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April, before the leaves expand. Ovary ovate lanceolate, downy. Style longer than the deeply parted stigmas. There are plants at Henfield.
Identification. Borr. in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2656., perhaps exclusively of the identification of Willd., as intimated by Mr. Borrer at t. 2795., and in his MS. list, as follows:-" I am uncertain whether S. Weigeliana Eng. Bot., 2656., and S. Weigeliana Sal. Wob., are to be distinguished, and, if so, which is S. Weigeliana Willd." Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3., p. 434.? exclusively of syn., Willd.; ? Hayne Abbild., p. 232., with a fig.
Synonymes. S. Wulfeniana Smith Eng. Fl., 4. p. 176.; Rees's Cyclo., No. 16.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 48.; excluding from each the foreign synonymes. (Borrer.)
The Sexes. Both sexes are figured in Eng. Bot. Suppl.; the male in Sal. Wob., as that of S. Wulfeniana.
Engravings. Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2656.; Sal. Wob., No. 48.; Hayne Abbild., t. 173.; our fig. 1340.; and fig. 48. in p. 1614.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves elliptical, rhomboidal, or almost round, with a short point, obsoletely crenate; glabrous on both sides, glaucous beneath. Stipules small. Catkins on short stalks. Floral leaves small. Bracteas (scales) oblong, hairy, longer than the hairy stalk of the ovary. Style longer than the stigmas. (Borrer.) It seems not uncommon in the more mountainous parts of Britain: Breadalbane in Scotland, and Yorkshire and Westmoreland, are places named. Cultivated. It is an upright shrub, about 10 ft. high. Mr. Borrer thinks it probable that it is of more humble growth in its native stations. Leaves thin, dark green, and more glittering than those of S. nìtens; the under surface very glaucous. The catkins appear earlier than the leaves, about April or May, and are very similar to those of S. nitens. It is difficult to define satisfactorily the distinctions between S. Weigeliana and S. nitens; yet the aspect of the two is unlike, from the dark hue of the whole bush in S. nìtens; and there seems to be a real difference in the structure of the leaves. (Borrer.) There are plants at Henfield.
Variety. In what seems a variety of this species, the leaves are more conspicuously toothed, rather silky when young; the shoots more downy, and the ovary pubescent towards the point only. (Borrer.)
140. S. NITENS Anders. The glittering-leaved Willow. Identification. Anders. MS.; Smith Eng. Fl., 4. p. 175.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 44.; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p. 426.; Borr. in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2655.
The Sexes. Both sexes are described and figured in Eng. Bot. Suppl.
Engravings. Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2655.; Sal. Wob., No. 44. ; fig. 1341.; and fig. 44. inp. 1613. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves ovate, or elliptical, acute, slightly serrated; nearly glabrous above, with sunk veins; glabrous and glaucous beneath. Stipules small. Catkins on short stalks. Floral leaves small. Bracteas (scales) oblong, hairy, longer than the hairy stalk of the ovary. Style longer than the stigmas. Nearly allied to S. Weigeliana, and more nearly to S. Croweana. (Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl.) Mr. G. Anderson first distinguished the kind; and the male specimens figured were derived from a plant that he communicated to Mr. Borrer: the female came from Teesdale. The kind is an upright shrub, taller, and of rather stouter growth, than S. Borreriana, which it resembles in the dark mahogany hue of its shining twigs, most remarkable in the male. Young shoots slightly pubescent. Petioles short, reddish. Disk of leaf about 1 in. long, in many instances waved or twisted; upper surface dark green, shining, more or less silky when young, afterwards glabrous, except on the midrib ; under surface glaucous, and even white. The flowers appear with Mr. Borrer earlier than the leaves, in April or May, about a fortnight later than those of S. Borreriana. Catkins of the male scarcely lin. long; of the female, by the figure, more than 1 in. There are plants at Woburn, Flitwick, Henfield, Goldworth, and Hackney.
141. S. CROWEA'NA Smith. Crowe's Willow.
Identification. Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1146.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 675. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 51.; Eng. Fl., 4. p. 192.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 52.; Hook. Br., ed. 3.
Synonymes. S. arbúscula Wahlenb., var. Koch Comm., p. 45.; S. humilis Schl. is cited in Sal. Wob. as the female of S. Croweàna Smith; ?S. heterophylla Host
The Sexes. Both sexes are described in Eng. Bot., and figured in Sal. Wob. Mr. Borrer deems the case of the combination of the filaments to be one, monstrous in the species, rather than innate and characteristic.
Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1146.; Sal. Wob., No. 52.; and our fig. 52. in p. 1615,
Spec. Char., &c. Filaments combined below. Leaves elliptical, slightly serrated, quite glabrous, glaucous beneath. (Smith Eng. Fl.) Mr. Borrer regards (Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2660.; and Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2.) the combination of the filaments as not a constitutional character of this species, but as only such of the individual, from which all the individuals that are in this case, that he has examined, have been propagated; and he regards the state as one founded in monstrosity. He has added, in argument: "Indeed," the stamens "are represented in the Salictum Woburnense as changing into" ovaries, "as those of S.bícolor Ehrhart, and some of the common sallows, have been observed to do." See notices of instances below, and in p. 1454.; and Mr. Borrer has since found this change taking place in S. Croweana, in his own garden. He views S. nitens Anderson and S. Croweana Smith as very closely akin; and, in the following notice of some differences between them which he has made (Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2660.), it may be inferred that what he deems characteristic features are noticed:-"The leaves of S. Croweana are less pointed, almost obovate; in every stage without pubescence, even in the petiole; their edges rarely waved, and more obscurely crenate; and the scales of the catkins, that is, the bracteas of the individual flower, shorter and rounder." According to Hooker's British Flora, ed. 2., Mr. Borrer finds the ovary, not downy, as Smith has described it to be, "but nearly glabrous, as figured in the Salictum Woburnense." A native of England (Smith), in swampy meadows and thickets, flowering in April and May. "S. Croweana, with submission, is not a Norfolk plant, but from the river Ettrick, near Selkirk, whence Mr. Dickson sent it to Mr. Crowe; and he gave me fresh cuttings from the same place three years ago, which turn out exactly the same individual as Crowe's from Dr. Smith. (Mr. Anderson, in a letter to Mr. Borrer, 1815.) The following traits are drawn from Smith's detailed description in his English Flora :-"A bushy shrub, usually 4 ft. or 5 ft. high, with many stout, irregularly spreading, glabrous, leafy, brittle, brownish yellow branches. Leaves alternate, perfectly glabrous, on broadish glabrous footstalks, uniformly elliptical, very rarely inclining to obovate, 1 in. long, more or less, acute, and often recurved at the extremity, contracted gradually at the base; the margin copiously, though not conspicuously, serrated, or rather crenate; the upper side of a deep shining green, under glaucous, veiny. The catkins appear before the leaves, and are about 1 in. long; those of the male of a bright yellow. This Salix, when covered with male blossoms, is amongst the most handsome; nor are the leaves destitute of beauty." S. Croweana has grown 10 ft. high with Mr. Borrer. Mr. Forbes has figured a curious monstrosity in the plant of this species which is in the Woburn salictum, of the catkins of the male changing into ovaries, with the style and stigmas perfect, as in the fertile flower. Mr. Forbes observed the progressive change of the stamens into ovaries. At first, he says, the filaments began to thicken a little in the middle when they were united, and they gradually grew into their subsequent shape, the filaments becoming pistils, and the anthers stigmas. Si: W. J. Hooker states that a similar alteration has been remarked by Mr. Borrer in S. oleifòlia, and Mr. R. Gee in S. cinèrea. There are plants at Woburn, Henfield, and Flitwick.
142. S. BICOLOR Ehrh.
The two-coloured Willow.
Identification. Ehrh. Arb., 118.; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p. 427.; ? Hayne Abbild., p. 258.
cies, and much nearer to S. arbúscula Wahlenb. Mr. Borrer has remarked on this as follows :— "I am not acquainted with S. livida Wahl. If this prove S. bicolor Ehrh., our S. bicolor, which is the plant of the German gardens, as I conclude from Mertens having given it me as S. bicolor, may bear Forbes's name of floribúnda, unless Schrader's older name, discolor, belongs to it: see "Koch, p. 46." (Borrer in a letter.)
The Sexes. The male is described in Sal. Wob, and figured in Eng. Bot. and Sal. Wob.; some notice of what Mr. Borrer deems the female is given in Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2.
Engravings Eng. Bot., t. 2186.; Sal. Wob., No. 54.; and our fig. 54. in p. 1615.; ? Hayne Abbild., t. 180., where the sex figured is the male.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves elliptical, green and shining above, glabrous and glaucous beneath; serrated, ending in oblique points. Stipules crescentshaped, serrated. Catkins of the male copious, bright yellow. Filaments slightly bearded at the base. (Sal. Wob., p. 107.) A native of Britain; flowering, in the willow garden of Woburn Abbey, in April, and again in July. A bushy spreading shrub, with short yellow branches, slightly villous when young; the older ones rather a yellowish green, quite glabrous; rising to the height of 6 ft. or 8 ft., with bright yellow catkins in April, and again in July. Leaves elliptical, acute, serrated, glabrous; shining above, glaucous and veiny beneath; glabrous in every state of growth, with the exception of a slight downiness on the very youngest leaves, which are always of a purplish colour; midrib and footstalks glabrous, yellow. Stipules crescent-shaped, serrated. This is a very ornamental species when in flower; neither are the leaves destitute of beauty; and, when the shrub is cut down, it produces tough, flexible twigs, that are good for tying, basketwork, &c. S. bicolor has become 10 ft. high with Mr. Borrer. (Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2660.) There are plants at Henfield.
143. S. PHILLYREIFO`LIA Borrer. The Phillyrea-leaved Willow. Identification. Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2660.; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2. p. 417.
The Sexes. Both sexes are described and figured in Eng. Bot. Suppl., the female in the fruitbearing state.
Engraving. Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2660.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, acute at each end, strongly serrated, glabrous on both surfaces, glaucous on the under one. Stipules small. Young shoots pubescent. Bracteas (scales) oblong, hairy, longer than the glabrous stalk of the glabrous ovary. Style as long as the stigmas. In the arrangement of the kinds, this one may stand between S. bicolor and S. Dicksoniana, in both of which the leaves are for the most part obsoletely serrated, and of a figure approaching to obovate with a point. (Borrer.) Mr. Borrer has thus stated its localities in a wild state. Highland valleys of Scotland, particularly in Glen Tarfe, near Fort Augustus, Inverness-shire; and in the vicinity of Ben Lawers, Perthshire. He has termed it a beautiful kind. The male, growing in his garden since 1810, had become, in 1830, an upright much branched shrub, about 5 ft. high; and it flowers in about the middle of April, before the leaves appear, and sometimes again at midsummer. Catkins numerous, cylindrical, in. long, closely set with flowers. The leaves, in size, figure, and serratures, bear no slight resemblance to those of Phillyrea latifolia : when young, they are sprinkled on both surfaces with minute appressed hairs, but become at length glabrous, except in the upper surface of the petiole and midrib. The disk of the leaf is scarcely more than 1 in. long, and has its upper surface of a bright, shining, full green; the under surface bluish: the petiole is about a third of the length of the disk. There are plants at Henfield.
144. S. DICKSONIA NA Smith. Dickson's Willow.
Identification. Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1890. the figure is bad, and has led to doubts as to this species, which only authenticated specimens could remove. (Borrer in Eng. Bot Suppl., t. 2663., incidentally.) Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 696. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 60. ; Eng. Fl., 4. p. 196.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 55.; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3.
Synonyme. S. myrtillöides Smith Ft. Brit., p. 1056., not of Lin.
The Sexes. The female is described in Eng. Fl. and Sal. Wob., and figured in Eng. Bot. and Sal.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves elliptical, acute, slightly toothed, glabrous; glaucous beneath. Young branches very glabrous. Catkins ovate, short, erect. Ovary stalked, ovate, silky. Stigmas nearly sessile. (Smith Eng. Fl., iv. p. 196.) Leaves, for the most part, obsoletely serrated, and of a figure approaching to obovate with a point. Ovary and its stalk densely silky. (Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2660., incidentally.) A native of Scotland; flowering in April. The following traits are derived from Mr. Forbes's description :-"A low-growing upright shrub, attaining the height of 18 in. or 2 ft., with smooth yellow branches; the preceding year's are greenish and scaly. The leaves are elliptic, obovate, minutely serrated in the middle, or denticulated; entire at both extremities; glabrous and shining above, and very glaucous
underneath. The footstalks are long and slender, dilated at the base." From the remarks made by Sir W. J. Hooker in Brit. Fl. (ed. 2.), and by Mr. Forbes, there seems to be a good deal of uncertainty as to this species; which, as far as we are concerned, must be left to time, and the examination of plants in a living state, to be cleared up. There are plants at Henfield.
Group xix. Vacciniifolia Borrer.
Small, and generally procumbent, Shrubs.
Stamens 2 to a flower. Ovary sessile, downy. Leaves bearing a considerable resemblance to those of a Vaccinium; opaque; the under surface glaucous. Plants, small shrubs, usually procumbent, rarely erect. (Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., adapted.) It is probable that S. arbúscula L. is the same as one or more of the four kinds, S. vacciniifòlia Walker, S. carinàta Smith, S. prunifolia Smith, and S. venulòsa Smith. (Borrer in his manuscript list.)
145. S. FACCINIIFO`LIA Walker. The Vaccinium-leaved Willow. Identification. Walker's Essay on Nat. Hist. (Hook Br. Fl., ed. 2.), ed. 1812, p. 460.; Smith Eng. Bot., t. 2341.; Rees's Cyclo., No. 56.; Eng. Fl., 4. p. 194.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 57.; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3.
Synonyme. S. prunifolia, part of, Koch Comm., p. 69.
The Sexes. Both sexes are figured in Eng. Bot. and Sal. Wob.
Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 2341.; Sal. Wob., No. 57.; our fig. 1342., and fig. 57. in p. 1615.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves lanceolate-ovate, serrated; glabrous and even above, glaucous and silky beneath. Capsules ovate, silky. Stems decumbent. (Smith Eng. Fl.) A native of Scotland, on Highland mountains; flowering in May. A low decumbent shrub, very distinct from S. prunifolia, of a much more humble stature, with decumbent, or trailing, long, and slender branches, silky when young, though otherwise glabrous. Leaves of but half the breadth of those of S. prunifolia or S. venulosa, covered at the back with close, delicate, almost invisible, silky hairs, and likewise very glaucous; the floral ones ovate, obtuse, on long silky footstalks, and beautifully silky at the back, especially when young; the upper surface of all the leaves even and glabrous, nearly as much so as in S. prunifolia. "An humble and pretty little shrub, which I had referred (in Flora Scot.) to a variety of S. prunifolia, and which is very closely allied to S. carinata, prunifolia, and venulosa." (Hook.) Of all the willows, it most resembles in foliage the Vaccinium Myrtillus L., or bilberry. The leaves have the teeth each terminated by a small spherical gland, and these are, especially in early summer, of a pretty bright yellow colour. (Walk. Ess., ed. 1812, p. 461.) There are plants at Woburn, Henfield, and Flitwick, and in the Goldworth Arboretum.
146. S. CARINA'TA Smith. The keeled, or folded-leaved, Willow. Identification. Smith Fl. Br., 1055.; Eng. Bot., t. 1363.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 680.; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 63. ; Eng. Fl., 4. p. 197., Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 59.; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3. Synonyme. S. prunifolia, part of, Koch Comm., p. 58.
The Sexes. The female is figured in Eng. Bot. and in Sal. Wob.
Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1363.; Sal. Wob., No. 59. ; and fig. 59. in p. 1615.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves ovate, finely toothed, glabrous, minutely veined, folded into a keel. Catkins cylindrical, with rounded hairy bracteas. Ovary sessile, ovate, silky. (Smith Eng. Fl.) A native of the Highlands of Scotland, on mountains; flowering there in June, and, in the willow garden at Woburn Abbey, in April, and again in August. Larger and more erect than S. prunifolia or S. venuldsa, to both which it is nearly related in the fertile catkins Mr. Forbes considers this too different from S. vacciniifolia and S. venulòsa, to require any detailed comparative view of them. There are plants at Woburn and Flitwick.
147. S. PRUNIFOLIA Smith.
The Plum-leaved Willow.
Identification. Smith Fl. Br., p. 1054.; Eng. Bot., t. 1361.; Rees's Cyclo., No. 55.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4.
Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1361.; Sal. Wob., No. 56.; and our fig. 1615.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves broadly ovate, serrated, glabrous on both sides; even above, glaucous beneath. Stem erect, much branched. Capsules ovate, shaggy, like the bracteas, with silky hairs. (Smith Eng. Fl.) A native of Scotland; flowering in April. Described by Smith as a bushy shrub, often 3ft. high, with spreading branches; the whole erect, or ascending, not decum
bent. In the Woburn salictum, it grows about 18 in. high, quite upright. Young branches brown, bearing a little short, soft, curved down; not rigid prominent hairs, as in the S. betulifòlia Forster. Leaves broadly ovate, tolerably uniform, lin. long, or rather more, bluntly pointed, serrated throughout, but not deeply; quite glabrous, even, of a full shining green on the upper surface, without any prominent veins; glaucous, veiny when very young only, besprinkled with a few silky close hairs, beneath. Catkins obtuse, of a brownish purple, much shorter than those of S. vaccinifòlia, S. venulòsa, and S. carinata; and more like those of S. betulifòlia Forster. The branches are, likewise, more thickly clothed with upright, shorter leaves, than those of either S. venulòsa or S. vacciniifòlia. The above is derived partly from Smith, and partly from Forbes. There are plants at Woburn and Flitwick.
S. p. stylo longiore Koch, style longer; S. prunifolia Ser. Sal. Helv.,. p. 49.; S. formosa Willd. Sp. Pl., iv. p. 680.; S. fœ'tida Schleich. Cent., ii. n. 95.; S. alpina Sut. Helv., p. 283.-This is wild in Switzerland. (Koch Comm.) S. formòsa Willd. is registered in Sweet's Hortus Britannicus as introduced in 1820.
148. S. VENULO'SA Smith. The veiny-leaved Willow.
Identification. Smith Fl. Br., 1055.; Eng. Bot., 1362.; Rees's Cyclo., No. 57.; Eng. Fl., 4. p. 195. Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 58.; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3.
Synonyme. S. prunifolia, part of, Koch Comm., p. 41.
The Sexes. The female is figured in Eng. Bot. and Sal. Wob.
Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1362.; Sal. Wob., No. 56.; and fig. 56. in p. 1615.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves ovate, serrated, naked, reticulated with prominent? veins above, rather glaucous beneath. Capsules ovate, silky. Stem erect, much branched, (Smith Eng. Fl.) A native of Scotland, on the Breadalbane Mountains, where the blossoms are in perfection in June; but in gardens they flower in April; and, in the willow garden at Woburn Abbey, they flower a second time in August. In size and general habit, this species agrees with S. prunifòlia; but the somewhat narrower leaves differ materially on their upper surface, in their prominent, elegantly reticulated veins, conspicuous in the dried as well as growing specimens, especially towards the margin. The under side is generally less glaucous than in the two last; and, in having many close-pressed hairs, comes nearest to S. vacciniifolia. Catkins much longer and more slender than in S. prunifolia; and the whole shrub is more erect, and grows in the Woburn collection to twice the height of either S. prunifolia or S. vacciniifolia. Sir W. J. Hooker agrees with Mr. E. Forster, in considering S. venuldsa as only a variety of S. prunifolia; and, indeed, he doubts if S. prunifolia, S. carinàta, and S. vacciniifolia, with S. venulosa, are not different states of the same species; and Koch and Dr. Lindley are of this opinion, having included them all under one species, S. prunifolia. We accordingly consider those forms as varieties, though we have treated them, to a certain extent, as if they were species, for the sake of those who differ from us in opinion. Mr. Borrer has remarked, in the manuscript list with which he has favoured us, that probably S. arbúscula L. is the same as one or more of the kinds S. vacciniifolia Walk., S. carinata Smith, S. prunifolia Smith, and S. venulosa Smith. There are plants at Woburn, Henfield, and Flitwick.
149. S. CE'SIA Villars. The grey-leaved Willow.
Identification. Villars Dauph., 3. 768.; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 80.; Koch Comm., p. 59. Synonymes. S. myrtillöldes Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 686., exclusively of the synonymes of Linnæus (Borrer), Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 66. (Borrer); S. prostràta Ehrh. Pl. Select., p. 159., according to Seringe (Koch).
The Sexes. The female is described and figured in Sal. Wob.
Engravings. Villars Dauph., 3. t. 50. f. 11.; Sal. Wob., No. 66.; and our fig. 66. in p. 1616. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves elliptic or lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous, not shining, entire and revolute at the edge. Catkin upon a short leafy twiglet. Capsule ovate-conical, tomentose, seemingly sessile, eventually having a very short stalk. Gland reaching as high as the base of the capsule. Style shortish. Stigmas ovate-oblong, entire, and bifid. (Koch.) Wild in the Alps of Dauphiné, and in Savoy, upon the mountain Enzeindog. (Id.) Registered as introduced in 1824. Mr. Forbes has given a detailed description, whence we quote as follows:-" A low straggling shrub, attaining the height of 3 ft. or 4 ft., with slender shortish branches, dark brown on their upper side, pale beneath, somewhat wrinkled or striated. Leaves about 1 in. long, perfectly entire, wavy, with a short sharp point; very glabrous, glaucous and veiny beneath; lower opposite, upper alternate. Catkins from in. to nearly 1 in. in length, appearing, in the willow garden at Woburn Abbey, along with the leaves, in April or May, and again in August. Koch has noted (Comm., p. 52.) that S. cæ'sia Villars differs from