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S. undulata Ehrh. Beytr., 6. p. 101., according to the specific character, but without inspection of Ehrhartian specimens, Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 655.; ? S. No. 38., Trev. Obs. Bot., p. 18.; and, as a variety, S. lanceolata Smith Eng. Bol., t. 1436., according to an authentic English specimen. Hooker has deemed identical with S. undulata of his Br. Fl., ed. 3., p. 419., the kinds now to be noticed : -S. lanceolata Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1436., Eng. Fl., and Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 14. "Dr. Meyler of Göttingen has sent me specimens of the s. undulata of Ehrh., compared with the Ehrhartian herbarium; and Mr. Borrer is satisfied that they are identical with Smith's S. lanceolata ; at least, with the Sussex svecimens communicated by Mr. Woollgar to him, and which are probably the same with the females figured in Eng. Bot. Indeed, that station (viz. near Lewes, in Sussex,) is the only one mentioned by Sir J. E Smith as English. Mr. Borrer has received German specimens of S. undulata with silky germens; and these are probably the S. undulata of Salict. Wob., which differs only in that respect, and in its more wavy leaves, from our present plant. (Brit. Fl., ed. 3., p. 419.) The Seres. The female is figured in Sal. Wob, Nos. 13. and 14., and in Eng. Bot., t. 1436.; and

is described in Eng. Fl. Koch noted that he had seen the female wild and cultivated, but that he
had no knowledge of the male.
Engravings. Sal. Wob., Nos. 13. and 14. ; Eng. Bot., t. 1438 ; ? Haype Abbild., t. 160.; our fig. 1296.;

and figs. 13 and 14. in p. 1606.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves lanceolate, acuminate through
much of their length, serrulate at the tip, and minutely
crenulate at the base; at first pubescent, but becoming
glabrous; wavy at the edge, or not. Stipules half-heart-
shaped. Catkin peduncled upon a leafy twiglet. Brac-
tea bearded at the tip. Stamens 3. Capsule ovate-
conical, more or less pubescent, or glabrous, stalked; the
stalk twice the length of the gland. Style elongated.
Stigmas bifid. (Koch.) It inhabits the banks of streams,

1296 in the plains and lower valleys in the north of Germany, and in England.

(13.) Varieties. 1. S. u. 2; S. undulata Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 13.- Mr. Forbes

has given the following specific character, or diagnosis, of this kind, he treating it as a species; and, as this character may serve to portray its main features, we retain it in application to it, yiewed as a variety. Leaves linear-lanceolate, acuminate, somewhat attenuated towards the base; wavy, and sharply serrated at their margins. Ovary sessile, ovate, scarcely downy. Style about half the length of the linear parted stigmas. (Sal. Wob., p. 25.) Cultivated in the Dublin Botanic Garden, and howering in April and May. It is an upright-growing plant, soon forming a bushy tree, about 10 ft. or 12 ft. high, with brown, smooth, round branches, slightly downy when young, and somewhat angular at the points. Catkins about 1 in. in length, bursting forth with the leaves. “This is a species very distinct from the above, which is considered to be the S. undulàta of Ehrhart ; from which it is readily distinguished by long, taper-pointed, wavy leaves. I conceive it to be a foreign kind. I have not observed it in any collection but that contained in the Dublin Botanic Garden, from which I derived it.” (Forbes in Sal. Wob.) In relation to this kind, Mr. Borrer has remarked in his list, that, “if S. undulata Forbes, and S. lanceolata Smith and Forbes, the S. undulata Hooker, are to be regarded as two species, the former agrees best with Ehrhart's character of his S. undulàta.” There are plants in the Hackney and Goldworth arboretums, and at Wo

burn Abbey, Henfield, and Flitwick House. 1. S. u. 3; S. lanceolata Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1436., Eng. Fl., iv.

p. 168., Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 14.— The following is Smith's diagnosis of this kind :—Leaves lanceolate, serrated, glabrous, tapering towards each end. Footstalks decurrent. Ovary stalked, ovate, glabrous. Styles as long as the stigmas. (Smith Eng. Fl.) Smith has farther noted of its distinctive characters as follows:-“Akin to S. triandra Lin. and S. Hoffmanniana Smith. An essential means of distinction exists in the leaves, which are longer and narrower than those of S. triándra, or any of its reputed varieties ; more pointed and tapering; not linear, but truly lanceolate. Footstalks bearing at the summit a pair of glands, or minute leaflets ; not abrupt at the base, but decurrent, each meeting with a projection of the branch, tapering downward, and forming a kind of buttress; which character is clear and invariable.” (Ibid.) There is a plant of S. lanceolata in the Botanic Garden, Twickenham; and there are also plants in the Hackney and Goldworth arboretums, and at Henfield and Flitwick House. Mr. Forbes observes that this sort deserves cultivation, as the rods are much used for hampers, crates, &c. although not so well adapted for tying bundles, and for the finer sorts of

wicker work, as the S. triándra. * A S. u. 4, having the catkins androgynous. S. undulata occurs in this

case. (Koch Comm., p. 20.) " 11. S. HIPPOPHAEFOʻLIA Thuillier. The Sea-Buckthorn-leaved Willow,

or Osier. Identification. Thuil, Paris., p. 514. ; Sering. Sal. exsicc., No. 44. ; Koch Comm., p. 20. ; Link

Enum. Synonyme. S. undulata Treviranus Obs. Bot., p. 17., Koch in Regensb. Bot. Zeitung, 1820, p. 311.

S. hippophaefolia Thuil. is so similar to S. undulata, as to be, perhaps, but a variety of that species. (Borrer in a letter.) The Sexes. Both are noticed in the specific character. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaf lanceolate, obsoletely crenulate in a repand manner; toothed with glanded teeth, so small as to seem to consist of glands only ; acuminate through much of its length, downy, eventually glabrous. Stipules half-heart-shaped. Catkin borne on a leafy peduncle, which is a twiglet. Bractea hairy. Stamens 2. Capsule ovately conical, tomentose, downy, or glabrous ; seated on a stalk that is as long as the gland. Style long. Stigma bifid. (Koch.) Wild in the plains and lower valleys of the Palatinate, Wetteravia, Silesia, and the north of Germany. Treviranus thinks that this is the true S. undulata of Ehrhart ; " but I," says Koch,“ have not been able to find any of its leaves undulated, among many specimens observed growing wild; but, perhaps, Ehrhart included this in his S. undulàta, to which it is too near akin to be a species distinct from that.” (Id.)

* 12. S. TRIA'NDRA L. The 3-stamened-flowered Willow, or Osier. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 1442.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 654., Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1435.; Eng. FI. 4. p. 166.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., 'No. 15. ; Hook. Fl. Br., ed. 3., p. 419. ; Wade's Salices, p. 6.;

Mackay Fl. Hibern., pt. 1. p. 245.; ? Hayne Abbild., p. 219. Synonyme. S. amygdalina, part of, Koch Comm., p. 19. The Seres. Both sexes are tigured in Eng. Bot. and Sal. Wob. Engravings. Gmel. Sib., 1. 155. t. 34. f. 3. ; ? Hayne Abbild., t. 159. ; Eng. Bot., t. 1435. ; Sal. Wob.,

No. 15. ; our fig. 1297. ; and fig. 15. in p. 1605. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves linear-oblong, serrated, glabrous, rather unequally

sloping at the base. Stamens 3. Ovary stalked, ovate, compressed, glabrous. Stigmas nearly sessile. (Smith E. Fl.) Bractea (or scale) clothed externally with fine, long, spreading, more or less plentiful hairs. (Ibid.) Bractea glabrous. (Hook. Br. Fl., 3d ed.) Mr. Woollgar used to distinguish this species by the dark-barked smooth shoots of the female plant. The male one he never met with at Lewes. (Ibid.) A native of Britain, in wet woods and osier grounds, where it forms an upright tree, rising naturally, when not injured, to the height of 30 ft. Leaves always perfectly glabrous. This species is extensively cultivated for the long tough rods which it produces when cut down, which are in frequent use for wickerwork, hoops, &c. “ S. triándra is one of the most valuable osiers. It is cultivated for white basketwork, producing rods 8 ft. or 9 ft. long, tough and pliant, even when stripped of their bark, and very durable. They are cut down every year.” (Smith in Eng. Fl.) There are plants in the Gold

worth arboretum, at Flitwick House, at Henfield, and at Woburn Abbey. Varieties. Several varieties, if not distinct species, are comprehended under

the name of S. triándra. “ Of these, I venture to separate one as a species,

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by the name of S. Hoffmanniana.(Ibid.) Mr. Forbes, after describing the kind that he has adopted as S. triándra, adds, “I have another state of this, with much larger and broader leaves." *1'S. ? t. 2. The French Willow, so called, and cultivated, in Sussex, and the

east parts of England. (Ibid.) Description. “ 12 ft. to 15 ft. high. Disks of leaves of but half the size of those of the S. triándra described by Smith, of a fine bright green. Petioles more slender. Stipules larger. Catkins large and yellow. Stamens 3 or more, thrice as long as the bractea. I have not seen the female flowers, nor am I informed of the peculiar properties of this kind. Mr. Crowe used to name it S. contórta, and esteem it a doubtful species, and not supposed to be wild in Britain.” (Ibid.). Synon. s. triándra Curt. Fl. Lond. (Borrer in a letter.) About Lewes, Sussex, it is confined to the osier-grounds. (Borrer in Hook. Br. Fl., 2d ed.) This is apparently the s. Hoppeàna Willd., differing only, according to my specimens from Salzburg, in the notched or retuse bracteas. (Hooker, ibid.) Smith has quoted the S. triándra Curt. Fl. Lond. as identical with S. Hoffmanniana Smith; but has remarked that it may possibly prove distinct, and that it doubtless is so from the S. triándra, which he has described. There are plants

at Henfield. * ¥ S. ?t. 3 Hoppeàna; S. andrógyna Hoppe, quoted in Willd. Sp.

Pl., iv. p. 654., under S. Hoppeàna Willd. ; S. Hoppeàna Willd. Sp. Pl., iv. p. 654., Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 2., Hayne Abbild., p. 218. t. 158.; S. triándra andrógyna Seringe, quoted in Hayne Abbild.; S. amygdalina, part of, Koch Comm., p. 18.–Smith, in his Eng. Fl., iv. p. 167., has incidentally described this, after s. triandra, as follows:-“S. Hoppeàna Willd. is characterised by having some catkins composed partly of male and partly of female flowers. Its leaves, though very glaucous

beneath, agree nearly with those of S. triándra, of which species Mr. Sieber, who sent me specimens from Salzburg, appears to think it a variety.” (Smith.) It is shown, under var. 2, that Hooker deems S. Hoppeàna ap

parently identical with that variety. Introduced in 1820. * I S. ? t. 4 ; S. triándra undulata Mertens, ined. - This is an approach

to S. amygdalina; the twigs are of a yellowish grey as in that kind, and their young points grooved, but in a less remarkable degree. Mr. Forster regards this, and not the French willow of the Lewes basket-makers, as the S. contórta of Mr. Crowe. I have plants of both sexes from the Lewes osier grounds. (W. B.)

13. S. HOFFMANNIA'NA Smith. Hoffmann's Willow, or Osier. Identification. Smith Eng. Fl., 4. p. 168. ; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 16. ; Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl.,

t. 2620. ; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3., p. 420. Synonyme. S. triándra Hotfm. Sal., 1. p. 45. t. 9, 10., 23. f. 2. (Smith) ? exclusively of vars. (Borrer in Hook. Br. Fl.) S. Hoffmanniana Sm. seems to be the S. triandra of German botanists in general. (Smith in Eng. Fl., 2. p. 167.) The Seres. The male is figured in Eng. Bot. Suppl., and in Sal Wob. ; a notice relative to what has

been regarded as the female is given in Engl. Flora. Engravings. Hoff. Sal., 1. t. 9, 10., and 23. f. 2.; Sal. Wob., No. 16. ; Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2620.; and

fig. 16. in p. 1606. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves ovate-oblong, serrated, smooth, slightly rounded

at the base. Stamens 3. Ovary stalked, ovate, compressed, glabrous. Stigmas nearly sessile. (Smith E. F.) The male plant is a native of Britain, on the sides of streams, in Sussex, where it forms a muchbranched shrub, or crooked tree, scarcely ever exceeding 12 ft. high; flowering in May. Mr. Forbes states that his plant, after having been cultivated for five years, had not exceeded the height of 5 ft. There are plants in the Goldworth Arboretum, and at Henfield.

* 14. S. AMYGDAʼLINA L. The Almond-leaved Willow, or Osier. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 1443. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., p. 656.; Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1636. ; Eng. F1, 4.

p. 169.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 18.; Hook Br. Fi., ed. 3., p. 420.; Wade's Salices, p. 14. ; Mackay Fl. Hibern., pt. 1. p. 245. Synonyme. S. amygdalina, part of, Koch Comm., p. 18. The Sexes. Both sexes are figured in Eng. Bot, and Sal. Wob. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1636. ; Sal. Wob., No. 18.; our fig. 1298.; and fig. 18. in p. 1606. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves ovate, serrated, glabrous, rounded, and unequal at the base. Stamens 3. Ovary ovate, compressed, smooth; its stalks almost as long as the bractea. Stigmas nearly sessile. Young branches furrowed. Down of the seeds shorter, and less abundant, than in S. triándra. Mr. Crowe first accurately compared and distinguished these two by their leaves. (Smith E. F.) A native of Britain, on the banks of rivers and ditches, in the eastern counties of England, and in Scotland, where it forms a tree growing to the height of 20 ft. or 30 ft.; flowering in April and May, and, for the second time, in August. “ If cut down every year, it produces rods 6 ft. or 8 ft. long, in considerable plenty, for coarse basketwork, but not equal to S. triándra when peeled.” (Smith.) Among the insects which live upon this species is the Phalæ'na anastomosis L., the

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