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* Foliage deciduous.
a. Leaves pinnatifid or sinuated. Cups of the Acorns mossy.
* Q. C. 1 vulgàris, Q. C. frondosa Mill.

Dict., ed. 5. (see fig. 1702., and the
plates of this tree in our last Volume),
has the leaves pinnatifidly sinuated, and
the cups covered with soft moss. Of

this variety there is an endless number
of subvarieties. Fig. 1702. may be con-
sidered as the normal form : fig. 1704.
has the leaves more deeply sinuated :
fig. 1703. is from a specimen of great
beauty, sent us by Thomas Brooks,
Esq., of Flitwick House : and fig. 1705.,
copied from the figure given in Olivier's

1704 Travels, is the Q. crinita var. £, Lam. Dict., i. p. 718., Smith in Rees's Cycl., No. 82.; Q. Tournefortii Willd., No. 74., N. Du Ham., vii. p. 183.; Q. orientalis latifòlia, &c., Tourn. Cor., 40., Voy., ii. p. 172.; Q. Cérris Oliv. Voy., i. p. 221., Eng. ed., ii. p. 5. and t. 12.; and Q. Haliphlæ'os Bosc Mém. sur les Chênes. This oak was originally gathered by Tournefort in valleys and plains near Tocat, in Armenia. Olivier says it is met with throughout great part of Asia Minor and Syria. The timber is brought to the arsenal of Constantinople from the southern shores of the Black Sea, and is commonly employed in ship-building, and also for the framework of houses. The tree grows to a considerable height, and furnishes excellent wood. In British plantations, it is one of the most ordinary forms

1705 in which the species rises from seed. From the acorns of any one of these subvarieties, all the others, and many more, will seldom fail to be produced in the same seed-bed, and, indeed, sometimes on the

1706 same tree, or even on the same twig. Fig. 1706. shows portraits of three leaves, taken from a specimen of Q. Cérris vulgàris, gathered in the arboretum at Milford, in 1835, and there erroneously named Q. lusitánica. We have observed a similar diversity of appearance in the leaves of an old tree of Q. Cérris in

the grounds at Buckingham Palace. 1 Q. c. 2 péndula Neill in Lauder's Gilpin, vol. i. p. 73. The pendulous,

or weeping, Turkey Oak. - There is a specimen of this variety in the experimental garden of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, which was procured from the Botanic Garden, Amsterdam; but the handsomest tree of the kind in Britain, or perhaps in Europe, is probably that at Hackwood Park, from a specimen of which

fig. 1707. was taken. This tree, which was planted in 1800, was, in 1836, nearly 40 ft. high, with a trunk clear of branches to the height of 8 ft. 9 in., which, at the surface of the ground, was 2 ft. 94 in. in circumference. The branches not only droop to the ground, but, after touching it, they creep along the surface to some distance, like those of Sophòra

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b. Leaves dentate. Cups of the Acorns bristly. * Q. C. 4 austriaca ; Q. austriàca Willd., No. 76., N. Du Ham., vii. P.

183., Rees's Cycl., No. 84.; Q. Cérris Host Syn., 520. a and B. No. 28.; Q. crinita v Cérris Lin., Lam. Dict., i. p. 718.; Q. calyce hispido, &c., Bauh. Pin., 420.; Cerrus Clus. Hist., i. p. 20.; Cérri minoris rámulus cum flòre Ger. Emac., 1346, with Clusius's figure; Cérris Plinii minòre glánde Lob. Ic., ii. p.156., Ger. Emac., 1345.; Æ'gilops mindre glánde Dod. Pempt., 831.; Haliphlæ'os, Cerrus fæmina Dalech. Hist., i. p. 7.; our fig. 1708.; and the plate of this tree in our

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last Volume. - Leaves on longish stalks, ovate-oblong, slightly, but copiously, sinuated; downy and hoary beneath ; lobes short, ovate, acute, entire. Stipules shorter than the footstalks. Calyx of the fruit hemispherical, bristly. (Smith.) Sir J. E. Smith observes that this tree is “ generally mistaken for Q. Cérris, from which nothing can be more certainly distinct;" we admit their distinctness, but no one who has seen the two trees together in the Horticultural Society's Garden can, we think, doubt their being only different forms of the same species. This variety is a native of Austria, Flungary, Carniola, Italy, and other parts of the south of Europe, in stony mountainous places. It forms the common oak of the indigenous woods in the neighbourhood of Vienna, where it is considered by M. Rosenthal, an excellent practical botanist, as nothing more than a variety of Q. C'érris. The tree from which our portrait is taken is in the arboretum of the London Horticultural Society. In the University Botanic Garden at Vienna there is a tree, 60 years planted,

which is 40 ft. high. 1 Q. C. 5 càna màjor ; Q. càna màjor

1709 Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836 (fig. 1609.); the hoary-leaved bitter, or Turcy, Oak; resembles Q. austriaca in the form of its leaves; but they are much more downy beneath. There is a vigorous-growing handsome tree of this variety in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, which, in 1836, was 35 ft. high. The name càna (hoary) was originally given to this variety in the flammersmith Nursery, but whence the tree was ob

tained is uncertain. * Q. C. 6 càna minor, Q. càna minor Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836, resembles the

preceding kind, but has narrower leaves. There is a tree at Messrs.

Loddiges's, 25 ft. high. q Q. C. 7 Rágnal ; Q. Rágnal Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. The Ragnal Oak.

- This variety has rather narrower and more deeply cut leaves than Q.C. càna màjor ; but, in other respects, scarcely differs from that variety. It is a tree of remarkably vigorous growth; but we have only seen one plant, which is in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges. Miller mentions a large tree of this variety growing at Ragnal, near Tuxford, in Nottinghamshire, " which makes a most elegant appearance; the leaves being shaped like those of the common oak, but ash-coloured underneath, which renders it very beautiful. It produces acorns, some years, in great plenty; but, unless the autumns prove favourable, they do not ripen so as to grow.” (Mill. Dict., ed. 3., App., No. 12.) We have written to a number of persons in Nottinghamshire respecting the Ragnal Oak; and we find that the tree was cut down upwards of 50 years ago, but what became of the timber is unknown. There are trees bearing the name of the Ragnal oak in the plantations at Welbeck Abbey, of which His Grace the Duke of Portland has kindly sent us specimens ; but, as the plants have probably been seedlings, they are very different in foliage from the tree bearing the same name at Messrs. Loddiges's. There was a tree of the Ragoal oak for many years in the Fulham Nursery; but the late Mr. Whitley, a very short time before his death in 1835, told Mr. Osborne, jun., that it had died a few years before. Judging from the trees at Messrs. Loddiges's, we have no hesitation in saying that Q. C. càna màjor and minor, and Q. C. Rágnal, are merely slight variations of the same form. They all differ, however, from the Fulham oak, and from what is called the old Lucombe oak, in not being in the slightest degree subevergreen; though the leaves, after withering, generally remain on the tree through a great part of the winter. However slight the difference may be between these subvarieties, those who collect oaks cannot do wrong in procuring plants of each of them; all of them forming trees of free growth, and of very great beauty, as may be seen by the speimens referred to in the arboretum of Messrs.

Loddiges. ** Foliage subevergreen. Leaves dentate. Acorns with bristly Cups. The leaves remain on the tree through a great part of the winter, retain

ing their vitality and greenness. In mild winters, the leaves do not begin to drop till March or April ; and even in severe winters, a part of them, on the sheltered side of the tree, continue green till

near the end of that month. * Q. C. 8 fulhaménsis ; Q. C. dentàta Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 93.; Q. C.

hybrida var. dentàta Swt. The Fulham Oak. See fig. 1710., and the plates of this tree in our last Volume. Leaves alternate, ovate-elliptic, largely dentated; the dents obtuse-angular, their sides excurved, and their vertices shortly mucronate. (Wats.) This is a fine broad-leaved subevergreen variety, of which there is a magnificent specimen in the Fulham Nursery. The plates of the Fulham oak in our last Volume are portraits of this tree; the one taken in November, 1836, and the other on May 1. 1837. It is 75 ft. high; the diameter of the space covered by the branches 54 ft., and the diameter of the trunk, at 3 ft. from the ground, 3 ft. 10 in. There is a tree of the same variety at Mamhead, near Exeter, planted by Mr. Lucombe (the originator of the Lucombe oak, and the grandfather of the present Mr. Pince of the Exeter Nursery), when he was gardener at Mam

1710 head, which is 80 ft. high, with a trunk 4 ft. 6 in. in diameter at I ft. from the ground. (See Gard. Mag., vol. xi. p. 128.) There is a great similarity between the foliage of this tree and that of the Fulham oak, as will be seen by fig. 1711.; in which the right-hand figure is a fac-simile outline, of the natural size, of a leaf of the Fulham oak; and the left-hand figure is the outline of a leaf of the Exeter, or old Lucombe, oak, also of the natural size. But, however alike the trees may be in foliage, they are very different in their habits of growth; the Fulham oak being a branching tree, with a round head, and a comparatively smooth, though still somewhat corky, bark; and the old Lucombe oak growing with a straight erect trunk, regularly furnished with branches, and forming, both in its young and old states, a conical spiry-topped tree, with a more rough and corky bark than the other. In the Fulham Nursery there is a full-grown tree of the old Lucombe oak, as well as one of the Fulham oak, of both of which portraits are given in our last Volume, which strongly display the characteristic difference between the two trees. The age and origin of the Fulham oak are unknown; but Mr. Smithers, an old man who has been employed in the Fulbam Nursery from his youth, and who remembers the tree above 45 years, says that it always went by the name of the Fulham oak, and that he understood it to have been raised there from seed. We have examined the tree at its collar, and down to its main roots, several feet under ground; and, from the uniform texture, and thick corky character of the bark, we feel satisfied that it is not a grafted tree. In fine seasons, this variety produces abundance of acorns, from which many

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plants have been raised. These plants, though they have the leaves more frequently broad and dentate, than narrow and sinuate, or pinnatifid, yet vary so exceedingly, that they could hardly be sold as the genuine Fulham oak. Hence, that variety can only be propagated by grafting; and the stock ordinarily used is the common oak, on which the Fulham oak takes as freely as the apple does on the crab. Messrs. Osborne have lately selected a seedling with leaves broader and less dentale than usual ; and this they are now propagating under the name of Q. C. fulhaménsis latifolia. We prefer the designation of Q. C. fulhaménsis to Watson's name of Q. C. dentàta; because the latter will apply equally to several varieties, and is as characteristic of the Lucombe oak as of the Ful

ham oak. 4 Q. C. 9 Lucombeàna; Q. Lucombeàna Swt.; Q. exoniensis Lodd. Cat.,

ed. 1836. The Lucombe Oak, the evergreen Turkey Oak, the Devonshire Oak, the Exeter Oak. (fig. 1714., and figs. 1712, 1713.) –

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