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20 years planted, it is 25 ft. high; in Oxfordshire, in the Oxford Botanic Garden, 40 years planted, it is 55 ft. high; in Pembrokeshire, at Stackpole Court, 35 years planted, it is 40 ft. high ; in Rutlandshire, at Belvoir Castle, 26 years planted, it is 60 ft. high; in Staffordshire, at Trentham, 20 years planted, it is 20 ft. high: in Suffolk, at Finborough Hall, 60 years planted, it is 70 ft, high, the diameter of the trunk 31 d., and of the head 42 ft. ; at Ampton

Hall, 13 years planted, it is 26 ft. high: in Worcestershire, at Hagley, 11 years planted, it is 16 ft. high ; at Coombe Abbey, A. g. laciniata, 40 years planted, is 70 ft. high. In Scotland, in Berwickshire, at the Hirsel, 13 years planted, it is 24 ft. high; in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, at St. Mary's Isle, 40 years planted, it is 53 it. high; in Haddingtonshire, at Tynningham, it is 24 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 16 in., and of the head 36 ft. : in Lanarkshire, in the Glasgow Botanic Garden, 16 years planted, it is 30 ft. high; and A. &. laciniata, 16 years planted, is 35 ft. high: in Argyllshire, at Toward Castle, 12 years planted, it is 23 ft. high ; in Banffshire, at Huntley Lodge, it is 63 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 4 ft. 3 in., and of the head 60 ft.; in Forfarshire, at Monboddo, 34 years planted, it is 30 ft. high; in Perthshire, at Taymouth, it is 30 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk i ft. 4 in., and of the head 14 ft. ; in Ross-shire, at Brahan Castle, 45 years planted, it is 40 ft. high ; in Stirlingshire, at Callender Park, 16 years planted, it is 39 ft. high. In Ireland, near Dublín, in the Glasnevin Botanic Garden, 35 years planted, it is 40 ft. high; at Terenure, 15 years planted, it is 20 ft. high. In King's County, at Charleville Forest, 8 years planted, it is 18 ft. high ; in Fermanagh, at Florence Court, 4. g. laciniàta, 40 years planted, is 60 it. high; in Galway, at Coole, the species is 30 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 2 it., and of the head 32 ft. ; in Louth, at Oriel Temple, A. g. laciniata, 3+ years planted, is 44 ft. high ; in Sligo, at Mackree Castle, the species is 60 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 2 ft., and of the head 36 ft. ; in Tyrone, at Baron's Court, 50 years planted, it is 45 ft high. In France, at Nantes, in the nursery of M. De Nerrières, 50 years old, it is 60 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 11 ft.; at Avranches, in the Botanic Garden, Å. g. laciniàta, 20 years old, is 28 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 9 in., and of the head 16 ft. Hanover, at Marbcke, 6 years old, it is 8 ft. high, with a trunk 2 in. in diameter. In Austria, at Vienna, in the garden of Baron Loudon, 14 years planted, it is 16 ft. high; at Brück on the Leytha, A. &. laciniata, 24 years old, is 25ft. high. In Italy, in Lombardy, at Monza, 70 years old, it is 80 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 1 ft., and of the head 60 ft.

** 2. A. (G) OBLONGA'TA Willd. The oblong-leaved Alder. Identification. Wind. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 335. ; Baum., p.20.; N. Du Ham., 2. p. 215. Synonymes. A'lnus fol. oblong., &c., Bauh. ; d. fol. ovato-lanceol., &c., Mil. Dict., ed. 7. ; lang

liche Else, Ger. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves elliptic, somewhat obtuse, glutinous; axils of the veins naked on the under side. (Willd. Sp. Pl., iv. p. 335.) A large shrub or low tree, said to be a native of Hungary, Austria, and Turkey. It was introduced by Miller, in 1749, who is said to have raised it from seed; and, if so, it must be a tolerably distinct kind; which, indeed, it appears to be, though we are doubtful as to whether it is entitled to rank as a species. The largest plant of A. oblongata that we have heard of is in the Glasnevin Botanic Garden, where, in 1834, after being 30 years planted, it is 30 ft. high ; which confirms Willdenow's conjecture, that, in a mild moist climate, it may become a tree. There are plants in the Horticultural Society's

Gardens, and at Messrs. Loddiges's. Variety. * A. (8.) o. 2 foliis ellipticis Ait., A. pumila Lodd. Cat., has the leaves narrower than the species.

* 3. A. INCA'Na Willd. The hoary-leaved Alder. Identification. Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 335. ; Baum., p. 20. ; N. Du Ham., 2. p. 215. ; Hoss Anleitung, Synonymes. B. Alnus var, incana Lin. Sp. Pl., 1991. ; B. incana Lin. Supp. ; A. folio incàno, &c., Bauh.

1543 Pin., 428.; B. viridis Vill. Dauph., 2. p. 789.; weisse Erle, graue Else, or weisse Eller, Ger. Engravings. Hayne Abbild., t. 136. ; and our fig. 1543. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves oblong, acute, pubescent beneath ; axils of the veins naked. Stipules lanceolate. (Willd. Sp. Pl., iv. p. 335.) A tree, which grows in light sandy soil, in Lapland, Sweden, and Prussia; and on the hills in Austria, Carniola, the Ukraine, Tyrol, and Switzerland; also in North America. This tree, wbich Hoss informs us is common on the banks of the Danube, will attain a greater height than the common alder, or from 50 ft. to 70 ft., even in a tolerably dry soil. It differs from the common alder, in the leaves being pointed, in the leaves and the young wood not

p. 190.


being glutinous, in their hoary appearance, and in the absence of tufts of hair in the axils of the nerves of the leaves. It was introduced into England in 1780, but has not been much cultivated. There are plants at Messrs. Loddiges's 30 ft. high. It forms a very handsome tree, and well deserves a

place in ornamental plantations. Varieties. * A. i. 2 laciniata Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.—The leaves are slightly laciniated.

There are trees in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and at

Messrs. Loddiges's. * A. i. 3 glauca; A. glauca Michr. N. Amer. Sylv., Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836;

Bétula incàna var. glauca Ait.; Black Alder, Amer., has the leaves dark green above, and glaucous beneath : the petioles are reddish. According to Michaux, this forms a tree, in the United States, from 18 ft. to 20 ft. high. This is one of the most beautiful kinds of the

genus. * A. i. 4 angulata Ait.—Leaves green underneath, with the petioles green.

Other Varieties. A. americàna Lodd. Cat., A. canadensis Lodd. Cat., and A. rubra Lodd. Cat., appear to belong to this species; but the plants in the Hackney arboretum are so small, that we have not been able to satisfy ourselves that they are sufficiently distinct to constitute varieties.

@ 4. A. SERRULA'TA Willd. The saw-leaved Alder. Identification. Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 336.; Baum., p. 21. ; N. Du Ham., 2 p. 216. ; Pursh Fl. Amer.

Sept., 2. p. 623.; Michx. N. Amer. Syl., 2. p. 113. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Synonymes. Betula serrulata Ait. Hort. Kew., 3. p. 338.; B. rugosa Ehrh. Beitr., 3. p. 21.; Du

Roi Harb. Baum., 1. p. 176.; Wang. Amer., p. 86. ; ? A. americana Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; PA. canadensis Lodd. Cat., 1836 ; common Alder, Amer. ; Hazel-leaved Alder. Engravings. Wang. Amer., t. 29. f. 60.; Abbott's Insects, 2. t. 92. ; Michx. N. Amer. Syl., t. 75.

f. 1. ; and our fig. 1544., on which are exhibited the larva, pupa, and perfect insect of the Noctua

(Acronýcta) hastilifera, Phalæ'na hastulífera Abb. and Smith, the American alder dagger moth, Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves obovate, acuminate; veins and their axils hairy on the under side. Stipules elliptic, obtuse. (Willd. Sp. Pl., iv. p. 336.) A shrub,


which inhabits this tree.

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from 6 ft. to 10 ft. high; a native of North America, in swamps and on river sides. According to Michaux, it is frequent along the sides of brooks, but abounds most in places covered with stagnant water. Its leaves are of a beautiful green, about 2 in. long, oval, distinctly furrowed on the surface, and doubly denticulated at the edge. The wood, when cut into, is white;

but, like that of all the alders, it becomes reddish when it comes in contact with the air. The dwarf stature of this, and all the other American alders, renders them of no use as timber trees; but, according to Rafinesque, the leaves are vulnerary and astringent. The bark is styptic, and is used for dyeing brown, and, with vitriol, black. The inner bark of the root is emetic, and dyes yellow. The female catkins also dye black. Plants, in the London nurseries, are from 1s. to ls. 6d. each ; and seeds 1s. per oz. At Bollwyller, plants are li franc; at New York, 15 cents.

5. A. UNDULATA Willd. The waved-leaved Alder. Identification. Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 336. ; Baum., p. 21. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Synonymes. Betula crispa Ait. Hort. Kew., 3. p. 339.; B. A lnus var. crispa Michr. Fl. Bor. Amer.

2. p. 181. ; A. crispa Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 623., N. Du Ham., 2. p. 216. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves oblong, acute, rounded at the base; petioles and

veins hairy on the under side ; axils of the veins naked; stipules ovateoblong. (Willd. Sp. Pl., iv. p. 336.) A shrub, not above 3 ft. or 4 ft. high ; a native of Canada, and on high mountains in sphagnous swamps in Pennsylvania. In the Berlin Botanic Garden, according to Willdenow, it was 15 ft. high in 1811. Plants, in the London nurseries, are 2s. 6d. each; and at New York, 20 cents; and seeds 1 dollar and 25 cents per pound.

* 6. A. cordi FOʻLIA Lodd. The heart-leaved Alder. Identification. Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 1231. Synonyme. A. cordata Tenore Prod., 54., Hayne Dend., p. 153. Engravings. Bot. Cab., t. 1291.; our fig. 1545.; and the plate of this species in our last Volume. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves heart-shaped, acuminate, dark green and shining.

(Tenore.) A tree of similar magnitude to the common alder; a native of Calabria and Naples, in woods. Introduced in 1820, and flowering in March and April, before the developement of the leaves. “A large and very handsome round-headed tree, with broad, deep green, shining leaves, deeply heart-shaped at the base. It grows with rapidity, and is one of the most interesting, ornamental trees that have of late years been introduced.” (Penny Cyc., art. Alnus.) It is a most distinct 1545 species; and, though a native of the kingdom of Naples, it is perfectly hardy. It ripens seeds in the climate of London, and might easily be rendered as common as A. glutinosa. There is a very handsome tree in the collection of Messrs. Loddiges; and another in the Horticultural Society's Garden. Plants, in the London nurseries, are 1s. 6d. each ; at Bollwyller, 2 francs; and at New York, 50 cents.

7. A. vI'RIDIS Dec. The green-leaved Alder. Identification. De Candolle Pl. F1., 3. p. 304. Synonymes. A. ovata Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 1141. ; A'lnus fruticdsa Schmidt; Bétula ovata Schrank Sal., No. 159.. Fl. Bav., 1. p. 419., as quoted in N. Du Ham., 3. p. 206., Willd. Sp. Pl., p. 465.,

Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 96., Host Fl. Aus. 2. p. 625. ; B. A’lno-Bétulæ Ehrh. Beytr., 2. p. 72. ; B. Engravings. Dend. Brit., t. 96. ; Bot. Cab., t. 1141. ; Schmidt (Estr. Baum, 3. t. 189. ; and our fig.

1546., in which a is the ament, or male catkin; b, the male flower magnified ; C, the stamen magni. fied ; d, a longitudinal section of the cone or female catkin ; e, and g, transverse sections of the cone,

to show the position of the scales ; s, the female catkins; h, the samara, or seed, with its wings. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves ovate, doubly serrated, glabrous. Peduncles of the female catkins branched. Scales of the strobiles having equal lobes, truncate-nerved. (Willd. Sp. Pl., iv. p. 465.) A large shrub, or low bushy tree : a native of the high mountains of Hungary, Styria, and Carinthia; and of Germany, in the neighbourhood of Salzburg. Flowering, in Messrs. Loddiges's collection, in March and April; and ripening its seed in August. It was introduced in 1820. This plant is considered by many botanists as intermediate between the alders and the birches. It agrees with the alders, in having the peduncles of the female catkins ramose; and in general appearance it resembles the Alnus incana in a young state: but it belongs to the birches, by the parts of its fructification, and by the number of its

viridis Hort.

stamens. The stem of the plant,

1546 in its native habitat, seldom rises higher than 5 ft. or 6 ft. It divides into smooth branches, angular, furnished with alternate oval leaves, smooth on both surfaces, and doubly serrated. The teeth are sharp, and almost alternately long and short. The male catkins are 24 in. long, slender, cylindric, with numerous pediceled flowers. The females are subcorymbose, elliptic, with slender peduncles. Watson, who has given a good figure of this species, says, from the habit and inflorescence of the female, this plant may be considered an A’īnus; but the fruit, being a samara, “ claims it a Bétula.” As the general appearance of the plant more resembles an alder than a birch, we have placed it under the former genus. It is a very handsome shrub, and is well deserving of a place in collections. There are plants at Messrs. Loddiges's, in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and in some of the nurseries.

App. i. Other Species of A'lnus. The genus Alnus, Mr. Royle informs us in his admirable Illustrations,“ has the same distribution in the Himalayas that it has in the northern hemisphere; that is, it occurs in inoist situations, and along the course of rivers. A. obtusifolia Royle is very abundant on the banks of the Jumna and Tonce. A. elongata Royle occurs in Cashmere; and A. nepalénsis Wall. Pl. As. Rar., t. 131., on the mountains surrounding the valley from which it was named." (Ilust., p. 341.) It appears probable, that, of the above species, at least A. nepalensis, a tree from 30 ft. to 40 ft. high, may prove sufficiently hardy to bear the climate of London ; and we hope it may soon be introduced.




BÉ TULA Tourn. The Birch. Lin. Syst. Mone'cia Polyándria. Identification. Tourn., t. 360.; Lin. Gen., 485. ; Juss., 409. ; Fl. Br., 1011. ; Comp., ed. 4., 157. ; Lam., t. 760.; Gærtn., t. 90.; Lindl. Nat. Syst. Bot.,

p. Synonymes. Bouleau, Fr.; Betula, Ital. ; Abedul, Span.; Betulla, Port.; Birke, Ger. ; Berk,

Dutch ; Birk, Danish and Scotch; Biörk, or Börk, Swedish; Beresa, Russian; Brzoza, Polish. Derivations. From betu, its Celtic name; or, according to others, from the Latin word batuere, to

beat; from the fasces of the Roman lictors, which were always made of birch rods, being used to drive back the people. Pliny derives the name from bitumen.

Description, fc. The species are chiefly deciduous trees, some of which are of large size; but several of the species are shrubs. They are natives of Europe, chiefly in the most northern parts, or in high elevations in the south; of North America ; and some of them of Asia. They are generally found in mountainous rocky situations in the middle of Europe; but they grow wild in plains and peaty soils in the northern regions. The common birch is one of the hardiest of known trees; and there are only one or two other species of ligneous plants which approach so near to the North Pole. The common birch has been known from the earliest ages ; and it has long been the most useful tree to the inhabitants of the extreme north of Europe ; as the canoe birch has been to those of the north of North America. The species all ripen seeds in the climate of London, and are all of the easiest culture in any ordinary soil; but, being hair-rooted, they do not grow so well in very strong clays ; nor do plants of this genus, when raised from layers or cuttings, grow so freely as in the case of some other genera. The leaves of the birch having

little succulency, and being astringent and aromatic, they are very rarely subject to the attacks of insects. The wood of all the species is much less durable than the bark.

Leaves small. Natives chiefly of Europe.

* 1. B. A’lba L. The white, or common, Birch. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 1393. ; Willd., 4. p. 462. ; FL Br., 1012. ; Engl. Fl., 4. p. 153. ; Hook.

Scot., 274.; Hook. Br. Fl., 3d ed., p. 411. Synonymes. B. pubescens Ehrh. Arb., 67., Pl. Off., 338.; B., No. 1628., Hall. Hist. ; Bétula Raii Syn., 145.; B. ætnénsis Rafi., according to Comp. to Bot. Mag., 1. p. 91.; Bouleau commun, Fr.; gemeine Birke, Ger. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 2198. ; Fl. Dan., t. 1467.; Trag. Hist., 1113. f.; Bauh. Hist., 1. pt. 2. p. 149. f.; Matth. Valgr., 1. p. 121. f. ; Cam. Epit., p. 69. f. ; Dod. Pempt., 839. f. ; Ger. Emac., p. 1378. f.; Lob. Ic., 2. p. 190. f. ; our fig. 1547. ; and fig. 1550., of the entire tree ; and the plate of this species in our last Volume. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves ovate, acute, somewhat

1547 deltoid, unequally serrated, nearly glabrous. (Eng. Fl., iv. p. 153.) A tree, a native of almost every part of Europe, but more especially of the colder regions. A diminutive shrub in the extreme north, but a tree froin 50 ft. to 60 ft. high in the middle regions ; flowering, in Lapland, in May; and in the

Apennines, in February and March.
* B. a. 2 péndula Smith, Lodd. Cat., ed.

1836; B. péndula Roth Germ., i. p.
405., 2., pt. 2. p. 476.; B. verrucosa
Ehrh. Arb., 96., Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836,
Pl. Off., 328.; B. péndulis vírgulis
Loes. Pruss.; the weeping Birch, is a
well-known tree, differing from the
species in having the shoots more slen-
der, smoother, and pendulous. (See the
plate of the young tree in our last Volume.) Some Continental and
English botanists, and, among the latter, Sir J. E. Smith, are inclined
to consider this a variation rather than a variety; but this opinion
does not prevail among cultivators. Sang states that the weeping
variety is easily known from the common birch, by its attaining a
much larger size; by its main branches being more straight and
upright (though its lateral ones are pendent at their extremities);
and by its leaves being smaller. It attains, he says, the stature of a
timber tree in much less time than the common sort; and is far
handsomer, both when young and when in a mature state. All these
particulars must have been observed by every one who has had much
occasion to penetrate into birch forests; and the circumstance of
nurserymen collecting the seeds of this variety, and finding that the
majority of the plants produced by them are of the smooth-leaved
and weeping kind, leaves no doubt in our mind that B. a. pendula
is as much a variety as B. a. pubescens. Sir W. J. Hooker says (Brit.
Fl., 3d ed., p. 411.): “There is a variety of this tree (B. péndula
Roth, Lindl. Syn., p. 229.), with remarkably drooping

branches, which are more verrucose than in the
common appearance. It is not unfrequent in the
Highlands of Scotland, and is generally known by
the name of the drooping birch. To this Scott
alludes :

«« Where weeps the birch with silver bark,

And long dishevelled hair.'"
1 B. a. 3 pubéscens ; B. pubescens Ehrh. Beitr., vi. 98.,

Willd., iv. 462., Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; and our fig.
1548.; has the leaves covered with white hairs; and, though con-

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