middle ; its fine green foliage (vying, in this respect, with the American magnolias), and sessile glomerated fruit, distinguish it from every other known species. (Lamb. Gen. Pin., t. 8.)
Q. velutina Lindl. in Wall. Pl. As. Rar., t. 150., and our fig. 1830. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, ser. rated, glabrous, shining; of the same colour on both sides ; quite entire and wedge-shaped at the base; petioled; veins disappearing in the mar, gin; veinlets inconspicuous. Cups solitary, on short peduncles, somewhat top-shaped, velvety; composed of scales forming closely imbricated concentric layers, which surround the nut. Nut velvety, having 6 styles, depressed, bossed, a little longer than the nut. Branches covered with small glands. (Lindl. MSS.) A native of Tavoy, on the shore of Tenasserim; and bearing fruit in October. Branches slender, cylindrical, densely marked with innumerable callous dots ; yellow, shining, and glabrous. Buds small, roundish, villous. Jeaves about 4 in. long, approximate towards the point of the branchlets. Inflorescence not seen. Fruit axillary, solitary, almost sessile. (Wall. Pl. As. Rar., t. 150.)
Q. lamellòsa Smith in Rees's Cycl., No. 23., Wall. Pl. As. Rar., t. 149., and our fig. 1831.; Q. imbricàta Ham. MSS., D. Don Prod. Fl. Nep., p. 57.
1830 Leaves elliptic or ovate, serrated, flat, glabrous, acute, on long footstalks; ohtuse at the base; glaucous beneath; the veins continued to the sera ratures; veinlets raised. Cups solitary, sessile, depressed, downy; composed of scales forming loosely imbricated, undulated, concentric layers, which surround the nut. Nut tomentose, bossed, depressed, shorter than the cup. (Lindl. MSS.) A native of the mountains of Nepal; ripening its
fruit towards the end of the year. The following are Dr. Wallich's observations on this species : _“ This noble oak has been so well described by Sir J. E. Smith in Rees's Cyclopædia, that I have very little to add in this place. The young branches are thick, cylindric, and glaucous. Buds terminal, fascicled, or axillary and solitary; ovate, obtuse, with many rounded, villous, and silky scales. Leaves very handsome, of a firm and leathery texture, sometimes Ift.long, and as much as 5 in, broad; smooth and glossy above; more or less mealy, sometimes nearly white, underneath. The fruit is remarkably large, being as much as 2 in. in diameter." (Wall. Plan. As. Rar., t. 149.) Smith mentions that it was discovered by Dr. Buchanan (Hamilton) in the remote woods of Nepal, bearing fruit, in December, 1802
Q. semicarpifolia Smith in Rees's Cycl., No. 20., Wall, Pl. As. Rar., t. 174; and our fig. 1832. ; Cassina Ham. MSS., D. Don Prod. Fl. Nep. Leaves ovate-oblong, blunt, undivided, entire, undulated, retuse at the base; covered with starry down beneath; the nerves and the midrib very prominent. Fruit
1831 axillary, terminal, solitary or in pairs, almost sessile. Nut ovate, bossed, smooth. Cup scaly, imbricated, half the length of the nut. (Wallich.) A native of Nepal, flowering in April, and producing its fruit in September. This tree, Dr. Wallich observes, "inhabits the summit of lofty mountains, constituting, together with the common Nepal rhodo dendron, the chief forests of the country, and attaining a gigantic size. It measures frequently from 80 ft. to 100 ft. in height, with a girt of the trunk, at 6 ft. above the ground, of 14 ft. to 18 ft. I have met with individuals of far greater dimensions on the summit of Sheopur. The wood is much esteemed by the natives, who employ it for various purposes of building, and for making bedsteads. The acorns are axillary and terminal, mostly solitary, though sometimes geminate, oval, shining brown, smooth, about 1 in. long, termi. nated by a short columnar style, and supported by hemispherical cups, about half their size; each having a sharp and entire circular orifice, with the outer surface densely tomentose, and covered with numerous, small, lanceolate, acute, imbricate scales. All the young parts, as well as the male inflorescence, the under surface of the leaves, and the cup, are covered with a copious, stellate, loosely attached tomentum. The leaves, in young trees, are more or less spinous-dentate." (Wall. Plan. As. Rar., t. 174.) This oak would be a most desirable species to introduce, as it appears from Dr. Royle's Illustrations of the Botany of the Himalayas, to be much hardier than Q. lanàta. (See p. 1921.) He adds that Q. semicarpifdlia generally forms the forests at their highest limits, at from 10,000 ft. to 12,000 ft. of elevation : it is found higher than any of the pines. At about 10,000 ft. on the mountain of Kedarkanta, the encampment was formed in "an open glade, surrounded with magnificent trees of Ábies (Picea) Webbidna, and
1832 Quercus semicarpifdlia ; among which Rho. dodendron campanulatum formed a large straggling shrub, in full flower, even in the midst of the melting snow.” (Ilust., p. 22.) Dr. Royle also mentions that the inhabitants of the mountains stack the leaves of Grèwia, Ulmus, and Quércus, as a winter food for cattle (p. 19.); and that he found a new Quercus in the valleys of the mountains, at an elevation of about 12,000 ft. Oaks of Japan, Cochin-China, and China, which have
not yet been introduced. Q. glabra Thunb. Jap., 175., Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 427., N. Du Ham., 7. p: 152., has the leaves oblong-lanceolate, glabrous, acuminate, narrowed at the base, and yellowish beneath. A tree, a native of Japan, with rugged, knotty, slightly.spreading branches, generally growing two or three together ; with alternate leaves, entire on the margin, and feather-nerved; glabrous on both sides; shining Q. chinensis Bunge Mém. Acad. Scien. Petersb., 2. p. 135. Leaves ovate-oblong, elongated, acuminated, mucronato-serrate; hoary beneath. Cups axillary, twin. Scales lanceolate, hoary ; exterior ones squarrose, longer than the globose nut. A tree, a native of mountainous places in China; flower. ing in April, and ripening its fruit the following year. It has exactly the habit and leaves of Castànea vésca, and is probably the C. chinensis of Sprengel, with 1-seeded fruit. C. vésca is a very common tree in the north of China, with fruit always 2-3-seeded, and very like those of Europe ; and the Chinese deny that there is any other species.
above, and yellowish beneath. The flowers are disposed in two or three cottony spikes at the termination of the branches.
Q. concéntrica Lour. Coch., 2. p. 572., Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 427., N. Du Ham., 7. p. 153., Smith in Rees's Cycl., No. 10. Leaves lanceolate.ovate, pointed, incurved, entire. Calyx lax, very short, furrowed concentrically.
(Willd.) A large tree, a native of the lofty forests of Cochin-China; with ascending branches, and comparatively few leaves, which are stalked, and smooth on both sides. The acorns are oblong-ovate, and borne
on peduncles ; the nuts are smooth, red, pointed; and the cups short and lax, marked externally with several parallel circular furrows.
Q. acuta Thunb. Jap., 175., Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 429., N. Du Ham., 7. p. 154., Smith in Rees's Cycl., No. 17., has the leaves oblong, entire, and terminating in a sharp cuspidate point; rounded at the base ; glabrous above, but downy beneath when young. The branches of this
oak are knotty, smooth, except near their extremities, which are downy. The under sides of the leaves are, also, covered with a ferruginous down, when young, as are the spikes of flowers. A native of Japan.
Q. serrata Thunb. Jap., 176., Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 431., N. Du Ham., 7. p. 155., Smith in Rees's Cycl., No. 25., has the
leaves oblong, serrated, velvety, and downy beneath, when young, with parallel veins. The trunk of this oak is divided into alternate, and rather knotty, branches, which are of a greyish colour, with white spots. Found on the mountains of Japan. g. glauca Thunb. Jap., 175., Banks Ic., Kæmpf, t. 17., Willd.
Sp. Pl., 4. p. 427., N. Du Ham., 7. p. 159., Rees's Cycl., No. 21., Kas no Ki, Kæmpf. Amen., p. 816., has the leaves obovate, pointed, serrated towards the extremity, and glaucous beneath. The nuts are roundish and pointed; and the calyx, which is shallow, is marked with concentric lines. Kæmpfer calls this oak an “ilex, with short thick acorns, of which there are two kinds." Thunberg found it near Nagasaki, in Japan. He describes it as a very large tree, with spreading branches, somewhat resembling the ilex, or cork tree; but with very large, broad, pointed leaves, smooth above, and very glaucous or mealy, and feather. nerved beneath. Smith supposes it to be the same as his Q.annulata, Q. Phullata Don. (See p. 1929.)
Q: cuspidata Thunb. Jap., 176., Willd. Sp. Pl., p. 450., N. Du Ham., 7. p. 159., Smith in Rees's Cycl., No. 24.; Sui, vulgo Ssi no Ki, Kæmps. Amæn., 816. Leaves ovate, pointed, serrated, smooth. Calyx prickly. (Thunb.) Kæmpfer calls this " Magus folio Fraxini," a beech, or beech-like oak, with the leaves of an ash : but Thunberg describes it as only differing from Q. coccifera in its leaves being cuspidate, and their teeth not spiny. The leaves are small, and very glabrous; and the acorns, which are as large as a common walnut, have bristly cups. A native of Japan.
Q. dentata Thunb. Jap., 177., Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 452., N. Du Ham., 7. p. 180., Rees's Cycl, No. 26. ; Koku, Kæmpf. Amoen., 816. Leaves ovate-oblong, obtuse, deeply toothed; downy beneath. (Thunb.) A tree, with thick, erect, furrowed, knotty branches; cottony at the summit of the tree.
The leaves are produced in tufts at the extremity of the branches, on very short petioles: they are soft to the touch, very lax and pliable, velvety on the upper surface, and covered with a very white cottony down beneath. Kæmpler calls this tree the white ilex, and says that the wood' is also white. Thunberg states that it is a native of the hills of Japan.
The oaks of China have been enumerated, as far as they are known, in p. 177. The following have been described :
2. obovata Bunge Mém. Acad. Scien. Petersb., 2. p. 136. Leaves obovate, nearly sessile, thickly sinuated ; lobes round, quite entire, covered with rough dots above ; tomentose beneath, as are the young branches. Fruit terminal, aggregate, sessile. Outer scales of the cup ovate-oblong, blunt, silky; inner ones elongated, linear, acute, bent back, longer than the roundish nut. A tree, a native of mountainous places near Pekin; fowering in March and April. Bunge observed a third species, on the mountains in Pan-Schan, very similar to Q. mongólica Fisch. (see p 1932 ; ; but nothing certain can be determined respecting it, from the imperfection of the specimens. App. vii. Oaks of Java, Sumatra, and the Molucca Isles, not yet
introduced. Q. sundàica Blume Fl. Jav., t. 2. and 3. ; and our figs. 1833, and 1834. The Sunda Oak. Leaves elliptic, acuminate; narrowed towards the base ; glabrous above, somewhat glaucous beneath ; veins
1834 covered with down. Catkins solitary. A tree, attaining the height of 80 ft. and upwards, with smooth bark. It is not unfrequent in the woods of Western Java, in low grounds, and on the