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slender shoots and glaucous leaves, which latter have a peculiar twist; whence, perhaps, the specific name of Hèlix, snail-like. There are plants at Hackney, Goldworth, Woburn, Henfield, and Flitwick.
3. S. LAMBERTIANA Smith. Lambert's, or the Boyton, Willow. Identification. Sm. Fl. Br., p. 1041.; Eng. Bot., t. 1359.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 673.; Smith Eng. Fl., 4. p. 190.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 3.; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3. p. 417.; Mackay Fl. Hibern., pt. 1. p. 244.
Synonyme. S. purpurea ẞ Koch Comm., p. 25.
The Sexes. Both are figured in Eng. Bot. and Sal. Wob. Mr. Borrer has only seen the female of this, and the male of S. Hèlix, and thinks they are the two sexes of one species. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1359.; Sal. Wob., No. 3.; and fig. 3. in p. 1603.
Spec. Char., &c. Branches erect. Leaves partly opposite, obovate-lanceolate, pointed, serrated, smooth; rounded at the base. Stipules none. Stamen 1. Stigmas ovate, obtuse, notched, very short, nearly sessile. (Eng. Fl., iv. p. 189.) A native of England, flowering in March and April. This species is of the size and habit of the last, but very distinct from it at first sight, particularly in the tender summits of the young growing branches, which, with their purplish glaucous hue, and some degree of downiness, resemble those of a honeysuckle. Catkins not more than half the size of those of S. Hèlix, with rounded, blackish, hairy scales. (Sm. Eng. Fl.) First discovered on the banks of the Willey, at Boyton, Wilts, by A. B. Lambert, Esq., whom the specific name is meant to compliment. It grows in North America, on the banks of rivers and willow grounds. It was introduced from Europe, and is cultivated for basket-making. (Pursh.) S. Lambertiana is suitable for introducing into ornamental plantations, from the graceful character of its slender shoots, and its glaucous foliage. There are plants in the Hackney and Goldworth arboretums, and also at Woburn, Flitwick, and Henfield.
4. S. WOOLLGARIA`NA Borr. Woollgar's Willow.
Identification. Borr. in Eng. Bot. Supp., t. 2651.; Hook. Brit. Fl., ed. 3., p. 417.
Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 4.; Eng. Bot. Supp., t. 2651.; and fig. 4. in p. 1603.
Spec. Char., &c. Erect. Leaves cuneate-lanceolate, serrated, glabrous. Stamen 1. Ovary ovate, very pubescent, sessile, downy. Stigmas nearly sessile, ovate, scarcely emarginate. (Hook. Brit. Fl., p. 417.) A native of England, about Lewes, Sussex, in osier holts, but scarcely wild; at Kingston upon Thames, apparently wild; flowering in May. In the salictum at Woburn, this species had not attained the height of 6 ft. in five years. It is considered to be very distinct from either S. Hèlix or S. Lambertiàna. Mr. Borrer applied the specific name in compliment to the late Mr. Woollgar, a gentleman who supplied Sir J. E. Smith with several of his willows, and who formed his opinions upon the species from long and accurate observation." (Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3.) S. Woollgariana had long been known to Mr. Borrer and Mr. Woollgar as a variety of S. monandra Hoffm.; but Mr. Woollgar was so far of opinion that it was a distinct species, that he used to call it S. cuneifòlia, from the shape of its leaves, especially the upper ones. (Ibid.) There are plants at Henfield, and in the Goldworth Arboretum; and some, with the name of S. monándra, in that of Messrs. Loddiges.
5. S. FORBYANA Smith. Forby's Willow, or the fine Basket Osier. Identification. Smith Fl. Br., p. 1041.; Eng. Bot., t. 1544.; Rees's Cyc., No. 49.; Willd. Sp. PL, 4. p. 674.; Smith Eng. Fl., 4. p. 191.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 5.; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. S., p. 418.; Mackay Fl. Hib., pt. 1. p. 244.; Hayne Abbild., p. 231. t. 172.
Synonymes. S fissa Lin. Soc. Trans., not of Hoff. (Smith); S. rùbra & Koch Comm., p. 27. The Sexes. The female is described in Eng. Fl., and figured in Eng. Bot. The male is not known. "The original plant, sent from Mr. Forby to Mr. Crowe, was found now and then to bear a solitary stamen at one of the lower bracteas of the catkins of female flowers, which showed this species to be truly monandrous, and distinct from Hoffmann's S. fissa, to which it had previously been referred." (Smith.)
Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1344.; Sal. Wob., No. 5.; Hayne Abbild., t. 172.; and fig. 5. in p. 1603. Spec. Char., &c. Branches erect. Leaves alternate, with small stipules, lanceo
late-oblong, with shallow serratures, smooth, rounded at the base, glaucous beneath. Stamen 1. Style nearly as long as the linear divided stigmas. (Smith Eng. Fl.) A native of England, flowering in April. The stem is erect, bushy, with upright, slender, smooth twigs, very flexible and tough, of a greyish yellow, not purple, hue. Fertile catkins extremely like those of S. Helix, but the leaves widely different. A valuable species for the finer sorts of wickerwork, and for basket-making, bands for tying faggots, packets, &c. When cut down, plants make shoots from 5 ft. to 7. ft. long. There are plants at Hackney, Goldworth, Woburn, and Flitwick.
† 6. S. RU`BRA Huds. The red, or green-leaved, Willow, or Osier. Identification. Huds. Fl. Angl., p. 428.; Smith's Eng. Bot., t. 1145.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 674. ; Smith's Eng. Fl., 4. p. 191.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 6.; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3., p. 418.; Mackay's FL. Hib., pt. 1. p. 244.; ? Hayne Abbild., p. 230.
Synonymes. The name rubra seems to be originally given to S. vitellina, a reddish [?twigged] variety of which was confounded with S. rùbra Huds. (Smith); S. rùbra, in part, Koch Comm., p. 26. S. fissa Hoffm. Sal., 1. p. 61. t. 13, 14. (Smith); S. cóncolor Host Sal. Aust., 1. p. 10. t. 34, 35., from Host's citation of Ray; S. virescens Fill. Dauph., 3. 785. t. 51. 30. (Smith); S. linearis Walker's Essays, p. 467., on the authority of Borrer.
The Sexes. Both are described in Eng. F.; and the female is figured in Eng. Bot. and Sal. Wob. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1145.; Sal. Wob., No. 6.;? Host Sal. Aust., t. 1. t. 34, 35.; Villars Dauph., 3. t. 51. f. 30. (Smith.); ? Hayne Abbild., 171.; and our fig. 6. in p. 1604.
Spec. Char., &c. Stamens combined below in a manner which affords a character in which it differs from all other British kinds of willow, except S. Croweana, and from nearly all the foreign kinds. Mr. Borrer, however, has observed the same thing occasionally in S. fùsca, and in several of the Cinèreæ. "Leaves linear-lanceolate, elongate, acute, smooth, with shallow serratures; green on both sides. Stigmas ovate, undivided." (Smith E. F.) A native of Britain (in England, in low meadows and osier holts, as at Maidenhead, &c., but rare; in Scotland, frequent in hedges and osier grounds); flowering in April and May. In its wild state, it forms a small tree. The branches are long, upright, smooth, greyish or purplish, more frequently tawny, and very tough and pliant. The leaves are very long and narrow, and agree in shape with those of the common osier, S. viminàlis; but have not, as that has, dense white pubescence beneath. (Smith.) Koch considers the S. Forbyana of Smith as a variety of S. rùbra; and states that both are common about Erlangen, where there is also another variety, which he regards as a hybrid between S. rùbra and S. viminalis. The leaves of this kind, even when adult, have their under surface covered with a dense silky down, like those of S. viminalis; the young shoots bear stipules the length of the petiole, like those of S. stipulàris; and the catkins resemble those of S. rùbra. There are plants of S. rùbra at Hackney, Goldworth, Woburn, Henfield, and Flitwick. When the plants of this species are cut down, they send out shoots from 5 ft. to 8 ft. in length; and it is consequently one of the most valuable osiers in cultivation, for bands, crates, basketwork or wickerwork, and even small hoops.
Statistics. In the garden of the Horticultural Society of London, 10 years planted, it is 12 ft, high; at Shepperton, on the Thames, it is 30 ft. high.
App. i. Purpurea of which Plants have been introduced, but not described.
S. elliptica Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Leaves resembling S. Hèlix, but narrower.
App. ii. Purpurea described by Authors, but not yet introduced, or of doubtful Identity with Species already in the Country.
S. cóncolor, mas et fem., Host Sal., 1. p. 10. t. 34, 35., Fl. Aust., 2. p. 659.; syn. S. mínima frágilis foliis longissimis, &c., Raii Syn., 449. In the Eng. Fl., Ray's species is identified with S. rubra, but Host's plant may possibly be something different.
S. Hèlir, mas et fem., Host Sal., 1. p. 10. t. 36, 37., Fl. Aust., 2. p. 639. This species, Host observes, when growing among trees, becomes a tall tree; but under other circumstances is dwarfer. S. oppositifolia, mas et fem., Host. Sal., 1. p. 11. t. 38, 39., Fl. Aust., 2. p. 640. Host has applied to this a syn. of Ray, which identifies it with S. Hèlix L.
S. purpurea, mas et fem., Host Sal., 1. p. 12. t. 40, 41., Fl. Aust., 2. p. 640. The catkins resemble those of the S. purpurea of British botanists; and, hence, the two plants may be identical.
S. mutabilis, mas et fem., Host Sal., 1. p. 12. t. 42, 43., Fl. Aust., 2. p. 640, Very different from the S. mutabilis of Sal. Wob.
S. carniólica, mas et fem., Host Sal., 1. p. 13. t. 44, 45., Fl. Aust., 2. p. 641. Abundant in Carniola, where it is used by the inhabitants, for many purposes; such as hedges for small gardens, meadows, and stony fields. It is also planted on the banks of streams, for fixing by its roots their sandy or gravelly banks. The shoots of the year are very long, unbranched, and tough: when peeled, they are yellow, and are much used in basket-making. At the time of flowering, many of the ovaries become wounded by insects, and afterwards much enlarged.
S. mirábilis, mas, Host Sal., 1. p. 13. t. 46., Fl. Aust., 2. p. 641. Of the catkins upon a plant, some consist of male flowers only, some of female flowers only, and many of male flowers intermixed with female ones. In some catkins, male flowers occupy the lowest part of the catkin, and female flowers the remaining part; and catkins are found which have the flowers in the lower and upper part male, and in the intermediate part female. Each flower includes two distinct stamens, or two connate in the lower part, or connate to near the tip, or often a single stamen. It is not rare to find filaments devoid of anthers. These anomalies in the flowers of this species are probably alluded to in the epithet mirábilis.
Group ii. Acutifòlia Borrer. (Syn. Pruinòsæ Koch.)
Willows with dark Bark, covered with a fine Bloom.
Stamens 2, distinct. Tall shrubs, or becoming trees. Bark of the branches and shoots of a dark colour; that of the branches suffused with a whitish matter, which is the character implied by Koch's term Pruinòsæ. This matter is easily rubbed off. The bark is internally yellow, as in Group i. Foliage of a lively green. Leaves lanceolate, acuminately pointed, serrate, glossy; in many instances, downy when young, subsequently glabrous. Ovary and capsule sessile, or nearly so. (Koch, Forbes, and observation.)
7. S. ACUTIFOLIA Willd. The pointed-leaved Willow.
Identification. Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 668.; Koch Comm., p. 22.
Synonyme. S. violacea Andr. Bot. Rep., t. 581., Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 33., Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 25., and of many English collections; but not S. violàcea Willd., nor the S. cáspica Hort. (Willd.)
The Sexes. The male is figured in Sal. Wob., and is, perhaps, the only one cultivated in British collections. Koch has implied that the female was unknown to him in any state. Engravings. Andr. Bot. Rep., 581.; Sal. Wob., No. 25.; and our fig. 25. in p. 1607. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves linear-lanceolate, acuminated, smooth, with blunt unequal serratures, glaucous beneath. Catkins of the male about 1 in. long. (Sal. Wob., p. 49.) It is indigenous to Podolia, according to Besser. (Koch Comm.) It was introduced into Britain previously to 1810, as Mr. Borrer saw it growing in St. Andrew's Square, Edinburgh, in that year. In England, it flowers in March or April, before the expansion of the leaves. It is a small tree, with dark violet-coloured branches, slender, upright, and covered all over with a whitish powder, like the bloom of a plum. Only the male plant is in the Woburn salictum. This is a very beautiful species, well deserving of culture in an ornamental point of view; and Mr. Forbes thinks its twigs would be useful for wickerwork. The catkins of the male are ornamental, but, so far as we have seen, are not numerously produced. The leaves are rather elegant. Its shoots and roots have the inner part of the bark, or covering, of a yellow colour, and very bitter flavour; and, hence, this kind may be eligible for planting upon banks in which rats burrow. In the Horticultural Society's Garden, in 1835, there was a plant of this species 15 ft. high. There are plants in the Hackney and Goldworth arboretums; and at Woburn Abbey, Flitwick House, and Henfield.
8. S. DAPHNÖI'DES Villars. The Daphne-like Willow.
Identification. Vill. Dauph., 3. p. 765., t. 50. f. 7., “t. 5. f. 2." as quoted by Host; Koch Comm., p. 23. Synonymes. S. præ cox Hoppe in Sturm D. Fl., 1. 25., Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 670., exclusively of the syn. of Host, Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 40., Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 26.; S. bigémmis Hoffm. Germ., 2. p. 260., Sal., t. 32.; S. cinérea Host Sal. Austr., 1. p. 8. t. 26, 27. Mr. Borrer, in a letter, has remarked that Smith has erroneously cited, in his Flora Brit., S. daphnöldes Villars as a synonyme of S. cinèrea Smith; and that this has led Koch to cite S. cinèrea Smith as a synonyme of S. daphnöldes Villars.
The Sexes. Both sexes are figured in Sal. Wob., and both are described and figured in Host Sal. Austr.
Engravings. Vill. Dauph., 3. t. 50. f. 7. Por 3. t. 5. f. 2.; Hoffm. Sal., t. 32.; Sal. Wob., No. 26.; Host Sal. Aust., 1. t. 26, 27.; our fig. 1295.; and fig. 26. in p. 1608.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves broadly lanceolate, and pointed, with glandular serratures, smooth, glaucous beneath. Catkins appearing before the leaves. Ovary sessile, ovate, smooth. Style elongated. (Sal. Wob., p. 51.) A native of Switzerland and the south of France; flowering at Woburn in February. Introduced in 1820. It is a rapid-growing tree, with dark greyish branches, slightly covered with a powder, or bloom, similar to that of S. acutifòlia; the branches ascending obliquely. The tree at Woburn, though only four years planted, was, in 1830, nearly 25 ft. high. The catkins appear often in February, from large crimson buds, which distinguish this species from every other, and make it very ornamental. There are plants in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, and at Flitwick, and Henfield.
Variation. The buds containing catkins are very large in the autumn; and, in this state, it is the S. præ cox gemmàta Ser. Sal. exsicc., No. 83. (Koch Comm., p. 23.)
9. S. POMERA'NICA Willd. The Pomeranian Willow.
Identification. Willd. Enum. Suppl., 66.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 153.
Synonymes. S. daphnöldes Villars var., with narrower leaves, and more slender catkins. (Koch Comm., p. 23.) Mr. Borrer, in his manuscript list of grouped species, has indicated it as being probably a variety of S. daphnoides.
The Sexes. The female is described in Sal. Wob.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves lanceolate, tapering at both extremities, serrated; smooth and shining above, glaucous underneath. Stipules ovate, serrated; their margins generally revolute. Catkins about 1 in. long. Ovary ovate, smooth. Style longer than the parted stigmas. (Sal. Wob., p. 281.) A native of Pomerania. Introduced in 1822, and flowering, in the Woburn salictum, in February and March. This is a rapid-growing kind, much resembling, in the colour of its branches and its mode of growth, S. præ'cox. The branches are long, smooth, round, shining, and copiously covered with small yellow dots: the preceding year's shoots are covered with a violetcoloured powder, similar to that on the shoots of S. præ'cox, and S. acutifòlia. The leaves are about 4 in. long, and nearly 1 in. broad, tapering towards both extremities, serrated; the serratures somewhat glandular, smooth, and shining on their upper surface, and glaucous underneath. Footstalks nearly 1 in. long, purplish and villous on their upper side. Catkins appearing before the leaves, and about 1 in. long. There are plants in the Goldworth Arboretum, at Woburn Abbey, Henfield, and Flitwick.
Group iii. Triandra Borrer. (Syn. Amygdalina Koch.) Osier Willows, with three Stamens in a Flower.
Stamens 3. Leaves lanceolate, approaching to ovate, serrated, glabrous, having large, rounded, toothed, more or less deciduous, stipules. Flowers loosely disposed in the catkin. Pistil stalked. Ovary mostly glabrous. Most of the kinds constitute excellent osiers, and become trees if left to themselves. (Hook. Br. Fl., 2d ed., with adaptation.) The kinds may be denominated, generally, the osiers with 3 stamens in a flower. Most, or all, when in the state of larger shrubs and trees, have their older bark exfoliated in broad patches, in the manner of that of the western and eastern plane trees (Plátanus occidentàlis L., and P. orientàlis L.). Most or all are ornamental as shrubs, for their lanceolate, glossy, serrated leaves, and their flowers.
† 10. S. UNDULA TA Koch, Hooker. The wavy-leaved Willow. Identification. Koch Comm., p. 20.; Hook. Fl. Br., ed. 3., p. 419.; ? Hayne Abbild,, p. 220. Synonymes. Koch has cited as identical with, or included in, S. undulata, the following kinds :