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S. myrtillöides L. wholly in habit, and in its capsules being sessile, and densely tomentose. There are plants at Henfield.

Group xx. Myrtillöides Borrer.
Small Bilberry-like Shrubs, not Natives of Britain.

This group consists of exotic kinds, and, therefore, does not appear in Hook. Br. Fl. ; and, consequently we cannot quote characteristics thence. In S. myrtillöides L., we believe that the epithet was meant to express a likeness in the foliage to that of Vaccinium Myrtillus L. ; and we suppose that this likeness appertains to each of the kinds of which Mr. Borrer has constituted his group Myr.

tillördes. * 150, S. MYRTILLÖI'DES L. The Myrtillus-like, or Bilberry-leaved, Willow. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 1446. ; Fl Lapp., ed. 2., 295. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 79.; Wahl. Fl.

Lapp., p. 267. ; Koch Comm., p. 52. Synonyme. S. élegans Besser En. Pl. Volhyn., p. 77. (Koch.) The Sexes. The female is described in Rees's Cyclo., and the male partly so. The female is noticed

below. Engravings. Lin. FI Lapp., ed. 2., t. 8. f. i. k.; and our fig. 1349. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves very various in form, ovate, sub.

1343 cordate at the base, oblong, or lanceolate; entire, opaque, glabrous; veins appearing reticulated beneath. Stipules half-ovate. Fruit-bearing catkin (?catkin of the female in any state) borne on a leafy twiglet. Bracteas (scales) glabrous or ciliated. Capsules (? or rather ovaries) ovatelan. ceolate, glabrous, upon a stalk more than four times as long as the gland. Style short. Stigmas ovate, notched. (Koch.) The flowers of the female are disposed in lax cylindrical catkins. (Smith in Eng. Fl., 4. p. 196.) Wild in the infra. alpine bogs of the Carpathians, and in spongy bogs of Po. land, Livonia, Volhynia, and through Russia, Sweden, and Lapland. It occurs in the alps of Bavaria, whenee it descends into the valleys; and has been gathered even near Munich, in turfy ground. (Koch.) This is registered as having been introduced into Britain in 1772. Mr. Borrer has remarked in the list that he is not aware that it has been introduced alive into Britain.

* 151. S. PEDICELLA'Ris Pursh. The long-stalked-capsuled Willow. Identification. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 611. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 78. Synonyme. S. pennsylvánica Host. The Sezes. The female is noticed in the specific character. Spec. Char., &c. Stem erect. Branches glabrous. Leaves obovate-lanceolate, acutc, entire, glabrous, green on both surfaces. Stipules none. Catkins stalked, nearly glabrous. Bracteas oblong, scarcely hairy. Ovary ovate, oblong, glabrous, upon a stalk twice as long as the bractea Stigma sessile, divided Wild on the Catskill Mountains, New York; flowering in April. An elegant and singular species. Introduced by Pursh in 1811. (Pursh, Smith, and Hort. Brit.)

tot 152. S. PLANIFO‘LIA Pursh. The flat-leaved Labrador Willow. Identification. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 611. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 92. Spec. Char., &c. It is inclined to rise from the ground on a single stem. Branches divaricating,

glabrous. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, very glabrous, flat, spreading į acute at cach end, minutely serrated in the middle, paler beneath. Stipules none. Native of Labrador. Seen by Pursh, in Mr. Anderson's garden, without flowers. (Þursh and Smith.) Introduced in 1811. Perhaps this is not of the group Myrtillöides. (Borrer in a letter.) This singular species is easily distinguished, Pursh observes, by its remarkably flat and spreading leaves, and by its being, though procumbent, inclined to rise from the ground on a single low stem. (Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 611.)

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Stamens 2 to a flower. Ovaries downy. Leaves oval or broadly elliptical,

serrated, small, glossy, rigid. Plants small and bushy. (Hook. Br. Fl., adapted.). It seems to be the case that the epithet Myrsinites in S. Myrsinites L. has been intended to imply a likeness in the foliage of that kind to that of the Vaccinium Myrsinites; and it may be supposed that this character obtains more or less in all the kinds of the group.

* 153. S. MYRSINI'TES L. The Whortleberry-leaved Willow. Identification. Lin., cited by Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2753., the text ; Fl. Dan., t. 1054. (Smith.) Synonymes. $; Myrsinites B, Smith Eng, Fl., 4. p. 195., Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p. 429.; S. arbutifolia

Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p.082.; probably S. Macnabiàna Macgillivray in Jameson's Edinb. Phil. Jour., Oct. 1830. (The above indicated by Borrer.) S. Myrsinites Koch, part of, Koch Comm., p. 60.; S. arbutifolia Willd., Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 67.; S. dubia Suter Helv., p. 283. (Willd.) The Sexes. It is implied in the Spec. Char., &c., that the female is known. Engraving. Fl. Dan., t. 1054. (Smith). Spec. Char., &c. This has, like S. letulifòlia, short catkins, and

distinctly serrated leaves ; but these are more acute, and of an ovate-lanceolate figure; and the long style seems to afford a distinctive character. (Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2753., in the text.) It occurs on various Scottish mountains. (Id.). Wahlenberg compares the stems and leaves to those of Bétula nàna, from the glossy greenness of the latter, their prominent veins, and their remaining on the shoots in a withered state till the following year. The whole plant is very dark, and almost black when dry. (Hook. 1344 Br. Fl.)

* 154. S. BETULIFO'LIA Forster. The dwarf Birch-leaved Willow. Identification. Forster MS., cited by Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2753., in the text. Synonyme's. S. Myrsinites Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1361., exclusively of the references to Hoffınann (Smith in Eng. Fl.), Eng. Fl., 4. p. 195., exclusively of the var. B, Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 60., Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p. 429., exclusively of the var. B, not of Linn. (Borrer); S. Myrsinites Koch, part of, Koch Comm., p. 60. The Sexes. The female is described in Eng. Fl., and figured in Eng. Bot, and Sal. Wob. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1360. ; Smith in Eng. Fl. has quoted, besides, Lin. Fl

. Lapp., t. 7. f. 6. t. 8. 1. f; and Villars Dauph., 3. 6.50. f. 12. ; but has designated this as “bad :” Sal. Wob., No. 60.; our hig. 1345.; and fig. 60. in p. 1615. Spec. Char., 8c. It differs from S. procumbens by its smaller, rounder, more

conspicuously serrated leaves; shorter, almost ovate, catkins; shorter, more truncate, and paler bracteas (scales); and more distinctly quadrangular ovary. From the remarkable primâ facie resemblance of its leaves to those of Bétula nàna, Mr. Forster has suggested for it the name of betulifolia. (Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl.) Mr. Borrer regards it as not certain that this kind is a native of Britain ; and the question resting on whether the kind found by Dr. Stuart in the mountains of Glencoe is identical with S. Myrsinites of Eng. Bot., or with S. procumbens Eng. Bot, Suppl., he has stated 1345 that, to ascertain this, it would be necessary to inspect the specimens of the kind found by Stuart, preserved in Lightfoot's herbarium. If the kind prove not British, Mr. Borrer does not know its source. Cultivated in the willow garden at Woburn Abbey, it has flowered in May, and again in August. A sturdy, upright, bushy shrub, 1 ft. to 2 ft. high, with abundance of short, leafy, dark purplish branches, hairy when young, not downy. Leaves very different from those of all the foregoing species, except S. malifòlia, in their rigid, thin, crackling, veiny texture; without anything glaucous or cottony about them, the fine hairs on the younger ones being scattered and silky. (Smith Eng. Fl.) Pursh has included in his Flor. Amer. Sept., ii. p. 617., a North American kind of willow, named S. Myrsinites: ? is this the same as either of the above.

mit 155. S. PROCU'MBENS Forbes. The procumbent Willow. Identification. Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 61., exclusively of the synonymes. The figure is not a cha.

racteristic one. Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2753.) Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p. 429. ; Borrer in Eng.

Bot. Suppl., t. 2753. Synonymes. S. læ'vis Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 1., p. 432. ; S. retùsa Wither. Bot. Arr., ed. 4., 2. p. 49., and The Sexes. The female is described and figured in Eng. Bot. Suppl. and Sal. Wob. The male plant

has not come under our notice. (Borrer.) Engravings. Wither. Bot. Arr., ed. 4., vol. 2.; Sal. Wob., No. 61., the figure not a characteristie

one; Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2753. ; and our fig. 61. in p. 1615. Spec. Char., &c. Branches diverging. Leaves oval, minutely serrated, re

curved, bright green and shining on both surfaces. Catkins elongated,

a figure,

thick, cylindrical. Ovary nearly sessile, tapering, obsoletely quadrangular. Style short, deeply cloven. Stigmas spreading, bifid. (Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl.). A native of the Highlands of Scotland : it has been found in the mountains of Breadalbane, and upon Brae-Riach, one of the Cairngorm range. It flowers in June, but, in the willow garden at Woburn Abbey, in May. The following characters are some of those described of it by Mr. Forbes :- A low procumbent shrub, extending along the ground, with greenish brown, pubescent, round, shortish branches. Leaves from 1 in. to 1} in. long, and upwards of 1 in. in breadth; of a roundish-elliptical shape, hollowed out, or somewhat heart-shaped, at the base; bright green and shining on both sides ; always perfectly glabrous and serrated. Readily distinguished from S. betulifolia, which at first sight it greatly resembles, by its procumbent mode of growth, and large elongated catkins. Dr. Hooker has observed of it, that it is a beautiful shrub; and that it has been cultivated for years in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, where it retains all its characters. There are plants of it at Henfield.

want 156. S. RETU'SA L. The retuse-leaved Willow. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 1445.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 684. ; Hayne Abbild., p. 234. ; Smith in

Rees's Cyclo., No. 70.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 159. Synonymes. S. retusa Koch, part of, Koch Comm., p. 62.; S. serpyllifolia Jacq. Austr., t. 298.

(Koch.) The Seres. Both sexes are described in Rees's Cyclo., and thence in Sal. Wob., and below; and both are figured in Hayne Abbild: the male is figured in Sal. Wob. Engravings Bocc. Mus., 1. t. 1.; Jacq. Austr., 1. 298. ; Mayne Abbild., t. 176.; Sal. Wob., No. 159. ;

our fig. 1346. ; and fig. 139. in p. 1630). Spec. Char., fc. Leaves obovate, entire, glabrous, shining above. Catkins

of the female oblong, of few flowers. Bracteas (scales) the length of the oblong smooth ovary. (Smith in Rees's Cyclo.) Native of the alps of Germany, Switzerland, France, and Italy, but not of Britain or the north of Europe. The main stems are woody, depressed, trailing, branched, often of great thickness, throwing up many short, glabrous, leafy branches, which are likewise partly decumbent. Leaves stalked, various in size and breadth, but usually from } in. to 1 in. long, and from one to four lines broad ; quite entire, abrupt, or even emarginate, at the extremity; tapering at the base; furnished with one rib, and many straight parallel veins.

1346 Catkins lax; those of the male yellow, with elliptic, oblong, slightly hairy bracteas (scales). Stamens 2 to a flower. Catkin of the female of about 8 or 10 flowers. Capsules large, nearly sessile, ovate, glabroys. The style, which is short and undivided, remains at the extremity of one of the valves; and, as the capsule becomes quite ripe, its stalk is somewhat elongated. (Rees's Cyclo.) Introduced in 1763, and flowering in

May. It almost equals S. herbàcea in diminutiveness. (Willd.) ? Varieties. It is probable that S. Kitaibelidna, S. U'va úrsi, and S. serpyllifòlia Scop., are only varieties of S. retusa L. (Borrer in his list.)

motor 157. S. KITAIBELIANA Willd. Kitaibel's Willow. Identification Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 683.; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 69. ; Forbes in Sal. Wob.,

No. 64.; Wahlenb. Carpat., p. 314. (Koch.) Synonymes. S. retù sa Koch,'8

major Koch Comm., p. 63. ; ? S. U'va-úrsi Pursk. (Borrer in his list.) It is probable that S. Kitaibeliàna is only a var. of S. retusa L. The Seres. The female is described and figured in Sal. W'ob. Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 64. ; and our fig. 64. in p. 1616. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves obovate, lanceolate, entire, emarginate; glabrous and

shining above. Catkins appearing with the leaves, cylindrical, and many. flowered. Bracteas shorter than the ovate-lanceolate ovary. (Willd. and Smith.) A very small shrub, with yellowish glabrous branches, spreading close along the ground. A native of the Carpathian Mountains; flowering there in April and May, and, in the willow garden at Woburn Abbey, in April and May, and again in August. Branches dark brown, the young ones shining. Leaves nearly 1 in. long, obovate, lanceolate, entire; emarginate at the tip; very glabrous on both sides, the upper side shining; the under one showing parallel veins, and being less shining. Introduced in 1823. There are plants at Woburn, Henfield, and Flitwick.

* 158. S. CVA-U’rsi Pursh. The Bearberry-leaved Willow. Identification. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 619. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 77.; Forbes in Sal.

Wob., No. 151. Synonymes. ? Identical with S. Kitaibelidna. (Borrer in his list.) It is probable that S. U'va-úrsi

is only a variety of $. retùsa L. (Id.). The Sexes. The female is noticed in the Spec. Char., &c., below. Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 151. ; and our fig. 151. in p. 1630. Spec. Char., c. Stem depressed. Leaves spathulate.obovate, obtuse, entire, glabrous; shining above, glandular at the margin beneath. Stipules

Catkins lax. Bracteas oblong, fringed. Ovary stalked, ovate, glabrous. Style deeply divided. Stigmas two-lobed. A beautiful little species, with all the appearance of Arctostaphylos Uova-úrsi in habit, as well as in the form of its leaves. (Pursh.) A native of Labrador. Introduced in ? 1811, and flowering in April and May. This was possessed alive by Mr. G. Anderson.

none,

* 159. S. SERPYLLIFO'lia Scop. The Wild-Thyme-leaved Willow. Identification. Scop. Carn., No. 1207.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 684. ; Hayne Abbild., p. 325. ; Smith in

Rees's Cyclo., No. 71. , Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 65. Synonymes. S. retusa Koch y Koch Comm., p. 63. It is probable that S. serpyllifolia Scop. is only a

variety of S. retusa L. (Borrer in his list.) The Sexes. The male is figured in Sal. Wob., the female in Hayne Abbild. Engravings. Scop. Carn., t. 6i. “Scopoli's figure throws no great light on the " species. (Smith in

Recs's Cyclo.) Sal. Wob., No. 65. ; our figs. 1347, 1348. ; and fig. 65. in p. 1616. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, acute, entire, glabrous, shining above. Catkins oblong, of few flowers. Cap

sules elliptic, glabrous. Stigmas sessile. (Smith in
Rees's Cyclo.) A native of the high mountains of

France, Italy, and Switzerland; flowering in May.
1347

Introduced in 1818. Haller, Allioni, Villars, and
other botanists, took this for a variety of S. retusa ;

ent but it appears to be widely dif

1348

the leaves being nearly three times smaller, and always acute. A very curious little plant, only 1 in. or 2 in. high, of which there are specimens at Henfield, in the Chelsea Botanic Garden, and in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges.

mok 160. S. CORDIFO'LIA Pursh. The heart-leaved Labrador Willow, Identification. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 611. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 72. ; Forbes in Sal.

Wob., No. 143. p. 277. Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 143., a leaf; and fig. 143. in p. 1630. Spec. Char., $c. Stem depressed. Leaves oval, rather acute, entire, reticulated with veins, heart

shaped at the base ; glabrous above, pale, with a hairy rib and margin beneath. Stipules halfheart-shaped. Native of Labrador. In general habit it resembles S. Myrsin tes. (Pursk.) A native of North America, in Labrador. Introduced in 1811, and flowering from April till June. Koch observes of this species, that it is very similar to S. Waldsteinidna Willd., and differs only in the leaves being strictly entire. The leaves, when young, are sprinkled with villose hairs, but soon become glabrous, except at the edge.

Group xxii. Herbàceæ Borrer.
Very low Shrubs, scarcely rising an Inch above the Ground.

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There are only two species in this group, the characteristics of which will be found in their specific characters.

161. S. HERBA'CEA L. The herbaceous-looking Willow. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 2145.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 682. ; Hayne Abbild., p. 233. ; Smith in

Rees's Cyclo., No.66.; Koch Comm., p. 63.; Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1907. ; Eng. Fl., 4. p. 199.; Forbes in Sal. 'Wob., No. 63.; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3. ; Mackay Fi. Hibern., pt. 1. p. 253. ; Host

Sal Austr., 1. p. 32. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 617. The Sexes. Both sexes are described in Èng. Fi., and figured in Sal. Wob., Hayne Abbild., and

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Host Sal. Austr.: in Eng. Bot., the female, in fruit and flower; and bractea (scale) of the male.

Both sexes were living, in 1836, in the Twickenham Botanic Garden.
Engravings. Hayne Abbild., t. 175.; Eng. Bol., t. 1907.; Sal. Wob., No. 62. ; and Host Sal.

Austr., 1. t. 104.; our fig. 1349. ; and fig. 62. in p. 1615.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves orbicular, serrated, reticulated with veins ; very

glabrous and shining on both sides. Ovary stalked, ovate-lanceolate,
glabrous. (Smith Eng. Fl.) A native of Britain, on the Welsh and High-
land mountains ; flowering there in June, but, in the
willow garden at Woburn Abbey, before the expansion
of the leaves. It is a native, also, of various parts of
Europe; also, according to Pursh, of North America.
In the Companion to the Botanical Magazine, it is
stated that s. berbácea exceeds in the elevation of
its habitat every other shrub in Britain (p. 89.); and
that 'few hills of 800 or 900 yards in Britain are
without S. herbàcea, whilst S. reticulata is probably
limited to the Scottish Highlands, and no: very
plentiful there.” (p. 222.) S. herbàcea is the least

1349
of British willows, and, according to Sir J. E. Smith, the least of
all shrubs. Dr. Clarke, in his Scandinavia, calls it a perfect tree in
miniature; so small, that it may be taken up, and root, trunk, and
branches spread out in a small pocket-book. According to Hooker (Br.
Fl., ed. 2.), it is not “ so small as is generally supposed, for its stems divide
and creep below the surface of the earth, scarcely rising 1 in. above it.” In
ed. 3., it is stated, on the authority of Dr. Graham, that “in the Bo-
tanic Garden of Edinburgh it has acquired a prostrate woody stem, 2 ft. to
3 ft. long, and as thick as the little finger." Under the head Varieties,
we have noticed some plants which may belong to this species, and
which have stems 2 ft. or 3 ft. high. The leaves of S. herbàcea are em-
ployed, in Iceland, in the tanning of leather. (Lindl. Nat. Syst. Bot.) S.
herbàcea is called by the Laplanders the ptarmigan leaf. (Wahlenberg,
quoted in Eng. Fl.) In Switzerland, M. Alphonse De Candolle observes,

some species of willow (S. retusa, herbàcea, and reticulata) spread over the uneven surface of the soil ; and, as their branches are often covered with the earth, which the heavy rains wash over them, they present the singular phenomenon of trees which are more or less subterranean.

The extremities of these branches form, sometimes, a kind of turf; and the astonished traveller finds himself, as we may say, walking on the top of a tree. The Sàlix herbàcea is the species that most frequently presents this remarkable appearance, because it generally grows on steep slopes of loose soil, particularly among the fragments of schistus, that are easily penetrated by the melting snow and the rain.” (Gard. Mag., xii. p. 235.) There are

plants at Henfield. ? Varieties. “A very remarkable kind of willow, from Sutherland, which has

all the characters of S. herbàcea, except that it grows 2 ft. high, has been sent to me by Dr. Graham, and is now alive in my garden.” (Borrer in a letter.) An unusually large variety was found by Mr. Templeton on the top of Slieve-Nance, in the county of Antrim, Ireland, similar to some of the large varieties gathered by Mr. M‘Nab of Edinburgh on the mountains of Sutherland. Mr. Moore lately sent Mr. Mackay very luxuriant specimens from Dark Mountain, in the county of Derry, Ireland. (Fl. Hibern., pt. 1. p. 253.)

# 162, S. POLA'RIS Wahlenb. The Polar Willow.
Identification. Wahlenb. Suec., p. 636. ; Fl. Lapp., p. 261. ; Koch Comm., p. 64. ; Forbes in Sal.

Wob., No. 63.
The Sexes. The female is described and figured in Sal. Wob.
Engravings. Wahl. Fl. Lapp., t. 13. f. I. ; Sal. Wob., No. 63. ; our figs. 1350. and 1351. ; and fig. 63.

in p. 1615.
Spec. Char., fc. Leaves ovate, very obtuse, nearly entire, glabrous. Catkins

of few flowers. Stem filiform, or thread-shaped. (Wahlenberg F. L.) A

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