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first year

distantly marked with 3 or 4 minute teeth, entire towards the base. Footstalks short, rather slender, downy; midrib and veins prominent. Stipules on short footstalks, ovate, sloping off at one side.

Catkins numerous, recurved, above } in. in length.

$ 57. S. ALATERNÖI'Des Forbes. The Alaternus-like Willow. Identification. Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 76. The Sexes. The female is described and figured in Sal. Wob. “ I have not met with a male plant." (Forbes.) Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 76. ; and our fig. 76. in p. 1618. Spec. Char., fr. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, entire, pointed; villous above,

hairy and white beneath. Stipules ovate, serrated. Catkins 1 in. long, thick, and obtuse. Ovary ovate, subulate, silky, stalked. Style shorter than the linear undivided stigmas. (Sal. Wob., p. 151.) A native of Switzerland. Introduced in 1824, and howering in April and May: A low, upright, bushy shrub, growing, in the Woburn collection, to the height of 5 ft. or 6 ft., with slender, round, pubescent, reddish branches, dark green after the

Leaves from i in. to 1} in. long, or perhaps more; about } in. in breadth; elliptic-lanceolate, or somewhat obovate, pointed, entire, dull green and villous above, whitish and densely hairy beneath; reticulated, with a pale midrib. Catkins I in. long, appearing before the leaves. There are plants at Woburn Abbey and in the Hackney arboretum.

? 4 58. S. PROTEÆFO‘LIA Schl. The Protea-leaved Willow. Identification. Schleicher, quoted in Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p. 419. ; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 75. Synonymes. Erroneously referred to S. ambigua in Hook. Br. F., ed 2. (Borrer MSS.) The Seres. The female is described and figured in Sal. Wob. Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 75. ; and our fig. 75. in p. 1617. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves elliptical, entire ; villous above, white and silky be

neath. Stipules ovate, silky. Catkins thick, obtuse. Ovary stalked, ovate, silky. Bractea obovate, silky. Stigmas undivided. (Sal. Wob., p. 149.), A native of Switzerland. Introduced in 1820; flowering in April and May. This is a handsome upright-growing shrub, or low tree, attaining the height of 12 ft., although only four years planted. Branches of a brownish green fuscous colour, somewhat downy, but ultimately becoming smooth; the young twigs are of a yellow purple, pubescent, and soft to the touch. Leaves elliptic, about 1} in. long; dull green and villous above, whitish and silky beneath, and reticulated with large prominent veins; the young leaves have rather a silky silvery appearance; while the old ones become more firm and pubescent, their margins entire, or sometimes very distinctly marked with shallow serratures. Catkins about 1 in. long. A very ornamental plant, but not fit for cultivation for economical purposes. There are plants at Woburn Abbey, Henfield, and Flitwick House, and also in the Goldworth Arboretum.

Group xii. Reticulatæ Borrer.

Thecharacteristics of this group, as adopted in Hook. Br. Fl., are not described ;

because it consists of only one species, the S. reticulàta L., and the characteristics of this species may be deemed representative of those of the group. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves orbicular, somewhat elliptical, obtuse, entire,

not 59. S. RETICULATA L. The netted, or wrinkled, leaved, Willow. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 1446. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 685. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 75.; Koch

Comm., p. 62. ; Du Ham. Arb., ed. 1., 3. p. 132. ; Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1908.; Eng. Fl., 4. p. 200.;
Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 67. ; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p. 419. ; Hayne Abbild., p. 236. ; Host Sal.

Aust., 1. p. 33. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 610.
The Sexes. Both sexes are figured in Eng. Bot., and Sal. Wob., Host Sal. Aust., and Hayne Abbil

It may be inferred that both are not difficultly obtainable in the wild localities of the species. Engravings. Lin. Fl. Lapp., ed. 2., t. 3. f. 1., 1.7.1. 1, 2.; Fl. Dan., t. 212. ; Hofm. Sal., 23.,

t. 25–27.; Du Ham. Arb., ed. 1,3. t. 32. ; Éng. Bot., t. 1908. ; Sal. Wob., No. 67.; Hayne Abbild., t. 178.; Host Sal. Austr., 1. t. 105. ; our fig. 1323. ; and fig. 67. in p. 1616.

coriaceous, with reticulated veins, nearly glabrous; glaucous beneath. Ovary sessile, downy. (Smith E. F.) The young foliage is often floccose. (Br. Fl., ed. 2.) A native of England, and the high mountains in Wales and Scotland; flowering from May to July. Koch has stated its European places of growth to be as follows :- Moist rocks, or other moist places, of the highest mountains above the limit of perpetual snow, in Piedmont, Savoy, Switzerland, the Pyrenees, Germany, Carpathia, Transylvania, Britain, and Lapland. Hooker has remarked (Br. Fl., ed. 2.) that he possesses S. reticulata, obtained from Arctic America, and having long silky hairs 1323 on both surfaces of the leaf. Mackay has not inserted the species in the Flora Hibernica. Lightfoot, as quoted by Smith, has noted the kind of soil in which it occurs on many of the Scottish highland mountains to be micaceous. “Larger than S. herbàcea, with stout, woody, procumbent stems and branches, either mantling the alpine rocks, or spreading on the ground in large patches. Leaves 3 from each bud, on long slender footstalks, without stipules; alternate, nearly orbicular, or somewhat elliptical, 1 in. broad, firm, coriaceous though deciduous, entire, with an occasional notch at the end; the upper surface wrinkled, of a deep shining green ; the under surface very glaucous or whitish, beautifully reticulated with abundance of prominent veins, now and then somewhat silky. Catkins solitary at the end of the same branch, above the leaves ;” of a purplish red colour, as are the buds. The veins on the under surface of the leaf are of a purplish colour. (Linnæus.) This is a most remarkable species, totally different from any other; and it ought not to be wanting in any collection. Smith has deemed it akin to S. herbácea. Koch has associated the two in the same group. In its rounded wrinkled leaves, villous when young, in its buds, and in its branches, it bears much similarity to S. càprea, though it is widely different in its inflorescence. There are plants in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, in the Fulham Nursery, and in the Goldworth Arboretum.

App. i. Reticulate described, but not yet introduced. S. vestita Pursh F1. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 610., Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 76., differs from S. reticulata, in having the under side of its leaves clothed with long silky hairs. Pursh calls it a very elegant species. It is a native of Labrador.

Group xiv. Glaúcæ Borrer.
Small, upright, with soft silky Leaves.


Stamens 2 to a flower, Ovary very downy, or silky, sessile. Plants small

shrubs, most of them upright; all, or most of them, remarkable for their foliage, which consists of leaves that are oblong-lanceolate, soft, hairy, silky, and, in most, white and cottony on the under surface. The kinds are very closely akin, each among the rest. (Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., adapted.) Only S. glaúca L., S. arenària L., and S. Stuartiāna Smith, are associated together under the above characteristics in Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2. Of the kinds brought together below, as agreeing more or less in the quality of similarity, Mr. Borrer has indicated S. elæagnifòlia Forbes (elæagnoides Schleicher), S. glauca L., S. sericea Villars, S. Lappònum L., S. arenària L., S. arenària L.

S. leucophýlla Schleicher ; and S. Stuartiana Smith.

• 60. S. ELÆGNÖI'DES Schleicher. The Elæagnus-like Willow. Identifcation. Schleich. Cat. ; Seringe Sal. Helv., p. 91. ; both quoted by Koch in Comm., p. 56.

? var.,

No. 93.

Synonymes. S. clæagnifdlia Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 69., where the name is quoted as one adopted by M. Schleicher ; s. glauca var., with leaves lanceolate, more narrow and more acute, and with

flowers in the catkin a little more laxly disposed. (Koch De Sal. Europ. Comm.) The Sexes. The female is described and figured in Sal. Wob.; but the male is neither mentioned

there, nor by Koch. Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 69. ; and fig. 69. in p. 1616. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves entire, ovate-elliptic, nearly glabrous above, woolly and

white beneath. Catkins cylindrical. Ovary nearly sessile, ovate, downy. Style elongated. Stigmas bifid. (Forbes in S. W.) A native of Europe. Introduced in 1824; flowering in May, and, in the willow garden at Woburn Abbey, in April, and again in August. This is an upright-growing shrub, attaining the height of 6 ft.; the leaves and branches much resembling those of S. glauca, but distinct; the leaves being of a thinner texture, with a different direction of their finer veins. The leaves are of an ovate-elliptic shape, nearly glabrous on their upper surface, white and woolly underneath. Catkins of the female 2 in. long, and cylindrical.

• 61. S. GLAU'CA L. The glaucous Mountain Willow. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 1446. ; Fl. Lapp., ed. 2., 299. t. 8. f. p, t. 7. f. 5. ; but it is not S. sericea

of Villars (Smith.); Wahlenb. Fl. Lapp., 264. t. 16. f. 3.; Willd. Sp. Pl, 4. p. 687.; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 84. ; Koch Comm., p. 55. Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1810.; Eng. Flora, 4. p. 201. ; Forbes in

Sal. Wob., No. 68. ; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p. 419. Synonyme. S. appendiculata Fl. Dan., t. 1056., Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 690., Smith in Rees's Cyclo., The Sexes. Both sexes are described in Eng. Fl. ; the female is figured in Eng. Bot., and in Sal.

Wob. Engravings. Lin. Fl. Lapp., ed. 2., t. 8. f., t. 7. f. 5. ; Wahl. F1. Lapp., t. 16. f. 3. ; Eng. Bot.,

1810.; Sal. Wob., No. 68. ; Hall. Hist., 2. t. 14. f. 2. ; our fig. 1324. ; and fig. 68. in p. 1616. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves nearly entire, elliptic-lanceolate; even, and nearly

glabrous above; woolly and snowy-white beneath. Footstalks decurrent. Ovary sessile, ovate, woolly. (Smith E. F.) A native of the Highlands of Scotland; flowering there in July, but, in the willow garden at Woburn Abbey, in May. Described by Smith as having a stem 2 ft. to 3 ft. high, stout, bushy, with numerous short, round, spreading, brown or yellowish branches, downy in their early state. Leaves nearly 2 in. Jong, and į in, or in. wide; elliptic-lanceolate, acute, somewhat rounded at the base; nearly, if not in every part, quite entire; the upper side of a beautiful glaucous green, the under one densely downy or cottony, of no less elegant and pure a white, with slightly prominent veins, and a

1324 reddish midrib. In the willow garden at Woburn Abbey the plant is 18 in. high; there are plants also at Henfield.

most 62. S. SERI'CEA Villars. The silky Willow. Identification. Villars Delph., 3. p. 782. t. 51. f. 27.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 688. Synonyme. S. glauca, a synonyme of Koch Comm., p. 56. “S. sericea of Villars, according to his

own specimens, is the true Lapponum; and I have Swiss ones, properly so named, from M. Schleicher. It is Haller's No. 1643." (Smith in Engl. Fl., 4. p. 202.)

Willdenow has described the female, and noted that he had seen it in a dried state. Engravings. Vill. Delph., 3. t. 51. f. 27.; and fig. 74. in p. 1617. Spec. Char., &c. Stem prostrate.

Leaf oblong-lanceolate, entire, obtuse, silky and hoary on both surfaces. Catkins silky, stout. Capsules ovateoblong, stout, very villous, sessile. Very different from S. glauca L. (Willd., Villars in Willd. Sp. Pl.) Branches brown, glossy. Leaves 2 in. long, covered with long appressed hairs. Stipules are not apparent. Catkins } in. long, cylindrical. Bracteas lanceolate, hairy, caducous. Style short, bifid. Stigmas dilated, bifid. Wild in the Alps of Switzerland and France. (Id.) Introduced in 1820. Mr. Forbes has a kind under the name S. serícea, but has quoted Willdenow in identification, with a mark of doubt. The following matter is taken from Mr. Forbes's account. Leaves oblonglanccolate, very entire, both sides silky, glaucous beneath. Ovary ovate, villous, nearly sessile. Style deeply divided. Stigmas parted. (Sal. Wob., p. 147.) A native of Switzerland. Introduced in 1820, and flowering,

The Scres.

in the willow garden at Woburn Abbey, in April and May. This species grows to the height of 5 ft. or 6 ft.; quite erect, with dark green, rounded, pubescent branches; the old ones shining and glabrous after the first year. Leaves from 2 in. to nearly 3 in. or 3} in. long, and from lin. to 1} in. broad; densely silky on both sides, elliptic-lanceolate, with acute oblique points; the lower rather obtuse; margins entire ; whitish and glaucous beneath; closely covered with long, compressed, silky hairs. Midrib prominent, yellow. Footstalks yellow, pubescent, very stout, and much dilated at the base. Catkins l in. or more in length, appearing before the expansion of the leaves. They remain on the plant during the greater part of the summer ; by which peculiarity this very distinct species is readily known from every other. The female plant is figured and described in the Salictum Woburnense.

*63. S. LAPPO'NUM L. The Laplanders' Willow. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 1447. ; Fl Lapp., 366. t. 8. f. 1, ed. 2., 300. t. 8. f. t; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4.

p. 689.; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 89., but the syn. S. sericea Villars, there applied to S. Lappo. num, Koch has applied

to S. glaúca ; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 73. Synonyme. S. arenària Fl. Dan., t. 197. (Smith.), The Scres. The

female is described in Willd. Sp. 'Þı., and described and figured in Sal. Wob. Engravings. Lin. Fl. Lapp., t. 8. f. t, ed. 2., t. 8. f. t; Sal. Wob., No. 73. ; our fig. 1325. ; and fig. 73.

in p. 1617 Spec. Char., fc. Leaves lanceolate, very entire, bluntish; hoary above, woolly beneath. Seed-vessels woolly and oblong. (Forbes S. W.) A native of Lapland; flowering there in May and June, and, in the Woburn collection, in April. Introduced in 1812. “ This appears to be a very distinct species from glauca, elæagnifòlia, arenària, lanàta, and Stuartiana. It grows with me to about 1 ft. high, with short, pale, decumbent branches ; sometimes the young twigs are tinged, with red. Leaves from 1 in. to 1} in. long, often unequal at the base, densely downy on both surfaces, and white beneath. Catkins from 1 in. to 1} in. long.” (Forbes.) Smith has incidentally noted in Eng. Fl., iv. p. 202., the following

1325 characters of S. Lappònum L.:-. “Leaves 2 in. to 2} in. long, greyish, all over very silky, both sides alike at every period of their growth, and never cottony. Catkins large, with large floral leaves, like the proper leaves. Bracteas oblong, hairy. Ovary and capsule sessile, peculiarly woolly.” It grows wild in the alps of Lapland, everywhere. (Willd.)

. 1 64. S. OBTUSIFO'lia Willd. The blunt-leaved Willow. Identification. Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 705. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 131. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, wedge-shaped at the base, finely villous on both surfaces, glaucous on the under one; the upper leaves acute and entire; the lower bluntish and distantly toothed. Frequent in the woods and on the mountains of Lapland. (Lin. and Smith.) A slender shrub, not unfrequently arborescent. Young branches clothed with long silky down. Leaves rather more than 2 in. long, and fin. wide. It is remarkable that, contrary to the nature of most Willows, the lower blunter leaves of each branch are furnished witi minute distant teeth ; while the upper and pointed ones are quite entire. Except in the teeth of the leaves, it comes nearer to s. Lapponum than any other. (Smith.) Introduced in 1818.

65. S. ARENA'RIA L. The sand Willow. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 1447. ; Lin. Fl. Lapp., ed. 2., 298. t. 8. f. 0,9; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 689.,

exclusively of the synonymes ; Hayne Abbild., p. 236. ; Fl. Dan., t. 197., and Hall., No. 1642 ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 90. ; Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1809;, Eng. Fl., 4. 204.; Forbes in Sal. Wob.,

No. 70.; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3., p. 426.
Synonymé. S. limosa Wahlenb. Fl. Lapp., 25., Koch Comm., p. 54.
The Sexes. Both are described in Eng. Flora, and both are figured in Sal. Wob. : the male is

figured in Eng. Bot.
Engravings. Lin. Fl. Lapp., ed. 2., t. 8. f. 0,9; Gmel. Sib., 1. t. 36. f. 1.; Wahlenb. Fl. Lapp:

t. 16. f. 4. ; Hayne Abbild., 2. 179.; Eng. Bot., t. 1809. ; Sal. Wob., No. 70.; and fig. 70. in p. 1617. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves nearly entire, ovate, acute; reticulated and some

what downy above; veiny and densely woolly beneath. Style as long as the sessile woolly ovary: Stigmas linear, deeply divided, the length of the style. (Smith E. F.) A native of the Highland mountains, especially those of Breadalbane and Clova; flowering there in June, but, in the willow garden at Woburn Abbey, in May. A larger and stouter shrub than S.glauca, of which it was supposed by the original finder to be the female plant; but barren as well as fertile individuals, of both species, agreeing exactly together in other respects, and differing alike from correlative ones of the other species, are now well known. In size and general habit, this most resembles S. glauca; but their discriminative marks are clearly discernible. The leaves of S. arenària are rather smaller and shorter, more precisely ovate, with a little sharp point; their upper surface dark green, reticulated with sunk veins, and clothed with thin cottony down, more dense and soft upon the young ones; the under side pure white, with dense cottony wool; the veins prominent; midrib reddish; the young leaves, as well as the floral ones, beautifully silky beneath. (Id.) Mr. Forbes states that he has plants of this willow with leaves not above half the size of those of others, owing to their being planted in a different soil; which will show, he says, “ how much culture

improves the size of these species of plants." ? Variety. - S. a. ? leucophýlla ; S. leucophylla Schleicher. (Borrer in a letter.) –

Koch has cited S. leucophylla Willd. Enum. Suppl., p. 66., Berl. Baumz., p. 444. t. 6. f. 3., as a state of S. limosa Wahlenb., distinguished by having the under surface of the leaves less snowily

tomentose : perhaps this is the same as Schleicher’s.

66. S. OBOVA'TA Pursh. The obovate-leaved, or Labrador, Willow. Identification. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2 p. 611. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 91. ; Forbes in Sal

Wob., No. 144. The Seres. The male is noticed in the specific character. Engravings. Sal Wob., No. 144., a leaf; and fig. 144. in p. 1630. Spec. Char., &c. Stem diffuse. Leaves obovate, obtuse, entire ; glabrous above, clothed with silky

hairs beneath. Stipules none. Catkins sessile. Bracteas obovate, black and hairy at the end. Native to Labrador, and to the north-western coast

of America. Flowering in May. Allied to S. arendria L., and somewhat inclined to be upright. Stamens two. (Pursh.) Whether introduced, or not,

is uncertain

? ? 67. S. CANE'SCENS Willd. The greyish Willow. Identification. Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 687. ; ? Enum. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 86. Synonyme. S. limosa Wahlenb. var., Koch Comm., p. 55. The Sexes. The female is noticed in Willdenow's description, Spec. Char., &c. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, slightly serrated in the middle part; glabrous and

glossy on the upper surface, white and tomentose on the under one. Capsules ovate, tomentose. (Wild.) Willdenow describes it more particularly from a female dried specimen, as follows:Branches brown, rather downy when young. Leaves 2 in. to 3 in, long when young; canescent on the upper surface. Stipules not apparent. Catkin of the female cylindrical, 1 in. long. Capsule sessile. Native country not known with certainty; though in Sweet's Hort. Bril., ed. 1830, s. canéscens Willd. Enum. is stated to be a native of Germany, introduced into Britain in 1815,

68. S. STUARTIA'NA Smith. Stuart's, or the small-leaved

shaggy, Willow. Identification. Smith Eng. Bot., t. 2586. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 84. ; Eng. Fl., 4. p. 203. ; Forbes

in Sal. Wob., No. 72. ; Hook. Br Fl., ed. 2., p. 419. Synonymes. S. arenària masculina Smith Fl. Brit., p. 1059., Eng. Bot., t. 1809. the text ; S. Lappònum Walker ; S. limosa Wahl. var. foliis angustioribus lanceolatis Koch Comm., p. 55. Derivation, S. Stuartidna “was named in compliment to one of the best men, and most learned

scholars, that Scotland has produced, the late Rev. Dr. Stuart of Luss." (Hook. Br. Fh, ed. 2.,

1831.) The Seres. Both sexes are described in Eng. Flora : the female is figured in Eng. Bot., and in Sal.

Wob. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 2586.; Sal. Wob., No. 72. ; and fig. 72. in p. 1617. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves nearly entire, ovate-lanceolate, acute; shaggy above,

densely silky, somewhat cottony, beneath. Style as long as the almost sessile woolly germen. Stigmas capillary, deeply divided, the length of the style. (Smith E. F.). A native of Scotland, on the Breadalbane Mountains ; where it flowers in June, and, in gardens, in July and August. Bushy, and copiously branched ; 2 ft. or 3 ft., or rather more, in height. The branches dark brown ; downy when young, and leafy, cottony or silky at the tops. Leaves scarcely half the size of those of S. glauca and S. arenària, and more lanceolate; rarely somewhat obovate, sharp-pointed; sometimes slightly wavy or toothed ; the upper surface greyish green, shaggy or silky, partly denudated by culture, always very even, not wrinkled or veiny; the under

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