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The Sexes.

Henfield, and Flitwick House, and also in the Hackney arboretum, under
the name of S. hippophaefolia. The shoots are as valuable for basketwork
as those of S. rùbra. (Forbes.)

37. S. REFLE'xa Forbes. The reflexed-catkined Willow,
Identification. Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 94.
The Sexes. The female is described and figured in Sal. Wob.
Engravings. Sal Wob., No. 94.; and our fig. 94. in p. 1619.
Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves lanceolate, dentated, or distantly serrated ; cottony

beneath; the older ones glaucous and glabrous. Stipules toothed, large,
on shortish footstalks. Catkins reflexed, on short stalks. Ovary stalked,
ovate, silky. Style short, divided. Stigmas parted. Bractea longer
than the stalk of the ovary, obovate, obtuse, notched, hairy, black in
its upper half. (Sal. Wob., p. 187.). A low spreading shrub; native
country not stated; flowering in March; with round green branches, villous
when young, marked with small yellow dots. Leaves from 3 in. to 3} in.
long, scarcely lin. in breadth ; lanceolate, tapering towards their extremities,
serrated, entire at the base; thickly covered with a short cottony substance,
while young, underneath; finally, they lose this substance, and become
perfectly glabrous and glaucous; the young ones are tinged with purple, and
very soft to the touch : lower leaves very small, and obtuse. Catkins about
1 in. long, recurved, slender. A very useful willow for tying, and for
the finer sorts of baskets and wickerwork, the younger twigs being very
tough and pliant.

tot 38. S. virGA'TA Forbes. The twiggy Willow. Identification. Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 12.

Mr. Forbes states that, when seen by him, the catkins were withered, and unfit for
examination.
Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 12., without flowers; and our fig. 12. in p. 1605.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves linear-lanceolate, glabrous, green on both surfaces,

finely serrated. Stipules rounded or half-heart-shaped, serrated or toothed.
Branches glabrous, shining. (Sal. Wob., p. 23.) A very distinct and hand-
some sort, growing, in the Horticultural Society's Garden at Chiswick, to
the height of 1 ft. 6 in. or 2 ft., with small round, brown, glabrous, twiggy
branches; flowering in May and June. In size, habit, and leaves it re-
sembles S. Houstoniàna.

39. S. LYO'NII ? Schl. Lyon's Willow.
Identification. Sal. Wob., No. 12. Mr. Forbes obtained this sort, under the name of S. Lydnii, from

Messrs. Loddiges, who had it, through M. Schleicher, from Switzerland.
The Seres. Mr. Forbes had not yet seen the catkins in 1829, when the Salictum Woburnense was

published.
Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 10., without flowers; and our fig. 10. in p. 1604.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves alternate, lanceolate, elongated, pointed, serrated,

glabrous, green and shining on both sides, veiny; obtuse at the base, some-
times furnished with one or two glands. Branches round, glabrous, inclining
to a reddish brown. (Sal. Wob., p. 19.) A native of Switzerland, intro-
duced by Messrs. Loddiges previously to 1829, the date of the Salictum Wo-
burnense. In the salictum at Woburn, it forms a bushy shrub, about 3 ft.
in height, with reddish brown branches, which are round, glabrous, and
shining; these, again, throwing out many small twigs from the axils of the
leaves, which are villous when young. This species has not yet flowered
with Mr. Forbes, who has given the figure without catkins.

a 40. S. HoustoNIA'NA Pursh. Houston's Willow.
Identification. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 634. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 43. ; Forbes in Sal.

Wob., No. 11.
Synonyme. S. tristis Lodd. Cat., ed. 1886.
The Sexes. The male is described in Pursh's specific character, and the female is described and

figured in Sal. Wob.
Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 11. ; and fig. 11. in
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves linear-lanceolate, and very finely serrated, glabrous,

shining, and green on both sides. Stipules none. Catkins accompanying

p

1604.

the leaves, cylindrical, villous. Bracteas ovate, acute. Stamens 3 to 5, bearded half-way up. Branches extremely brittle at the base. (Pursh.) A native of Virginia and Carolina. In the salictum at Woburn, it is a lowgrowing shrub, with slender, roundish, smooth, yellowish branches, rising about 3 ft. or 4 ft. high; flowering in May and June. “This species," Pursh observes, “ so frequently found in gardens under the name of S. tristis, is very far from being in any way related to it. The specimen in the

Banksian herbarium was collected by Houston, and, as it is said, in Vera Cruz; but I am confident that it is a more northern plant, as I have frequently seen it in Virginia.” (Fl. Amer. Sept., ii. p. 614.) There are plants in the Goldworth Arboretum, and at Woburn Abbey, Henfield, and Flitwick House ; also in the arboretum at Hackney, under the name of S. tristis.

41. S. FALCA'TA Pursh. The sickle-leaved Willow. Identification. Parsh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 614. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 44.; Forbes in Sal.

Wob., No. 148.
Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 148., a leaf; and our fig. 148. in p. 1630.
Spec. Char., fe. Leaves very long, linear-lanceolate, closely serrated, tapering gradually, and some-

what falcate upwards; acute at the base; glabrous on both surfaces; when young, silky. Stipules crescent-shaped, toothed, deflexed. A very smooth species, with very slender brown branches : Aowers not yet observed. (Pursk.) A native of North America, from Pennsylvania to Virginia, on the banks of rivers. Introduced in 1811, and flowering in April and May; but we have never seen the plant.

42. S. GRISEA Willd. The grey Willow. Identification. Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 699.; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 615. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo.,

No. 113.; Koch Comm., p. 21., note* Synonymes. S. sericea Mühlenb. Nov. Act. Soc. Nat. Scrut. Berol., 4. p. 239. t. 6. f. 8. į Sims et

König Ann. of Bol., 2. 67. t. 5. f. 8. Perhaps the S. pennsylvánica Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 95., is the S. grisea Willd. (Borrer in a letter.) The Sezes. Both sexes are described in Willd. Sp. Pl., and in Rees's Cyclo. : they are more briefly

noticed in the specific character below. Engravings. Nov. Act. Soc. Nat. Scrut. Berol., 4. t. 6. f. 8. ; Ann. of Bot., 2 t. 5. 1. 8. Sper. Char., &c. Petiole long, silky. Disk of leaf lanceolate, acuminate, serrulate ; glabrous on the the upper surface, silky on the under one. Stipules linear. Stamens 2. Ovary silky, oblong. Stigmas sessile, obtuse. (Willd. and Mithlenb.) Wild in marshes in Pennsylvania. A shrub of man's height Branches brown, downy when young. Disk of leaf 14 in. long. Catkins protruded earlier than the leaves. (Willd.)' Introduced in 1820. Variety.

s.g. 2 glābra.-Glabrous. Koch considers this the same as the S. petiolaris of Smith, described

below, No. 43.; and asserts that it is not a native of Britain, though Smith has included

it in his English Flora.

* * 43. S. PETIOLA'ris Smith. The long-petiolated Willow. Identification. Smith in Lin. Soc. Trans., 6. P. 122. ; Eng. Bot., t. 1147. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 665.;

Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 616.; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 28.; Eng. Fl., 4. p. 181. ; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 23. ; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3., p. 423. Synonymes. S. grisea Wind. var. B subglabràta Koch Comm., p. 21., note Koch regards the

S. petiolaris Smith as a var. of S. grisea ; and it probably is so. (Borrer in a letter.) The Seres. The female is figured in Eng. Bot. and Sal. Wob. Smith observes that he“ knows nothing of the male plant." (Eng. Fi.) Dr. Borrer had formerly both sexes growing at

Henfield, having received the male from Mr. G. Anderson, but at present he has the female only. (W. B.) Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1147. ; Sal. Wob., No. 23.; our fig. 1319.; and fig. 23. in p. 1607. Spee. Char., &c. Leaves lanceolate, serrated, glabrous; glaucous beneath, some

what unequal at the base. Stipules lunate, toothed. Catkins lax. Bracteas hairy, shorter than the stalks of the ovate silky ovaries. Stigmas divided, sessile. (Smith Eng. Fl.) A native of Scotland, in Anguss hire and other places; forming a bushy tree, with slender, spreading, flexible, smooth, purplish, or dark brown branches ; flowering in April. It is easily known from every other species, by its short obtuse catkins, and long dark leaves. After gathering, the young leaves especially exhale a strong scent, like the flavour of bitter almonds, but less agreeable. No use has been made of this willow, though it seems to abound in tannin.” (Smith in Eng. Fl.) from Scotland by the late Mr. Dickson. In Possil Marsh, 1319 on the north side of the canal; Mr. David Don. Marshes in Angusshire ; Mr. George Don. (Hooker.) Mr. Pursh has suspected it not to be

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truly British ; but there seems no reason why, like several other willows, it may not grow wild in Europe as well as in North America ; and the au. thorities above mentioned are not likely to be erroneous.(Smith.) “ I have never seen native specimens.(Hooker in Br. Fl.)

44. S. PennsylvA'Nica Forbes. The Pennsylvanian Willow. Identification. Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 95. Synonymes. ? Is not this the same as S. petiolaris Smith; or, perhaps, it is the $. grisea Wild. (Borrer in a letter.) In Sweet's Hort. Brit., ed. 1850, it is questioned if s. pennsylvánica Forbes be not iden.

tical with S. pedicelláris of Spreng. Syst., which is the S. pedicellàris Pursh.
The Seres. The male is described and ñigured in Sal. Wob.
Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 95. ; and our fig. 95. in p. 1620.
Spec. Char., &c. A bushy shrub. Leaves alternate, lanceolate, serrated ;

smooth, glabrous, and shining above; densely clothed beneath with silky silvery hairs. Stipules very minute, soon falling off. Catkins of the male nearly 1 in. long, slender. Bractea oblong, hairy. Gland obtuse.

This kind, in its whole form and habit, bears a strong likeness to S. petiolaris Smith ; but the silvery silkiness of the old leaves perfectly distinguishes it. (Sal. Wob., p. 189.). A native of ? North America; Aowering in April. Introduced in (?) 1825. A low spreading shrub, with yellowish green, round, villous, brittle branches. Leaves lance-shaped, varying from 3 in. to 5 in. in length, sometimes nearly 1 in. broad; dark green and shining above ; beautifully silvery-silky beneath; all the leaves of a thin texture; midrib pale, prominent, and slightly villous. Footstalks scarcely fin. long. Catkins appearing before the leaves, nearly sessile. Anthers reddish before expansion; afterwards yellow. There are plants in the Goldworth Arboretum, and at Woburn Abbey and Flitwick House. at 45. S. MÜHLENBERGIA'Na Willd. Mühlenberg's, or the brown American,

Willow. Identification. Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 692. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 609.; Smith in Rees's Cyelo.,

No. 96.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 145. p. 278.; Koch Comm., p. 21., note Synonymer. S. alpina Walt. Car., 243. ; S. incàna Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 2. p. 225.; S. flava Schoeps. Mat. Med. Amer. ; S. tristis Mühlenb. Nov. Act. Soc. Nat. Scrut. Berol., 4. p.1241. t. 6. f. 9., Sims and König's Ann. of Bot., 2. p. 68. t. 5. f. 9. The Sexes. "Both sexes are noticed in the specific character. Engravings. Nov. Act. Soc. Nat. Scrut. Berol., 4. t. 6. f. 9. ; Ann. of Bot., 2. t. 5. f. 9., a leal; Sal.

Wob., No. 145. ; and our fig. 145, in p. 1650. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves lanceolate, sharpish, nearly entire, downy, revolute; veiny and rugose

Stipules lanceolate, deciduous. Bracteas oblong, fringed. Ovary ovate-lanceolate, silky, stalked. Style short. Stigmas divided. The branches greenish yellow, with black dots. Anthers purple ; yellow when they burst. Bracteas white, tipped with red, giving the catkins a very pleasing appearance. (Pursh.) A shrub, 1 fl. to 4 ft. high, mostly decumbent. Leaves lin. long,

It is indigenous in gravelly places in Pennsylvania and Canada (Willd.); or, according to Pursh, in shady dry woods, from New York to Virginia. Introduced in 1811, and flowering in April.

* 46. S. TRI'STIS Ait. The sad, or narrow-leaved American, Willow. Identification. Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 1., 3. p 393.; Willd. Sp. PL, 4 p. 693., Pursh FI, Amer. Sept.,

2. p. 609. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 97. ; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 150. p. 279. Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 150., a leaf; and our fig. 150. in p. 1630. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves linear-lanceolate, entire, revolute, acute at each end; rather glabrous above,

rugged with veins and downy beneath. Stipules none. Catkins appearing before the leaves, and oblong. Approaches near to S. Mühlenbergiana. (Pursh.). A native of North America, in dry sandy woods, from New Jersey to Carolina. Introduced in 1765, and flowering in April

47. S. CORDA'TA Mühlenb. The heart-leaved Willow. Identification. Mühlenb. in Nov. Act. Soc. Nat. Scrut. Berol., 4. p. 236. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 666. ;

Mühlenb. in Sims et Kön. Ann. of Bot., 2. p. 64.; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept, 2. p. 615. ; Smith in
Rees's Cyclo., No. 30.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 142.
The Sexes. Both sexes are noticed in the specific character.
Engravings. Nov. Act. Soc. Nat. Scrut. Berol., 4 l. 6. f. 3. ; Ann. of Bot., t. 3. f. 3. ; Sal. Wob.,

No. 142., a leaf; and our fig. 142. in
Spec. Char., &c. Branches green, red towards the end; younger ones pubescent. Leaves qvate.

lanceolate, serrated, smooth ; above deep green, paler beneath, heart-shaped at the base. Stipules rounded, finely toothed. Catkins accompanying the leaves. Stamens to a flower mostly 3. Flowers lanceolate, woolly. Ovary stalked, lanceolate, smooth. Style

the length of the divided stigmas. (Pursk.) "A native of North America, from New England to Virginia. Introduced in 1811, and Rowering in April and May. The young shoots are very tough, and are much used in America by the basket-makers. A shrub, about 61t. high, with green glabrous branches, and long leavea. (Willd.) There are plants in the Goldworth Arboretum.

beneath.

or more.

P. 1630.

Group x. Rosmarinifolia Borrer.

Low Shrubs, with narrow Leaves.

Smith has noted that he

Stamens 2 to a flower. Ovary silky, stalked. Catkins short. Flowers

loosely disposed in the catkin. Leaves linear-lanceolate, entire, or toothed with extremely minute glanded teeth. Plants small upright shrubs. (Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2.)

* 48. S. ROSMARINIFOʻLIA L. The Rosemary-leaved Willow. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 1448.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 697.; Hayne Abbild., p. 244.; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 612.; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 109. , Eng. Bot., t. 1365. ; Eng. FL, 4. p. 214.;

Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 87.; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. S. p. 423. Synonyme. S. rosmarinifolia, part of, Koch Comm., p. 49. The Sezes. The female is described in Eng. Fl., and higured in Eng. Bot. had not seen the catkins of the male. This is originally described, and both sexes are figured, in

Sal. Wob. Both are described in Wild. Sp. Pl., and figured in Hayne Abbild. Engravings. Hayne Abbild., t. 186. ; Eng. Bot., t. 1365. ; Sal. Wob., No. 87.; our fig. 1320.; and fig. 87.

in p. 1618. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves linear-lanceolate, silky, quite entire, or with a few

very minute glanded teeth, especially the young leaves. Catkins shortly oblong, curved, lax. Ovaries stalked, silky, lanceolate-acun inate. Style about as long as the linear divided stigmas. Bracteas short, villous. (Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3.) “Native of moist sandy or turfy places in Sweden, Germany, and the northern parts of Britain; flowering in April. Pursh, finding it likewise in wet meadows and mountain swamps from Pennsylvania to Carolina, presumes that it has been imported thence into England. Our specimens, however, accord exactly with the Finland ones of Linnæus, and the German one of Ehrbart, so that it seems common to both quarters of the world.” (Smith in Rees's Cyclo.) Flowering in April and May. A slender upright shrub, 2 ft. or 3 ft. high ; allied in its habits (silky silvery foliage, and short ovate catkins) to S. angustifolia? Wulf., Borrer, Hooker ; but much more

1320 silky or downy; and the catkins, at first, are singularly recurved. The branches are upright, very slender, round, silky when young. Leaves scattered, on short slender stalks, nearly upright, straight, linear-lanceolate, acute, hardly ever more than in, broad at most, and from 1 in. to 2 in. long; entire, sometimes beset with a few marginal glands; the upper surface silky when young, but soon becoming glabrous and veiny, of a rather light green, scarcely blackened in drying; under surface glaucous, and at every period more or less silky. Catkins lateral; at first drooping, ovate, and very short, but, as they advance, becoming more erect. The ovaries of this species are smaller, and more awl-shaped, than in S. angustifolia Borrer,

Hooker, ?Wulf. * *49. S. Angustifo‘lia Borrer, Hooker, ?Wulf. The narrow-leaved Willow. Identification. Borrer and Hook. in Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p. 417. ; ? Wulf. in Jacq. Coll., 3. 48. Synonymes. S. arbúscula Smith Fl. Brit., p. 1050., Eng. Bot., t. 1366., Rees's Cyclopædia, No. 65., Eng. Flora, 4. p. 198., exclusively of the synonymes of Lin., perhaps of other synonymes, Forbes in Šal. Wob., No. 86., not No. 188.; S. rosmarinifolia « Koch Comm., p. 49. Smith, in his Eng. Flora, has referred S. angustifolia Wulf. to S. incubàcea L.; and Koch has referred S. incubacea L. The Sexes. The female is described in Eng. Flora, and figured in Eng. Bot. and Sal. Wob. Smith

has noted, in Eng. Flora, that the flowers of the male were unknown to him. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1366.; the female, Sal.]

Wob., t. 86.; our fig. 1321. ; and fig. 86. in p. 1618. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves linear-lanceolate, nearly glabrous, with minute glandular teeth ; the young leaves silky; glaucous beneath. Catkins ovate, erect.

Ovaries ovate-acuminate, densely silky, stalked. Style about as long as the broad, erect, entire stigmas. Bracteas very villous, nearly as long as the young

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to S, rosmarinifolia L.

ovaries. (Hook. Br. Fl., p. 417.) À native of Scotland, on the Clova Mountains, and also near Dumfries; growing to the height of 1 ft., and flowering in April. Botanists are not agreed as to what is precisely the S. arbúscula L. Smith deemed it to be this, but Mr. Forbes (Sal. Wob., No. 86., and incidentally under No. 138.) and Mr. Borrer (Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2.) have concluded that it is not. Mr. Forbes was much inclined to regard it as not specifically distinct from S. rosmarinifolia Eng. Fl. and Eng. Bot.;

1321 and Mr. Borrer, or Sir W.J. Hooker, or both, have regarded it as probably the same as the S. angustifolia Wulfen. As to its relation to S. rosmarinifolia, Sir W. J. Hooker says, “I agree with Mr. Borrer in thinking that they are distinct, though the difference lies almost entirely in their ovaries: these are shorter in S. angustifolia, with denser, less glossy, and less truly silky hairs, with ovate and quite entire stigmas, and more shaggy bracteas. There are plants at Woburn and Flitwick.

maka 50. S. DECU'MBENS Forbes. The decumbent Willow. Identification. Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 88. The Seres. The female is described and figured in Sal Wob. Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 88.; and fig. 88. in p. 1618. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves linear-lanceolate, nearly entire; dull green and silky

above, pale and densely silky beneath. Stipules lanceolate. Branches downy. Ovary ovate, silky, nearly sessile. Style elongated. Stigmas divided. (Sal. Wob., p. 175.) A native of ? Switzerland. Introduced in 1823, and flowering in May. A small shrub, with leafy downy branches, extending obliquely from the ground to the height of 1 ft. or 1 ft. 6 in. The leaves are from 1} in. to 2 in. long, or more ; linear-lanceolate, entire, or nearly so, some of them marked with a few glands about the middle; dull green and silky above, beneath densely silky; the young ones have somewhat a silvery appearance underneath. Buds red before expansion. Catkins nearly 1 in.

ong. A very distinct species, embling in foliage the male plant of S. rosmarinifolia.

51. S. FUSCA'ta Pursh. The dark-brown-branched Willow. Identification. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 8. p. 612. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 110. The Seres. The female is noticed in the specific character. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves obovate-lanceolate, acute, somewhat serrated ; glaucous beneath, downy when very young. Stipules minute. Catkins drooping. Bracteas (scales) obtuse, scarcely hairy on the inside. Ovary ovate, silky, somewhat stalked. Wild in North America, in low overflowed grounds on the banks of rivers, from New York to Pennsylvania ; Rowering in March or April. Branches of the preceding year covered with a dark brown or black tomentum. (Pursh and Smith.) Introduced in 1811.

Group xi. Fusce Borrer.

Mostly procumbent Shrubs.

Stamens 2 to a flower, as far as to the kinds whose male flowers have been

observed. Ovary silky, stalked. Catkins ovate or cylindrical. Leaves between elliptical and lanceolate; mostly silky beneath ; nearly entire. Plants small shrubs. Stem, in most, procumbent. S. fúsca L., Hooker, var. 1., and S. Doniàna Smith, have a likeness in aspect to the kinds of the group Purpureæ, except S. rùbra Huds. (Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., adapted.)

at 52. S. PU'sca L. The brown Willow. Identification. Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p. 417. ; ? Hayne Abbild., p. 942. Synonymes. S. repens Hook. Fl. Scot., 1. p. 284. ; $. rèpens Koch, part of, Koch Comm., p. 47. The various synonymes to be cited below in application to varieties are, in effect, synonymes of the species also. The Seres. The female is figured in Hayne Abbild., if the S. fúsca of that work is the S. fúsca L. Engravings. Hayne Abbild., t. 184. ; Sal. Wob, ; and our fig. 83. in p. 1618.

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