Page images
PDF
EPUB

“ The

Spec. Char., fc. Stems more or less procumbent. Leaves elliptical or

elliptic-lanceolate, acute; entire, or serrated with minute glanded serratures; somewhat downy; glaucous, and generally very silky beneath. Ovary lanceolate, very silky, seated upon a long stalk. Stigmas bifid. (Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2.) Sir W.J. Hooker and Mr. Borrer have referred to this species several kinds as varieties, which have been regarded as species by Smith and others, and which we give below, retaining the specific character of each, for the convenience of those who have received them as species, and

may wish to identify them. Varieties. * S. f. 1 vulgaris ; S. f. var. a Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2.; S. fúsca Smith Eng.

Bot., t. 1960., Eng. Fl., iv. p. 210., Forbes in Sal. Wob., No.83.; S.
rèpens Koch B Koch Comm., p. 47. ; and our fig. 83. in p. 1618.-Stem
decumbent below, then upright, much branched. Leaves elliptic
lanceolate. (Id.) Mr. Borrer is disposed to deem the S. fúsca Smith
different from the S. fúsca L., at least as seen growing in the garden;
for he allows that “the dried specimens show no character;" in
which latter opinion I cordially agree with him.” (Hooker.)
plant” of Smith “itself is usually a small procumbent shrub, with
rather long straight branches ; but varying exceedingly, according to
situation and other circumstances, as do the leaves also, which are
more or less glabrous above, and more or less silky beneath, where
the nerves are prominent.” (Id.) The branches are spreading,
brown, and downy, with fine close hairs when young. (Smilh.) Catkins
generally appearing before the leaves. A very beautiful little species,
nearly related to S. f. rèpens; but is distinguishable from it by its
broader leaves, longer footstalks, and more upright mode of growth.
Smith states that it is found wild in moist mountainous heaths in
the north; that its time of flowering is May. In the salictum at
Woburn, it flowered in May, and again in July. The male plant is
figured in the English Botany and the Salictum Woburnense. There

are plants at Woburn Abbey, Henfield, and Flitwick House. * S. f. 2 rèpens ; S. f. B Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2.; S. repens Lin. Sp. Pl.,

1447. (Smith), Willd. Sp. Pl., iv. p. 693., at least in part, Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 100., Eng. Bot., t. 183., Eng. Fl., iv. p. 209., Forbes in Sal. Wob., No.84., our fig. 84. in p. 1618., ? Hayne Abbild., p. 241. t. 183., ? Pursh Fl. Amer., ii

. p. 610.; S. repens Koch a Koch Comm., p. 47.- The following description of this kind is derived from Eng. Fl. and Sal. Wob.: – Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, straight, somewhat pointed, nearly entire; almost naked above, glaucous and silky beneath. Stipules none. Stem depressed, with short upright branches. Ovary stalked, ovate, downy. Capsules glabrous. (Smith E. F.) A native of Britain, on moist and dry heaths, moors, and sandy situations; flowering in May. Stem woody, depressed, often creeping; sending up numerous upright branches, about a finger's length; sometimes subdivided and spreading; sometimes procumbent and moderately elongated; all round and glabrous, except the small leafy shoots of the present year, which are downy. Leaves small, from in. to 4 in. long, elliptical or broadly lanceolate, somewhat revolute; nearly or quite entire, veiny, bluntish, with a minute straight point; the upper surface dark green, glabrous; under surface glaucous, densely silky when young. Footstalks short and broad, frequently downy. Catkins appearing before the leaves, numerous, and attaining 1 in. in length, in the fertile plant, when the seeds are ripe. Both sexes are described in Eng. Flora, and both are figured in Eng. Bot., in Sal. Wob., and in Hayne Abbild., if the latter engraving belongs to this willow. There are plants at

Woburn Abbey and in the Goldworth Arboretum. * S. f. 3 prostrata ; S. f. var. w Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2.; S. prostràta Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1959., Rees's Cyclo., No. 105., Willd. Sp. Pl., iv. p. 695., Smith Eng. Fl., iv., p. 211., exclusively of the locality (" in Epping Forest”), Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 82., and our fig. 82. in p. 1618. The following particulars respecting this kind are derived from Eng. Fl. and Sal. Wob., chiefly from the former :- Leaves elliptic-oblong, convex, somewhat toothed, with a curved point; glaucous, silky, and veiny beneath. Stipules minute. Stem prostrate, with elongated straight branches. Ovary stalked, ovate, silky. Styles shorter than the stigmas. (Sal. Wob., p. 163.) A native of Britain, in moist and dry moors, heaths, and sandy situations; flowering in May. Root woody, rather long and slender.

The stems compose an entangled mat several feet in diameter, with straight, slender, round, leafy, tough, downy or silky branches; 1 ft. or more in length; spreading close to the ground in every direction, with a few short upright ones occasionally. Leaves elliptic-oblong, numerous, scattered, on short and rather thick stalks, ascending ; 1 in. long, convex, but scarcely revolute; partly entire, partly toothed; the point recurved or twisted; the upper side dark green, obscurely downy, veiny; under side concave, glaucous, rugged, with prominent veins, and silky, especially while young. Catkins numerous, appearing before the leaves; { in. long. Distinguished from S. fusca vulgaris by its longer prostrate branches, and broader leaves. Both sexes are described in Eng. Fl.; the female is figured in Eng. Bot. and in Sal. Wob. There are plants at Woburn Abbey and Flitwick House, and also in the Goldworth Arboretum. “S. prostrata and S. repens,' Dr.Johnston observes, “ have been confidently pronounced varieties of the same species by some botanists of deserved eminence, while others, not less eminent, consider them totally distinct.' Both plants are familiar to me; and I cannot hesitate to rank myself with those who are of the latter opinion. S. prostrata is the larger species, sending up from its prostrate stem straight simple branches, 1 ft. or more in length, which are clothed with alternate leaves, rather more than 1 in. long, and one half as broad. S. repens, on the contrary, is a much branched creeping shrub, whose numerous branches scarcely rise above the grass. The leaves are more closely set, of a lighter green, and rarely one half so large. A general dissimilarity in habit should surely keep plants separate, though they may agree in some minute characters.” (Flora of Berwick upon

Tweed, vol. i. p. 214.) * S. f. 4 foe'tida ; S. f. var. & Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2.; S. fæ'tida Smith Eng.

Fl., iv. p. 208. Stem recumbent. Leaves elliptical. (Hooker.) Smith has constituted his S. fæ'tida of two kinds, that he had previously published as species, by the names S. adscéndens Smith and S. parvifòlia Smith. These two kinds may be here noticed

separately, as constituting together Hooker's S. fúsca 8. mit S. adscéndens Smith in Eng. Bot., 1962., Rees's Cyclo., No. 103., Forbes in Sal. Wob.,

No. 80.,our fig. 80. in p. 1618. ; S. fæe'tida, exclusively of ß Smith Eng. Fl., 4. p. 298.; S. repens Koch var. Koch Comm., p. 47. — The following particulars respecting this kind are deduced from Sal. Wob.:- Leaves elliptical, nearly entire, with a recurved point; glaucous and silky beneath. Stem recumbent. Ovary ovate-lanceolate, on a silky stalk, nearly equal to the obovate bracteas. (Sal. Wob., p. 159.) A native of Britain, in sandy beaths; flowering in May. A low creeping shrub, with long, straight, densely leafy, recumbent, or somewhat ascending, round, downy branches, silky when young. Leaves elliptical, narrower, and far less silky than those of S. argentea. Mr. Forbes adds that he has observed so many points of difference between this and the following kind, that he has preferred keeping them distinct. The male is figured in Eng. Bot., the female in Sal. Wob. There

are plants at Woburn Abbey and Flitwick House. * S. parvifolia Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1961., Rees's Cyclo., No. 102., Forbes in Sal. Wob.,

No. 81., fig. 81. in p. 1618.; S. fæe'tida Smith Eng. Fl., 4. p. 208. ; S. rèpens Koch var. Koch Comm., p. 48. — The following account of this kind is taken from Sal. Wob. : - Leaves elliptical, nearly entire, with recurved points; glaucous and silky beneath. Stem decumbent. Stipules ovate, entire. (Sal. Wob., p. 161.) A native of Britain, on moist and dry heaths, on moors, and sandy situations ; flowering in May, and, in the willow garden at Woburn Abbey, again in August. The

stem is much branched, elongated, and decumbent Branches elongated, wand. like, 1 ft. or I ft. 6 in. long, spreading obliquely, or else procumbent; very densely clothed with innumerable leaves, round, thickish, hairy or silky. Leaves spread ing or recurved, about in. long, of a broad elliptical figure, with curved points; the margin slightly revolute, either quite entire, or marked here and there with a minute glandular tooth; the upper surface is of a dull lightish green, and nearly glabrous; the under surface glaucous, and more or less silky. Footstalks very short, and broad Catkins of the female ovate, dense, yellowish, Both sexes are

figured in Sal. Wob. ; the female is described in Eng. Bot. Both these kinds or subvarieties are distinguished by their strong fishy smell. “This odour becomes powerfully offensive, when fresh specimens have been confined in a box for several days.” (Eng. Fl.,

iv. p. 209.) . S. f. 5 incubacea; S. f. 5 Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3.; S. incubàcea Lin.

Sp. Pl., 1447., Fl. Suec., ed. 2., 351., Smith Eng. Fl., iv. p. 212., exclusively of all the synonymes, according to Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl., except the two of Linnæus quoted above, Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 79., our fig. 79. in p. 1618., Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2600., Hayne Abbild., p. 243. t. 185. The female is described in Eng. Flora and Eng. Bot. Suppl., and figured in Eng. Bot. Suppl., Sal. Wob., and Hayne Abbild.- Mr. Borrer, in Eng. Bot. Suppl., has treated of this as a species, although he has since regarded it as a variety. The following is the specific character, given in Engl. Bot. Suppl., and it will serve to portray the characteristic features of the kind, whether viewed as a species or a variety. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, nearly entire, acute, with a twisted point; glaucous and silky beneath. Stipules stalked, ovate, acute. Stem procumbent. Branches erect. Catkins erect, oblong-cylindrical. Stalk of the silky ovary about as long as the obovate bractea (scale). (Borrer.) Wild in England, at Hopton in Suffolk, in Anglesea on sandy shores; and in Switzerland and Germany. A shrub, about 4 ft. high. It shows “the closest affinity'to S. argéntea Smith, in its mode of growth, flowers, stipules, and silky pubescence; and from which it differs in little besides the shape of the leaf. Serratures are, indeed, more frequently found, and more apparent when present; but in S. argentea the leaves are not always strictly entire. We have seen, on Swiss specimens, the male flowers of S. incubàcea, but they afford no distinctive marks.(Borrer.) S f. 6 argéntea ; S. f. 6 Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2.; S. argentea Smith

Eng. Bot., t. 1364., Rees's Cyclo., No. 98., Willd. Sp. Pl., iv. p. 693., Smith Eng. Fl., iv. p. 206., Walker's Essays, p. 435., Forbes in Sal. Wob., No 78., our fig. 78. in p. 1618., Hayne Abbild., p. 240. t. 182.; $. repens Koch , Koch Comm., p. 47.- Stem erect, or spreading. Leaf elliptical, with a recurved point; the under surface very silvery. The following information on this kind is derived from Engl. Fl. and Sal. Wob., chiefly the former :-Leaves elliptical, entire, somewhat revolute, with a recurved point; rather downy above, silky and shining beneath, as well as the branches. Stem upright. Ovary ovate-lanceolate, silky; its silky stalk nearly equal to the linear oblong bractea. Style not longer than the stigmas. (Smith E. Fl.) A native of England, on dry heath and sandy situations, chiefly near the sea; flowering in April and May. Stems mostly spreading, but, if sheltered, erect; 4 ft. or 5 ft. high, with numerous, upright, leafy branches, beautifully downy or silky. Leaves on short, stout, downy footstalks, scattered; 1 in., or often less, in length, and half as much in breadth ; truly elliptical, with a small curved point; the margin entire, slightly revolute; the upper side of a dull green, at first silky, then downy, finally naked, reticulated with small veins; under side covered at all times with the most brilliant, silvery, satin-like, close, silky hairs, very soft, almost concealing the strong midrib and transverse veins. Catkins appearing before the leaves.

been discovered.

[ocr errors]

1618.

This species is readily distinguished from the remaining ones belonging to this section (with the exception of S. incubàcea), by its very silvery leaves and upright mode of growth. Both sexes are described in Eng. Fl. ; the female is figured in Sal. Wob. and Hayne Abbild. There are plants at Woburn Abbey, Henfield, and Flitwick House, and also in the Goldworth Arboretum.

53. S. Donia'na Smith. Don’s, or the rusty-branched, Willow. Identification. Smith in Eng. Fl., 4. p. 213. ; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 85. ; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3.,

p. 424.; Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2599.
The Sexes. The female is described and figured in Sal. Wob. and Eng. Bot. The male has not yet
Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 85. ; Eng. Bot., t. 2599.; our fig. 1922. ; and fig. 85. in
Spec. Char., &c., Leaves obovate-lanceolate, partly opposite, acute, slightly

serrated, even ; livid and somewhat silky beneath. Stipules linear. Branches
erect. Catkins erect, cylindrical. Ovary stalked, silky, longer than the
obovate bearded bractea. (Smith and Borrer.) Sent from
Scotland, as British, by the late Mr. George Don. It
flowers in May. Stem 5ft. or 6 ft. high, with straight,
wand-like, round, leafy branches, of a reddish or rusty
brown, scarcely downy, except when very young. Leaves
mostly alternate, but several of the lowermost pairs oppo-
site; all nearly upright, flat; 14 in. long, uniform; broadest,
and most evidently serrated, in their upper part, towards

1322 the point ; green, minutely veiny, and glabrous above ; livid, or in some measure glaucous, as well as finely downy or silky, beneath, with a prominent reddish midrib, and slender veins; the silkiness less evident on the older ones. Footstalks short, very broad at the base, paler than the branches. Catkins of female flowers appearing before the leaves, on short lateral stalks. (Smith.) S. Doniàna, in the female, which is the only sex at present known to British botanists, assimilates to the kinds of the group Purpùreæ, except S. rùbra Huds., in the aspect of the branches, shoots, leaves, and catkins; in some of the leaves being opposite; and in the old bark being internally yellow, though less remarkably so than that of these kinds; but it differs from them in having its leaves silky beneath, and its ovary stalked, and Mr. Borrer believes that, in the relation of affinity, it is nearest to S. fúsca ; but he notices that we are without the means of proof, which the male flowers would afford. There are plants at Woburn Abbey, Henfield, and Flitwick House, and in the Goldworth Arboretum.

Group xii. Ambiguæ Borrer.

Shrubs.

S. finmárchica Willd. has been added to kinds included in this group by Mr. Borrer.

* 4 54. S. AMBIGUA Ehrh., Borrer. The ambiguous Willow. Identification. Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2733., who has adduced there the following references :

"Ehrh.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 700. ; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p. 418. ; Koch Comm., p. 49. ; Bluff, et

Fing. Fl. Germ., 2. 561."
Synonymes. Some are cited under the varieties treated of below ; S. ambigua Koch, part of, Koch

Comm., p. 49.
The Seres. Both sexes of var. a, the female of var. B, the male of var. y, and the female of var. O,

are figured in Eng. Bot. Suppl.
Engraving. Engl. Bot. Suppl., t. 2733.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves oval, obovate, or lanceolate, slightly toothed, and having a recurved point;
pubescent, somewhat rugnse above, glaucous and having prominent veins beneath. Stipules hall.
ovate, acute. Catkins stalked, upright, cylindrical. Ovary stalked, densely silky. Style very
short. Stigmas short, at length cloven. (Borr. in Bol. Suppl.) Indigenous on gravelly heaths, in
Sussex, Essex, and Suffolk, and has been observed in Perthshire, Angusshire, Čaithness, Orkney,

and the Hebrides. (Borrer.) S. ambigua approaches, on the one side, to S. aurita, with the smallest varieties of which it is most liable to be confounded, and, on the other, to s. fúsca; differing from the former by its less rugose and less vaulted leaves, and in their distinct serrature, more delicate texture, and less woolly pubescense; also in its smaller, flatter, and less oblique stipules ; and from the latter, by its less silvery pubescence, in the more uneven upper surface of its leaves, and their more prominent veins beneath, as well as in some minute characters in the flowers. Koch regards it as a hybrid between the iwo. It varies much in the procumbent, ascending, or more erect manner of its growth, in the paler or darker brown tioge of the twigs, and in the

quantity of pubescence. (Borrer.) Varieties. mente a S. a. 1 vulgaris ; S. a. Borr. in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2733., 5 figures of the two sexes,

and description. — A small straggling shrub, with branches sometimes procumbent, some. times rising ift. or 2 ft. from the ground. (Borrer.) A very full description, and 5

figures, are given in Eng. Bot. Suppl. There are plants at Henfield. * s. a. 2 måjor ; $. a. B major Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 9733., 3 figures of the female,

and description; is. ambigua B Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2, p. 418. ; S. versifolia Sering. Saules de la Suisse, No. 65., Monogr, +0. (Borrer.) - Mr. Borrer mentions the three following forms of this variety :- 1. A plant found on heathy ground, at Hoplon, Suffolk, which attains, in the garden, the height of 5ft., and scarcely differs from S. ambigua vulgaris, except in growing erect, and in the greater size of all its parts. It is much less silky than the following kind. 2. This, S. ambigua B Hook. Br. Fl., has a silvery appearance, from the abundance of silky hairs which clothe the leaves, especially beneath. It is said by Mr. Drummond, who found it on bogs, near Forfar, to be of upright growth, and 3 it. or 4 ft. high. 3. S. versifolia of Seringe appears, from his specimens, to belong to this variety; but whether S. versifolia of Wahlenberg is, as Seringe thought, not withstanding the long style, and some other discrepancies, the same, we have no means of deciding. Koch thinks it rather, according to Wahlenberg's original idea, a hybrid offspring of $. myrtilloldes, and S. limosa of Wahlenberg, the S. arenària L.

(Borter.) There are plants at Henfield. S. a. 3 spathulàta; S. a. 7 spathulàta Bor. in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2733., where three speci.

mens of the male plant are figured and described ; s. ambigua y Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p. 118.; S. spathuláta Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. 700.; Bluff et Fing. Fl. Germ., 4. 566. (Borrer); S. spathulata Willd. ; scarcely differs from $. ambigua vulgaris, except in the narrower base of the leaf. The style has been supposed to be longer ; but that organ seems to vary a little in length, in both S. vulgaris and S. a. màjor, from accidental circumstances. (Borrer.) S. spathulata Willd. is indigenous to Germany; and, according to Mr. Borrer's identification of a kind found wild in England, to Epping Forest, Essex. There

are plants at Henfield. S. a. 4 undulàla ; S. a. ò undulata Borrer in Eng. Bot., t. 2733., 4 figures of the female, and de.

scription ; S. spathulàta Willd.,var.undulata of Professor Mertens. ( Borrer.) - This variety occurs at Hopton in Suffolk, as well as S. a, màjor. It is remarkable for its lanceolate or almost linear leaves, and distinctly stalked stipules. " In our specimens of this, both the style and the stalk of the germen are occasionally longer than in the other varieties." (Borrer.)

? *? $ 55, S. FINMA'RCHICA Willd. The Finmark Willow. Identification. Willd. Enum. Suppl., p. 66. ; Ber. Baum., p. 141.; Koch Comm., p. 51. The Sercs. The female is noticed in the specific character. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves elliptic, obovate, or lanceolate, the tip recurved;

entire, or toothed with distant glanded teeth; beneath, wrinkled with veins, downy; afterwards more or less glabrous. Stipules half-ovate, straight. Catkins of female flowers peduncled; the peduncle a leafy twig. Capsule ovate-lanceolate, glabrous, upon a stalk that is four times longer than the gland. Style short. Stigmas ovate, notched. (Koch.) Wild in moist meadows, and on mountains clothed with pines, in Podolia and Volhynia ; and, perhaps, wild in Finmark. Very like S. ambígua Ehrh., from which it differs only in its glabrousness, and in the peduncles of the catkins being longer, and furnished with more perfectly developed leaves. (Id.) Introduced in 1825. There are plants in the Hackney arboretum.

wat ? * 56. S. VERSI'COLOR Forbes. The various-coloured Willow. Identification. Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 77. The Sexes. The female is described and figured in Sal. Wob. Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 77. ; and our fig. 77. in p 1618. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves elliptic, almost entire; greyish green and villous

above, glaucous and pubescent beneath. Stipules large, ovate. Ovary ovate, stalked, silky. Style smooth. Stigmas divided. (Sal. Wob., p. 153.) A native of Switzerland; when introduced is uncertain (? 1824); flowering, in the willow garden, in May. A low, depressed, or trailing shrub, about 2 ft. high, with slender, round, pubescent branches; the young ones greenish brown, densely downy; much resembling those of S. alaternüides, but always depressed; while those of S. alaternoides are quite erect. Leaves about 14 in. long, nearly 1 in. in breadth, elliptic, with bluntish points; green and villous above; glaucous, pubescent, and whitish beneath ; margins

« PreviousContinue »