Page images

more in length, downy. Catkins from 2 in. to 3 in. long when matured. The branches are brittle, and apt to break when used for tying. There are plants at Woburn, Henfield, and Flitwick.

Group xviii. Bicolòres Borrer.
Bushy Shrubs, with Leaves dark green abore, and glaucous beneath.

[ocr errors]

Stamens 2 to a flower. Ovaries silky. Leaves between obovate and lanceo

late, glabrous, or nearly so; dark green on the upper surface, very glaucous on the under one. Plants twiggy bushes. (Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., adapted.) Koch has included under one species, to which he has applied the name S. arbúscula Wahlenberg, several of the species or kinds of this group. The constituents of this species are as follows: As synonymes, S. arbúscula Wahlenb. Fl. Lapp., No. 476., Fl. Suec., No. 1122.; S. arbúscula a Lin. Suec., No. 386., Sp. Pl., p. 1445., not of Smith, nor Vahl, nor Jacq. As varieties, Lin. Fl. Lapp., t. 8. f. c.; S. phylicifòlia Smith Fl. Brit.;

S. radicans Smith Fl. Brit. ; S. tétrapla Walker; S. humilis Willd. Berl. Baumz.; S. Dicksoniàna Smith; S. Weigeliana Willd. Sp. Pl., p. 678.; S. laúrina Smith ; S. majàlis Wahlenb. Fl. Lapp., p. 270.; S. tenuifolia Smith Fl. Brit.; S. petræ'a Anderson ; S. Croweana Smith. Dr. Lindley, in his Synopsis of the British Flora, has added to these the following kinds, elucidated by Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl., and treated as species below: - S. laxiflòra Borrer; s. phillyreifolia Borrer; S. propinqua Borrer; S. Weigeliana Borrer ; S. nitens Smith ; S. tenùior Borrer. "In the part of the prefatory matter of the group Nigricántes, relating to S. phylicifolia Koch, some information on the

above S. arbúscula Koch is incidentally given. * 129. S. tenu'IOR Borrer. The narrower-leaved intermediate Willow. Identification. Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2650. ; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p. 425. Synonymes

. Specimens were communicated to Smith, who appears to have united this kind with the S. laurina Smith, the S. bicolor Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1806. (Borrer.) The Sexes. The female is described and figured in Eng. Bot. Suppl. ; the male is not known. Engraving. Eng. Bot. Suppb, t. 2650. Spec. Char., fc. Disk of leaf obovate-lanceolate, acute, obsoletely crenate,

flat; glabrous on both surfaces, glaucous on the under one. Petiole slender. Stipules acute, glandulose. Catkin slender. Flowers laxly disposed in the catkin. Bracteas (scales) acute, longer than the silky stalk of the capsule. Style longer than the ovate stigmas. (Borrer.) Found by the river Lochy, near Killin, in Breadalbane. The specimens figured were taken from a plant brought thence in 1810. An upright shrub, 15 ft. or more high. Branches loosely spreading. Disk of leaves about 2 in. long, when first unfolded, sprinkled with appressed hairs on both surfaces, but soon becoming glabrous except the midrib; upper surface dark green and shining. Petiole long, pale, downy. The flowers appear, with Mr. Borrer, earlier than the leaves, about the beginning of May. Catkin about 1 in. long, while the flowers are in blossom; eventually about 2 in. Mr. Borrer has indicated its affinity as follows : Very near S. laúrina Smith ; and, like it, intermediate between the common sallows and the glabrous brightleaved affinities of S. phylicifolia ; resembling some of the former more nearly in general habit and in the shape of the leaves ; the latter, in the deciduous nature of the pubescence, and in the glandulose stipules. S. nigricans angustifolia Seringe Saules de la Suisse, No. 22. : it is very similar to S. tenuior Borrer. There are plants at Henfield, and in the Goldworth Arboretum.

130. S. LAXIFLO'RA Borr. The loose-catkined Willow. Identification. Borr. in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2749.; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3. The Sexes. The female is described and figured in Eng. Bot. Suppl. The male plant is not known. Engraving. Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2749. Spec. Char., fc. Upright. Young shoots slightly pubescent. Leaves gla

brous, flat, broadly obovate, narrower to the base, slightly toothed, glaucescent beneath; upper leaves acute. Stipules small, concave Flowers loosely disposed in the catkin. Ovary stalked, bluntish, glabrous in the lower part. Style as long as the linear divided stigmas. (Borrer in E. B. Suppl.) Wild at Killin, in Breadalbane, where it was observed in 1810. Mr. G. Anderson had previously distinguished it, and communicated to Mr. Borrer the plant from which the specimens figured were taken, but without informing Mr. Borrer in what part of Britain he had found the kind. That plant has formed a tree-like shrub, more than 12 ft. high, with crooked, divaricated branches, and flowers in April. The twigs are shining, greenish grey or slightly tinged with brown; at first, sparingly and inconspicuously pubescent. Leaves lin. to l?in. long; bright green and shining above, more or less glaucous beneath. Catkin about 1 in. long when the flowers are in blossom, which are loosely set in the catkin. It flowers in April. It resembles S. laurina in the figure of the leaves; but that kind differs in its more acutely angled ramification ; its mahogany-coloured twigs, densely cottony while young; the abundance of short appressed hairs present on both surfaces of the young leaves; the more awl-shaped ovary, white all over with cottony hairs; and the shorter style, with short stigmas, the segments of which usually adhere together. (Borrer in E. B.

Suppl. ; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3.) * 131. S. LAU'Rina Smith. The Laurel-leaved, or shining dark green,

Identification. Smith Lin. Soc. Trans., 6. p. 122. ; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p. 425.
Synonymes. S. bícolor Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1806.,' Eng. Fl., 4. p. 178., Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 38.;

S. arbúscula Wahlenb. var. Koch Comm., p. 45.
The Sexes. The female is described in Eng. Fl., and figured in Eng. Bot. and Sal. Wob.
Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1806. ; Sal. ob., t. 38. ; our fig. 1338. ; and fig. 38. in p. 1612.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves elliptic-oblong, acute, waved,
and slightly serrated, nearly glabrous; glaucous be-
neath. Footstalks dilated at the base. Stipules
pointed, serrated. Bracteas obtuse, hairy, and half
as long as the densely downy, ovate, long-stalked
ovary. (Smith Eng. Fl.) A native of Britain, in
various parts; growing plentifully in woods and
thickets ; flowering in March and April. A shrub
or small tree. Branches at first erect, or wand-like,
round, of a mahogany-colour, beset with copious
nearly upright leaves, and attaining the height of

1338 6 ft. Catkins earlier than the foliage. If neglected, the plant becomes a small tree. (Smith.) The twigs are very brittle, and unfit for any useful purpose. (Forbes.) There are plants at Woburn and Henfield; also in the Goldworth and Hackney arboretums.

9 132. S. PA'Tens Forbes. The spreading-branched Willow. Identification. Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 39. The Sexes. The female is described and figured in Sal. Wob. Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 39.; and our fig. 39. in p. 1612, Spec. Char., &c. Stem spreading. Leaves elliptical, entire; glabrous, green

and shining above; veiny, glabrous, and glaucous beneath. Stipules lanceolate, very minute, withering. Ovary sessile, ovate-lanceolate, silky. Style longer than the parted stigmas. (Sal. Wob., p. 77.) The native country of this species is not given. It is a branching shrub, about 3 st. or 4 ft. high, with short, spreading, dark brown branches, slightly villous only when in their youngest state. The leaves are lin. long; and sometimes 2 in. long, and 1'in. in breadth, on luxuriant shoots; much resembling those


of S. laúrina. The catkins appear with the leaves in May, and the plant produces them a second time in August. The general length of the young twigs is from 6 in. to 8 in.; but this species is not likely to be applicable to basket-making. There are plants at Woburn, Henfield, and Flitwick.

* 133. S. Radi'cans Smith. The rooting-branched Willow. Identification. Smith Fl. Brit., p. 1053. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 676. (Smith); Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2.,

p. 428.; Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 1701., in the text. Synonymes. S. phylicifolia Lin. Fl. Lapp., No. 351., t. 8. f. d., Smith Fl. Brit., p. 1049., Eng. Bot., t. 1958., Eng. Fl., 4. p. 173. “The original Lapland specimen of S phyliciídlia in the Linnaan herbarium is indubitably, as was long since stated by Smith, the S. phylicifolia of Eng. Bot.,

t. 1958." (Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2709 ) "As Linnæus no doubt included several other willows," besides the Lapland S. phylicifolia, noticed above, “under his S. phylicifolia, it would be better to call” the kind of Eng. Bot." by Smith's first name, radicans." (Borrer, quoted in Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2.) S. phylicifolia

Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 46.; S. arbúscula Wahlenb. var. Koch Comm., p. 14. The Sexes. The female is described in Eng. Fl., where

Smith has noticed that he had not observed the catkins of the male. The female

is figured in Eng. Bot. and Sal. Wob. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1958. ; Sal. Wob., No. 46.; and our fig. 46. in p. 1614. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, with wavy serratures, very glabrous ;

glaucous beneath. Stipules glandular on the inside. Ovary lanceolate, stalked, silky. Style twice the length of the stigmas. Branches trailing. (Smith Eng Fl.) The following traits are also derived from Smith. A low, spreading, glabrous bush, whose long, recumbent, brown or purplish branches take root as they extend in every direction. Leaves on shortish stalks, not much spreading, about 2 in. long, not 1 in. broad; very acute at the point, not at all rounded at the base; glabrous at all times, except an obscure downiness on the midrib above; harsh to the touch, bitter, variously crenated or serrated; the serratures peculiarly, and sometimes very remarkably, undulated; the upper side of a dark shining green, and the under glaucous. “A perfectly distinct plant, in its low mode of growth, from S. Borreriàna and S. Davalliana, and from all the other British species with which I am acquainted.” (Forbes.) Mr. Borrer has described incidentally, at the end of his account of s. Davalliàna in the Eng. Bot. Suppl. t. 2701., characters of S. radicans in contrast with characters of S. Davalliana. One of these is, that S. radicans flowers a full fortnight later than S. Dayalliana,

* 134. S. BORRERIA'Na Smith. Borrer's, or the dark upright, Willow. Identification. Smith Eng. Fl., 4. p. 174.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 45. ; Borr. in Eng. Bot. Suppl.,

t. 2619.; Hook, Br. Fl., ed. 3. The Sexes. The male is described in Eng. Fl. and Eng. Bot. Suppl., and figured in Sal. Wob. and Eng. Bot. Suppl. Mr. W. Wilson and Sir W. J. Hooker have found the female at Killin, in

Breadalbane. (Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2) Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 45. ; Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2619. ; our fig. 1339. ; and fig. 45, in p. 1614. Spec. Char., fc. Branches erect. Leaves lanceolate, serrated with shallow

nearly even serratures, very glabrous; glaucous beneath. Stipules lanceolate, small. Bracteas (scales) acute, shaggy. (Smith E. F., Borr. E. B. S.) It is nearly allied to $. phylicifòlia Eng. Bot., t. 1958. ; but seems distinct, differing much in its mode of growth and habit, and its narrower and truly lanceolate leaves. (Borr.) Native to Scotland, in Highland mountain valleys: Breadalbane, Killin in Breadalbane, and Glen Nevis, are the localities mentioned. It was first discovered by Mr. Borrer, who has given a detailed description of it in Eng. Bot. Suppl., from which the following traits are derived: - A much-branched shrub, decumbent at the base only, about 10 ft. high. Large branches ash-coloured. Twigs spreading or ascending, short, soon becoming of a deep mahogany hue, and glabrous.

1339 Buds large. Disk of the leat lanceolate, tapering to each end, about 2 in. long, and 3 in. or more wide; keeled, twisted; dark green and shining on the upper" surface, glaucous on the under one; glabrous on both, except a few scattered silky hairs on cach; in the leaves of young shoots, closely

in Sal. Wob. erroneous,

crenate, or notched with shallow, fat, or slightly waved, gland-pointed teeth. Petiole about a quarter of the length of the disk. Catkins of the male numerous and showy; produced about the beginning of April, earlier than in the generality of mountain willows. (E. B. S.) Ovary lanceolate subulate, on a long stalk, quite glabrous; style long, bifid; stigmas linear, bifid. (Hooker.) This kind, cultivated in the willow garden at Woburn Abbey, produced its flowers before the expansion of the leaves in April ; and again, when the plant was in full leaf, in July. Trained to a single sten, it would form a very handsome small tree for suburban gardens. There are plants at Flitwick and Woburn.

. 135. S. DAVALLIA'NA Smith, Davall's Willow. Identification. Smith Eng. Fl., 4. p. 175., as far as to the Scottish kind ; Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2701. ; Smith's British specimens, not his Swiss one,

were taken from the same individual as ours (Borrer); Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 47. ; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3. Synonymes. S. tétrapla Walker (Anderson); S. phylicifólia Willd. (Mertens) ; these relate to the

female of the Scottish kind (Borrer): S. thymelæðides Schleicher. (Forbes in Sal. Wob.) The Sexes. The female is described and figured in Eng. Bot. Suppl. Mr. Borrer is not acquainted with the male, but has added a figure of a specimen of what Mr. Anderson regarded as such, prepared from a sketch made from one of Mr. Anderson's specimens in 1811. Two sexes are figured

As it is most probable that Mr. Borrer knew of these, perhaps he deemed the male Engravings. Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2701. ; Sal. Wob., No. 47. ; and our fig. 47. in p. 1614. Spec. Char., &c. Upright. Leaves obovate lanceolate, fattish, very acutely

pointed, obscurely toothed or serrated; glabrous on both surfaces, somewhat glaucous on the under one. Stipules minute. Young shoots and petioles pubescent. Bracteas obovate, silky. Ovary stalked, acute, silky. Style as long as the divided stigmas. (Borr. in Eng. Bot. Suppl.) The female is a native of Scotland. We have specimens from Teesdale that seem of the same species. (Borr.) A bushy shrub, with ascending branches, scarcely exceeding 4 ft. high. Twigs tinged with brown. (Borr.) It grows with me to from 6 ft. to 7 ft. high, with upright, dark brown, shining branches. (Forbes.) Leaves about 1} in. long, (Borr.), 1 in. broad, on luxuriant shoots (Forbes); upper surface dark green and shining, under surface pale, and more or less glaucous. Petiole rather long and slender. Catkins of the female about 1 in. long. The flowers appear when the leaves begin to expand, about the end of April. (Borr.) There are plants at Woburn, Hen

field, and Flitwick. ? Variety. vs. Davalliàna Smith, the Swiss kind. (Smith Eng. Fl., iv. p. 175.)

- Bor rer has not identified, in Eng. Bot. Suppl., this with the Scottish kind; hence it becomes right to register it separately. The following notice of it is derived from Smith Eng. Fl.: — M. Davall sent a specimen of the kind to Smith, in 1790, from Switzerland. This specimen, when shown to Professor Mertens, was pronounced by him to be of the S. phylicifolia of Willdenow and other German botanists. “It is not, however, that of Linnæus, nor, apparently, that of Wahlenberg.” It agrees with the female of the Scottish kind, except that the ovary, and all parts of the catkin, are much less silky.

136. S. TE'TRAPLA Smith. The four-ranked Willow. Identification. Smith Eng. Fl., 4. p. 177., exclusively of the citation of Walker; Hook. Br. Fl., ed 2.,

p. 426., exclusively of the citation of Walker; Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2702. ; ? Forbes in Sal. Wob., t. 49. Borrer has not quoted the last. The Scres. The female is described and figured in Eng. Bot. : the figure in Sal. Wob., whether of this kind or not, is of the female; and a male is described there. Male flowers not known to Mr. Borrer ; but who has found S. ramifúsca Forbes (Sal. Wob., t. 53.), from recent specimens in leaf, so similar to S. tétrapla Smith, that he can scarcely doubt of that being the male of this. Engravings. Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2702 ; ? Sal. Wob., No. 49.; and our fig. 49. in p. 1614. Spec. Char., &c. Upright. Leaves lanceolate, twisted, somewhat carinate,

very acutely pointed, serrated; nearly glabrous on both surfaces, glaucous on the under one. Stipules small, half-heart-shaped. Young shoots and petioles pubescent. Bracteas lanceolate, silky. Ovary stalked, bluntish, glabrous on the lower part. Style longer than the divided stigmas. (Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl.) Wild in Breadalbane, Scotland. Cuttings brought thence in 1810 produced plants that, in 1831, were upright shrubs, 12 ft. to 15 ft. high. Twigs straight, spreading, slightly tinged with brown. Leaves scarcely z in. long, except on luxuriant young shoots ; rather rigid. Catkins of the female scarcely i in. long while the flowers are in blossom. Mr. Borrer has thus contrasted the kind with S. Davalliāna :- It is much taller. The leaves are rather longer, and more spreading ; less shining, and of a duller green above, and whiter on the under surface; and the flowers differ. The following traits of S. tétrapla are derived from Smith's description:-“The whole shrub is larger than S. Wulfeniāna (S. Weigeliàna Borr.); the leaves longer more elliptical, and more pointed, with unequal, coarse, and wavy serratures; deep green above; finely glaucous, with prominent pale or reddish veins beneath ; glabrous, except a very minute, short, dense downiness on the upper side of the midrib and of the footstalks: sometimes even this slight pubescence is wanting.” In conjunction with Mr. Forster, Mr. Forbes compared this species with his S. Wulfeniana, to which, he says, it does not bear the least alliance. Mr. Forbes notes it as flowering in April. There are plants at Woburn and Henfield; also in the Hackney arboretum.

$ 137, S. RAMIFU'sca Forbes, ? Anders. The brown-branched Willow. Identification. Mr. Forbcs states that he obtained this new British species from Mr. Mackay of the Dublin Botanic Garden, who received it from the late Mr. George Anderson. (Sal. Wob.,

No. 53.) Synonyme. We find S. ramifúsca Sal. Wob., t. 53., from recent specimens in leaf, so similar to our S. tétrapla, that we can scarcely doubt its being the male of that species. (Borr. in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2702) The Seres. The male is described and figured in Sal. Wob. Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 53. ; and our fig. 53. in p. 1615. Spec. Char., fc. Stem erect. Leaves elliptic-acute, serrated; shining above; glabrous, reticulated, and glaucous beneath. Stipules half-heart-shaped, serrated, and withering. Branches yellowish brown, pubescent when young. Catkins nearly 1 in. long, on short stalks. Anthers yellow, of 4 lobes. (Sal. Wob., p. 105.) A native of Britain, but where is not stated; flowering, in the Woburn salictum, in April, before the expansion of the leaves, and again in July. An upright kind, attaining the height of between 12 ft. and 14 ft., with round, glabrous, dark green branches, of the preceding year's growth. The young twigs of a brownish yellow, slightly downy when young. Leaves alternate, somewbat erect, elliptical, acute, approaching to an ovate shape when fully grown; glabrous and shining on their upper surface,glaucous and reticulated beneath; the two or three youngest leaves only slightly downy, as also the tops of the young branches. Footstalks villous above, glabrous beneath, as also the midrib. Catkins nearly 1 in. long; often two catkins bursting from the same bud. There are plants at Woburn, Henfield, Flitwick, and also in the Goldworth Arboretum.

$ 138. S. FORBESIA'NA. Forbes's Willow. Synonyme. S. Weigeliana Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 51., ?Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 678. (Forbes.) Mr. Borrer

has advised us, in his MS. list, that he is not certain whether s.Weigeliana Eng. Bot. Suppl. and S. Weigeliana Sal. Wob. are to be distinguished, and, if they are, which is the S. Weigeliåna Willd. See, also, Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2656. and t. 2795. While S. Weigeliana Forbes remains unidentified with any other kind, it must be treated of as a distinct one. The Sexes. The female is described and figured in Sal. Wob. Mr. Borrer has expressed the opinion that he has both male and female specimens of S. Weigelidna Forbes from the Highlands of Scot. land (Borr. in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2795.) Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 51. ; and our fig. 51. in p. 1615. Spec. Char., &c. The following is the amount of Mr. Forbes's original description, taken separately from

what he has quoted from Willdenow :-- Upright, bushy, 5 ft. to 6 ft. high. Branches glabrous, brown. Leaves elliptic, acute, serrated, or finely toothed; entire towards the base; bright green and shining on the upper surface, glaucous and pale on the under one, where the veins are parallel, arched, and prominent. Stipules remarkably small, soon falling off. Catkins appearing, in the willow garden at Woburn Abbey, in

« PreviousContinue »