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among other species of Salix, it was 16 ft. high in 1834, after being 10 years planted. This species forms an upright bushy shrub or tree, with elliptical leaves; the lower ones entire; the upper finely serrated, green, and a little villous; shining above; glaucous, pubescent, reticulated, and whitish beneath. There are plants at Woburn, Flitwick, Henfield, Goldworth, and Hackney.

1 86. S. MACROSTIPULACEA Forbes. The large-stipuled Sallow. Identification. Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 130. The Seres. The female is described and figured in Sal. Wob. Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 130. ; and fig. 130. in p. 1627. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, somewhat obovate, pointed, serrated, entire towards the base; upper side dull green and glabrous, glaucous beneath. Stipules very large, toothed, often cloven. Ovary stalked, ovate-subulate, glabrous. Stigmas parted. (Sal. Wob., p. 259.) A native of Switzerland. Introduced in ? 1824, and lowering in April and May. A rapid-growing tree, with dark green, round, downy branches, marked with small yellow or reddish spots; the lower branches pendulous. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, acute, 3 in. or 4 in. long, and l} in. or more in breadth; base obtuse, entire, dilated above the middle; margins rather distinctly serrated; the upper side green and glabrous; under side glaucous, with a downy midrib and veins. Footstalks reddish and downy, stout, measuring full { in. long. Stipules large. Young leaves purplish, soft to the touch, and pubescent. Adult ones rather coriaceous, copiously marked beneath with dark blotches. Catkins of the female from 1. in. to 2 in. long. There are plants at Woburn, Henfield, and Flitwick, and also at Hackney.

1 87. S. INCANE'scENs ? Schl. The whitish-leaved Sallow. Identification. ? Schl. as quoted in Sweet Hort. Brit., ed. 1830, p. 169.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 120. The Seres. The fernale is described and figured in Sal. Wob. Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 120.; and fig. 120. in p. 1625. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves elliptic, obovate, serrated or denticulated; greyish

green and downy above; very downy, whitish, and reticulated beneath. Stipules rounded, serrated. Ovary ovate-lanceolate, downy. Style short. Stigmas ovate, entire. (Sal. Wob., p. 239.) A native of Switzerland. Introduced in 1823. Flowering in March, at which time the catkins are nearly sessile ; and again in August. A bushy shrub or tree; the branches round, pubescent, and of a muddy green colour, marked with a few yellow spots, having the appearance of being besmeared with clay. Leaves obovate, about 2 in. long, and a little more than ) in. wide; margins a little revolute; deeply denticulated ; denticles a little glandular; the upper side densely pubescent, wrinkled ; the midrib ferruginous; beneath, pubescent, reticulated, of a whitish colour, with prominent arched veins; midrib pale beneath, and prominent. Footstalks shortish and stout, dilated at the base, and downy. Catkins from lin. to 1} in. long, appearing before the expansion of the leaves, in March; and again in August. "Ill adapted to any useful purpose.(Forbes.)

• 1 88. S. PANNO'sa Forbes. The cloth-leaved Sallow. Identification. Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 123. The Seres. The female is described and figured in Sal. Wob. Engravings. Sal. Wob., t. 123. ; and fig. 123. in p. 1626. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves elliptic-obovate, serrated; green and downy above,

greyish and densely pubescent beneath. Stipules large, serrated, glaucous. Ovary ovate-lanceolate, silky, on a short footstalk. Style glabrous. Stigmas undivided. (Sal. Wob., p. 245.) A native of Switzerland. Introduced in 1824, and flowering, in the Woburn salictum, in April and May. "A small tree, growing to the height of 12 ft. or 14 ft., with oblique spreading branches, which are of a darkish fuscous colour, and closely covered with a short pubescence; the young twigs are of a greyish brown, and densely downy. Leaves from 11 in. to 2 in. long, about 1 in, in breadth; elliptic-obovate; dull

green and downy on their upper surface; greyish, densely pubescent, and denticulated with prominent arched veins beneath; the small ones nearly covered with pubescence; the margins serrated, entire towards the base ; tip oblique. Many of the leaves are opposite or nearly so, and alternate, on the same branch. Footstalks stout. Catkins about 1 in. long. There

are plants at Woburn, Flitwick, Henfield, and Hackney. ? Variety. Mr. Forbes received a kind of Sàlix, under the name of S.

mollis, which, as compared with S. pannòsa, had its leaf, catkin, ovary, and bractea larger; and the catkins often recurved, and devoid of floral leaves. Mr. Forbes expresses himself doubtful whether it is sufficiently distinct from S. pannòsa to constitute a distinct species.

. 89. S. muta'bilis Forbes. The changeable Willow, or Sallow. Identification. Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 160. The Seres. The female is described in Sal. Wob. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves elliptic, remotely serrated ; dull green and pubescent

above; pale glaucous and hairy beneath. Stipules rounded, serrated, and minute. Ovary stalked, ovate-lanceolate, silky. Style somewhat elongated and stout. Stigmas cloven. It bears an affinity to S. pannòsa in catkins and mode of growth. (Sal, Wob., p. 288.) A native of Switzerland. Introduced in ? 1824, and flowering in March and April. Branches densely downy, copiously beset with somewhat elliptical leaves, which are of a dull green colour above, pale and hairy beneath, with prominent veins, the subdivisions of which form a rectangular network; their substance is rather of a thin crackling texture; the young leaves are very hairy in their earliest state. There are plants at Woburn and in the Hackney arboretum.

* 90. S. cine'rea L. The grey Sallow, or ash-coloured Willow. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 1449. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 690., exclusively of the syn. of Villars ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 94., where Smith has remarked that Willdenow's description disagrees, in some points, with his plant ; Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1897. ; Eng. Fl., 4. p. 215.; Forbes in Sal Wob.,

No. 125. ; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3. ; Mackay Fl. Hibern., pt. 1. p. 250. Synonymes. S. cinèrea var. Koch Comm., p. 36. The following information is derived from Mr. Borrer. Smith has erroneously cited, in his Fl. Br., p. 1063., the S. daphnöldes Villars as a synonyme of S. cinerea Smith; and this has led Koch (Comm., p. 23.) to cite S. cinerea Smith as a synonyme of S. daphnätdes Villars. The Seres. Both sexes are figured in Sal. Wob. The male is figured in Eng. Bot. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1897. ; Sal. Wob., No. 125. ; our fig. 1332.; and fig. 125. in p. 1626. Spec. Char., &c. Stem erect. Lower leaves entire; upper serrated, obovate

lanceolate; glaucous, downy, and reticulated with veins beneath. Stipules half-heart-shaped, serrated. Ovary silky; its stalk half as long as the lanceolate bracteas. (Smith Eng. Fl.) A native of England, on the banks of rivers and in moist woods; and flowering, in the willow garden at Woburn Abbey, in April, and again in September. The following description is taken from the more detailed one of Smith in his English Flora :-"A tree, 20 ft. or 30 ft. high, if left to its natural growth; but in hedges or thickets it is more dwarf and bushy. It is readily to be distinguished from other common willows, by its rusty glittering hue, which lies more, perhaps, in the fine veins of its leaves, than in the pubescence sprinkled over them, which consists of minute, prominent, shining hairs, totally unlike the depressed silkiness of the species of the groups Glaucæ, Fúscæ, and Rosmarinifòliæ. The rusty colour, indeed, increases after the specimens have been long dried, but

1332 is visible in some degree in the growing plant, especially towards the autumn. The branches are glabrous, reddish brown, and crooked; and the young ones are slender, spreading, and, in an early state, downy. On the leafy branches of the year the lower leaves are nearly or quite entire, 1 in, or } in. long, obovate, with a short oblique point, on shortish slender footstalks, without stipules; the upper ones twice as large, variously serrated, with half-heart-shaped stipules, strongly serrated, or toothed, various in size, but never very large.” According to Smith, S. cinèrea is the least useful of the sallows; but its branches, when two years old, are used for bands and coarse wickerwork. There are plants at Woburn, Flitwick, and


in the Hackney arboretum. Varieties. There are several varieties of this species, one of which has va

riegated leaves; and, as this is a rare character among willows, it merits a distinct notice. Smith, in his English Flora, iv. p. 216., notices having received a specimen of such a variety from Germany. Mr. Forbes has since found two plants with slightly variegated leaves, growing in the Woburn plantations. He has figured some of these leaves, from which it appears that they are blotched with small yellow blotches. Koch has referred to S. cinerea L., as varieties, S. cinèrea Smith, S. aquática Smith, and S. oleifolia Smith,

* 91. S. AQUA'TICA Smith. The Water Sallow, or Willow. Identification. Smith Fl. Br., p. 1065.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 701. ; ? Hayne Abbild., p. 248. ; Smith

Eng. Bot., t. 1437. ; in Rees's Cyclo., No. 118.; Eng. Fl., 4. p. 218.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 127.;

Hook.JBr. Fl., ed. 3.; Mackay's Fl. Hibern., pt. 1. p. 250. Synonyme. S. cinerea var. Koch Comm., p. 36. The Seres. Both sexes are figured in Sal. Wob., and in Hayne Abbild., if the kind is identical : the

female is figured in Eng. Bot. Engravings.? Hayne Abbild., t. 191.; Eng. Bot., t. 1437. ; Sal. Wob., No. 127. ; and our fig. 127.

in p. 1627. Spec. Char., &c. Stem and branches erect. Leaves slightly serrated, obovateelliptical, minutely downy, flat, rather glaucous beneath. Stipules rounded, toothed. Ovary silky, stalked. Stigmas nearly sessile. (Smith Eng. Fl.) A native of England, in wet hedgerows, swampy places, &c.; and flowering in April. Most of the following particulars are derived from Smith's description given in his English Flora : – Stem generally bushy, rarely forming a tree. Branches numerous, upright; the young ones slender, hoary, or finely downy, leafy throughout, often angular. Leaves on rather slender downy footstalks, elliptic-oblong, acute, about 2 in. in length, flat, not wavy, though serrated about the middle and towards the extremity, narrowest at the base; the lower ones on each branch gradually smaller, quite entire, obovate, rounded and obtuse; the lowest of all not j in. long, all soft and pliant, of a dull greyish green, reticulated with minute veins; not rugged, but even, and finally glabrous on the upper side; glaucous and minutely downy underneath. Catkins appearing before the leaves. A perfectly distinct kind from S. ciņèrea and s. oleifolia; being without the rusty hue of these species upon the leaves, which are also much broader, and of a thinner texture. The branches, or twigs, are very brittle, and not adapted to any economical purpose, except that, perhaps, of being used for fire-wood.

1 92. S. OLEIFO‘lia Smith. The Olive-leaved Willow, or Sallow. Identification. Smith Fl. Br., p. 1065. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 702. ; Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1402. ; Reer's

Cyclo., No. 119. ; Eng. Fl., 4. p. 219.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 126. ; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3. ; Mackay

Fi. Hibern., pt. 1. p. 251. Synonyme. S. cinerea var. Koch Comm., p. 36. The Seres. Both sexes are figured in Sal. Wob.: the male is figured in Eng. Bot. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1402. ; Sal. Wob., No. 126. ; and fig. 126. in p. 1626. Spec. Char., fc. Stem erect. Branches straight and spreading. Leaves obo

vate-lanceolate, flat, rather rigid, minutely toothed, acute, glaucous, reticulated, and finely hairy beneath. Stipules small, notched, and rounded. Catkins oval, nearly half as broad as long. (Smith E. F.) A native of England, in wet hedgerows; and flowering, in the willow garden at Woburn Abbey, in March, and again in August. The following particulars are derived from Eng. Fl. and Sal. Wob., chiefly from the former. Truly arboreous; and, if allowed to grow, becoming as tall as a common crab tree, though not of so stout a habit as S. càprea, except as regards the catkins. The branches are rounded, and, when young, somewhat angular, brown, more or less hoary with short down, very soft to the touch. The leaves spread but moderately, and are from 2 in. to 3 in. in length, and 1 in., at most, in breadth, elliptic

lanceolate, tapering at each end, and somewhat obovate, acute, not pointed ;
at first sight, seeming entire or minutely serrated ; but they are inore gene-
rally bordered with glandular teeth: the upper side is green, flat, even, ob-
scurely hoary rather than downy; under side paler, slightly glaucous, with
copious, prominent, reticulated, minutely hairy veins, acquiring by time a
portion of the rusty hue of S. cinèrea. Their substance is firm rather than
coriaceous; and in the earliest state they are densely downy. Footstalks
rather short and downy. Catkins remarkably large, appearing before the
leaves ; and that of the female about 2 in. long when at maturity. Distinguished
from S. cinèrea and S. aquática by the coriaceous texture of its leaves,
which very much resemble those of Quércus l'lex. When cut down, the
plant produces tough twigs, that are adapted for baskets or wickerwork.
The two-years-old shoots may also be used with advantage for making
wattled hurdles, crates, &c.; but they are inferior to those of S. cinerea.
There are plants at Woburn, Flitwick, and Goldworth.

1 93. S. GEMINA'ta Forbes. The twin-catkin Sallow, or Willow.
Identification. Sal. Wob., No. 129.
The Sexes. The male is described and figured in Sal. Wob.
Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 129.; and fig. 129. in p. 1627.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves obovate-lanceolate, serrated ; deep green, shining,

and veiny above; reticulated, hairy, and paler beneath. Stipules rounded
and toothed. Branches brownish, downy when young. Catkins large, often
two or three bursting forth from the same bud. Anthers yellow. Bractea
obovate and hairy. (Sal. Wob., p. 257.) Native country not stated : perhaps
it is Britain ; for Mr. Forbes received the kind from Sir J. E. Smith under
the name of S. cinèrea ; and a specimen of the same kind has subsequently
been observed in the Smithian herbarium. Introduced in ? 1824, and
flowering in March. This appears a rapid-growing tree, producing long,
round, brown, brittle branches, downy only when young, and distantly
marked with yellow spots. The upper leaves are above 3 in. long, with
sharp points, serrated, and of an ovate-lanceolate shape; the lower obo-
vate, with short oblique points, and rather more than 1 in. broad above the
middle; entire, glabrous, and shining on their upper surface, except while
young, when they are hairy on both sides; beneath, copiously besprinkled
with minute, depressed, shining hairs, and very distinctly reticulated with
prominent arched veins in every stage of growth. Footstalks downy, dilated
at the base, somewhat decurrent and brown on their upper side. Catkins
of the male about lin. long. Distinguished from S. cinerea by its long
narrow leaves; large, obtuse, twin catkins; and obovate, large, rounded
bracteas. There are plants at Henfield.

94. S. cri'spa Forbes. The crisp-leaved Willow.
Identification. Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 42.
The Seres. The male is described and figured in Sal. Wob.
Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 12.; and fig. 42. in p. 1613.
Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, crisped, wavy; glabrous above; glau-

cous, reticulated, and slightly hairy when young, beneath. Stipules half-
heart-shaped, deciduous. Branches pale green. Catkins small, rounded.
Anthers red before they burst, afterwards yellow. Gland bifid or trifid,
reddish. Bractea obovate, fringed. (Sal. Wob., p. 83.) Native country un-
certain. A low-growing shrub, with round, glabrous pale green branches,
which are villous only at their extremities when young. The catkins are
small, and burst forth before the leaves, in March ; amongst the earliest-
flowering of the species. The plant flowers again, a second time, in

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. 95. S. AURITA L. The round-eared, or trailing, Sallow, or Willow. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 2. p. 1446.; Hoffm. Sal., 1. S0. t. 4. f. 1. 2., t. 22, f. 1. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 700.; Hayne Abbild., p. 246.; Koch Comm., p. 38. ; Smith Lin. Fl. Lapp., 303. t. 8. f. y; Eng. Bot, t. 1487.; Rees's Cyclo., No. 117.; Eng. Fl., 6. p. 216. ; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No.194.; Hook. Br.

ed. 3. ; Mackay Fl. Hibern., pt. 1. p. 251.


Synonyme. S. uliginosa Willd. Enum., 1007. (Smith and Koch); the trailing Sallow, so called in

Norfolk. (Smith E. F.)
The Seres Both sexes are described in Eng. Fh, and figured in Eng. Bot., in Sal. Wob., and in

Hayne Abbud.
Engravings. Hoffm. Sal., 1. t. 4. f. 1., 2. t. 22. f. 1. ; Smith Lin. FI Lapp., t. 8. f. y; Hayne Abbild.,

L*188; Eng. Bot., t. 1487. ; Sal. Wob., No. 124. ; and our fig. 124. in p. 1626.
Spec. Char., &c. Branches trailing. Leaves somewhat serrated, convex, obo-

vate, obtuse, with a small hooked point; hairy, and reticulated with veins, on both sides. Stipules roundish, convex, toothed. Ovary silky, stalked. Stigmas nearly sessile. (Smith Eng. Fl.) A native of England, in moist woods and thickets; flowering in April and May. Stem bushy, usually 3 ft. or 4 ft. high. Branches spreading, or trailing, either amongst other bushes, or on the ground, to a great extent. Leaves various in size, on short, stout, downy footstalks, obovate, generally lin. or 2 in. long, more or less contracted towards the base, though sometimes rounded, or nearly ovate in that part: their termination is often remarkably obtuse or abrupt, with a broad, short, recurved, hooked, or oblique point; both sides hairy, and very rugged; the upper side dark green, wrinkled like a cabbage leaf; under side paler, rather glaucous.” (Smith Eng. Fl.) “ The leaves occasionally form permanent rosaceous tufts like those of S. Hèlix.(Ibid.) There are male and female plants both at Woburn Abbey and in Messrs. Loddiges's arboretum; and from the latter we have received a specimen of S. ambigua,

which seems to be S. aurita. Varieties. Koch and Smith have referred the S. uliginosa Willd. and S. aurita

Willd, to the S. aurita L.; and Koch has thus contradistinguished the two former :- S. uliginosa Willd. Taller. Leaves obovate. S. aurita Willd. Dwarfer. Leaves roundish obovate, smaller by half. Mr. Forbes has noticed that a variety was growing in the Woburn plantations which was about 1 ft. or 1 ft. 6 in. high, and had its leaves truly obovate. Koch has deemed the S. cladostémma Hayne Dendr. Fl., p. 191. and fig. B, C, a singular variety of S. aurita, and characterised it as having 2, 3, or 4 stamens to a flower, and these with their filaments connate to beyond the middle. We have a specimen obtained of Messrs. Loddiges, under the name of S. aurita microphylla, whose leaves are oblong, and do not look of the affinity of S. aurita. Smith judged (Flor. Brit. and Eng. Fl.) the S. càprea pumila, folio subrotundo, subtus incano, of Dillenius in Raü Syn., to be a dwarf variety of S aurita; but Mr. Borrer has expressed, in Eng. Bot. Supp., t 2733., bis opinion that this “ is probably a synonyme of S. ambígua.

. 96. S. LATIFO'LIA Forbes. The broad-leaved Willow, or Sallow. Identification. Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 118. The Seres. The female is described and figured in Sal. Wob. Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 118. ; and fig. 118. in p. 1625. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves broadly elliptic, distantly denticulated towards the

base, and finely serrated towards the point. Stigmas half-moon-shaped, serrated, glabrous, and large. Capsules ovate, silky, and footstalked. Bractea ovate, hairy. Style about the length of the stigmas. (Sal. Wob., p. 235.) Native country not stated. Flowering in March. A straggling plant, with strong, round, pubescent branches, which are of a brown fuscous colour, and become nearly glabrous towards the lower end in autumn.

Leaves of a large elliptical form, a little heart-shaped and unequal at the base; above, green and shining ; beneath, glaucous, downy, and reticulated; the margins remotely denticulated, and nearly entire towards the base; finely serrated at the apex. Footstalks } in. long, and pubescent. Catkins nearly l'in. long when at maturity. A kind quite distinct from every other of this section, and remarkable for the breadth of its leaves, which differ in texture from those of S. grisophylla, that are also broad. There are plants at Woburn, Henfield, and in the Goldworth Arboretum. 1 97. S. CA'PREA L. The Goat Willow, or the great round-leaved Sallow. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 1448. « (Smith); Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 703., exclusively of the synonyme

of Fl. Dan. (Smith); Hayne Abbild., p. 249.; Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1488. ; Rees's Cyclo., No. 126.;

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