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a courtier of King Henry VII., whilst that king kept his court there, and yet (in Oldys's time) in its prime. The row of elms on that side of the Mall in St. James's Park next to the palace are some of them about 160 years of age. One, which stood at the upper end, turning to the Green Park, being blown down, was found to be above 60 ft. in height, and near 12 ft. in circumference near the root. They are now (in 1805) considerably more than 200 years old; but very few are remaining (in 1836, none), and those very much decayed. Two elms, at St. John's College, Oxford, were sizeable trees in the reign of Queen Mary. Stately rows of elms, at Hillhall, in Essex, are said to have been planted by Sir Thomas Smith. (Mart. Mill.) On the 29th of November, 1836, some of the largest elms in St. James's Park, and also in Kensington Gardens, were blown down during a tremendous hurricane, which made dreadful havock among large trees in most parts of England. Mr. Coxe, in his account of Monmouthshire, mentions an ancient elm at Ragland Castle, which was 28 ft. 5 in. in circumference near the root (Ibid.) Mr. Boutcher informs us that he sold a line of English elms, about 60 in number, at a guinea a tree, at 24 years' growth : they were about 18 in, in diameter at ift. above ground, and 40 ft. high. It is probably the tree mentioned in the above quotation from Martyn's Miller, as having been planted by a courtier of Henry VII., that Mr. Jesse alludes to in the 2d series of his Gleanings. He says, “At the north-west angle of Richmond Green may now be seen the trunk of an ancient elm, called the Queen's Elm, from having, it is said, been a favourite tree of Queen Elizabeth's. Some kind hand, with equal good taste and feeling, has planted ivy round its naked trunk; and the inhabitants of Richmond, much to their credit, have protected it from injury by surrounding it with a paled fence. The ivy has thriven, and the lately naked trunk is now richly covered with a verdant mantle.” (p. 268.) Mr. Jesse also mentions an elm tree in Hampton Court Park, called King Charles's Swing, which, he says, “ is curious from its size and shape. At 8ft. from the ground, it measures 38 ft. in circumference.... It is, perhaps, not generally known, that one of the elm trees standing near the entrance of the passage leading to Spring Gardens was planted by the Duke of Gloucester, brother to Charles I. As that unfortunate monarch was walking with his guards from St. James's to Whitehall, on the morning of his execution, he turned to one of his attendants, and mentioned the circumstance, at the same time pointing out the tree.” (Jesse's Glean., 2d series, p. 273.).

Piffe's Elm, in the Vale of Gloucester, between Cheltenham and Tewkesbury, was, in 1783, the finest tree of the species in the county. It was then measured by Marshall, and found to girt 16 ft. at the smallest part of the trunk. It was between 70 ft. and 80 ft. high, and its head proportionably wide.

The Chipstead Elm, in Kent, figured by Strutt, was 60 ft. high, and contained 268 ft. of timber. Its trunk was covered with ivy, and the tree appeared very luxuriant when Mr. Strutt made his drawing; but, in the spring of 1836, as we were informed by J. Polhill, Esq., the tree did not put forth its leaves, and it stood throughout the following summer a leafless trunk. The elms at Mongewell, in Oxfordshire, a place celebrated by Leland for its “ faire woodes," are also engraved by Strutt. "The largest is 79 ft. high, 14 ft. in circumference at 3 ft. from the ground, the diameter of the head 65 ft., and it contains 250 ft. of solid timber. About the centre of a group of these elms stands an urn, inscribed to the memory of two highly valued friends of the possessor in 1830, who was the Bishop of Durham; and whom, Mr. Strutt observes, “it was delightful to contemplate wandering, in his 90th year, amidst shades with which he was almost coeval, and which in freshness and tranquillity afforded most suitable emblems of his own green and venerable old age.” In Ireland, the dimensions of several elms are recorded by Hayes, which, though the species is not named, we think belong to U. campestris. Near Arklow, at Shelton, an elm had a trunk 5 ft. 4 in. in diameter at the surface of the ground. At Luttrelstown, an elm by the road side girted 18 ft. 10 in. at the ground, and had a straight trunk 40 ft. high. In the county of Kildare stood an elm, which, till the year 1762, was, perhaps, the finest tree of the species in the world. The diaineter of the head, taken from the extremities of the lower branches, exceeded 34 yards ; but in the end of that year the two principal arms fell from the trunk in one night, apparently from their own weight, as the weather was perfectly calm. The timber contained in these branches alone sold for 5 guineas. In this situation the tree continued till the winter of 1776, when a violent storm tore up the whole by the roots, with a great mass of soil and rock adhering to them. Some time previous to this the trunk had been carefully measured, and was found to be 38 ft. 6 in. in circumference. It had been hollow for some years; and the value of its timber by no means answered what might have been expected from the sale of its two branches in 1762. We have nothing certain as to its age; but tradition supposes it to have been planted by the monks of St. Wolstan, some time before the dissolution of that monastery, which happened in the year 1538. An elm at Carton, the seat of the Duke of Leinster, is 14 ft. 8 in. round near the bottom, diminishing like the shaft of a Doric column, and being 13 ft. in circumference at 16 ft. from the ground, and containing 169 cubic feet of timber.

Statistics. Existing Trees. U'Imus campestris in the Environs of London. At Ham House, Essex, it is 88 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 6 1., and of the head 73 ft. in the Fulham Nursery, 70 years planted, it is 60 ft. high. At York House, Twickenham, 120 years planted, it is 90 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 34 ft., and of the head 60 ft.

Ulmus campestris South of London. In Devonshire, at Killerton, 200 years planted, it is 100 ft. bigh, diameter of the trunk 7 st. 3 in., and of the head 62 ft. ; at Muswell Hill, it is 77 it. high, with a trunk 1 ft. in diameter. In Dorsetshire, at Melbury Park, 200 years old, it is 125 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 6 ft 9 in., and of the bead 80 ft. In Hampshire, at Alresford, 81 years planted, it is 73 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 4 ft. 4 in., and of the head 48 il. ; at Strathfieldsaye, 130 it. high, the diameter of the trunk 54 ft., and of the head 72 ft. In the Isle of Wight, in Wilkins's Nursery, 35 years old, it is 50 ft high. In Somersetshire, at Leigh Court, it is 90 it. high, diameter of the trunk 5 ft., and of the head 60 ft. ; another, 14 years planted, is 50 1. high : at Nettlecoinbe, 210 years old, it is 100 ft, high, diameter of the trunk 5 1. 8 in., and of the head 57 it. In Surrey, at Farnham Castle, it is 96 it high, diameter of the trunk 7 ft. 9 in., and of the head 85 ft. ; at St. Anne's Hill, it is 82 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 4 ft. 8 in., and of the head 61 ft. ; at Claremont, it is 100 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 6 ft., and of the head 85 ft. n Sussex, at Cowdry, it is 45 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 4 ft. 10 in.; and at Parham Park, there are some fine specimens. In Wiltshire, at Wardour Castle, 50 years planted, it is 70 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 5 ft., and of the head 42 it." U. campestris North of London, in Bedfordshire, at Flitwick House, it is 60 ft. high, with a trunk

5 ft. 10 in. in diameter. In Berkshire, at Bearwood, 16 years planted, it is 40 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 8 in., and of the head 18 ft. In Buckinghamshire, at Temple House, 40 years planted, it is 50 ft. high ; diameter of the trunk 2 ft., and of the head 40 ft. In Denbighshire, at Llanbede Hall, 70 years planted, it is 54 ft. high, dia. meter of the trunk 3j 1., and of the head

1239 48 ft. In Flintshire, at Gredington, it is 72 ft. high, and the diameter of the trunk 3 ft. 9 in. In Gloucestershire, at Doddington Park, it is 90 nt. high, diameter of the trunk 7 ft., and of the head 249 ft. In Herefordshire, at Croft Castle, it is 95 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 6 ft., and of the head 60 ft.; at Eastnor Castle, 18 years planted, it is 55 ft. high ; at Rotherwas, the old tree represented in fig. 1239. to a scale of 1 in. to 50 ft., from a draw. ing kindly sent to us by Mr. Hay Brown, gardener at Stoke Edith Park, near Ledbury. în Hertfordshire, at Hatfield, is one 48 ft. in girt, containing 493 cubic feet of timber. In Leicestershire, at Donnington, 100 years old, it is 92 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 71 ft., and of the head 94 ft. In Oxfordshire, at Tew, 16 years planted, it is 52 ft. high. The plantations here have been made with great care by the proprietor, Matthew Bolton, Esq,; and the success has been most extraordinary, as may be seen by the returns of the different species. In Pembrokeshire, at Stoak pole Court, 70 years old, it is 85 ft. high. In Radn ire, at Maeslaugh Castle, 50 years planted, it is 70 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 3 ft. 8 in., and of the head 60 ft. In Shropshire, at Hardwicke Grange, 11 years planted, it is 36 ft. high ; at Willey Park, 15 years planted, it is 43 ft. high. In Warwickshire, at Coombe Abbey, 200 years old, it is 150 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 9 ft. 6in., and of the head 74 ft.; at Whitley Abbey, 7 years planted, it is 16 ft. high. In Worcester. shire, at Hadzor House, 10 years planted, it is 25 it. high; at Croome, 100 years old, it is 115 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 7 ft., and of the head 10 ft. ; at Hagley, 12 years planted, it is 32 ft. high. In Yorkshire, at Studley Park, it is 108 ft. high ; at Hornby Castle, it is 84 ft. high, with a trunk 3 ft. in diameter ; at Castle Harwood,

nine elm trees in Roywood average nearly 100 cubic feet of timber each (see Gard. Mag., vol. xi. p. 17.); at Sprotborough Hall, there is an elm 80 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 5 ft., and of the head 115 ft., which is said to be the finest in England.

U. campestris in the Environs of Edinburgh. At Newbattle Abbey, it is 75 ft. high, diameterof the trunk 6 ft. 4 in., and of the head 74 ft.; at Cramond House, it is 70 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 4 ft., and of the head 54 ft.; at Dalmeny Park, it is 80 fl. high, the diameter of the trunk 4 ft., and of the head 66 ft. ; at Barnton House, it is 90 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 3ft. 3 in., and of the head 80 ft. ; another is 100 ft. high, with a trunk 41 it. in diameter ; at Gogar House, it is 80 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 4 ft., and of the head 60 ft.

U. campestris South of Edinburgh. In Ayrshire, at Kilkerran, 75 years planted, it is 90 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 3 it., and of the head 42 ft. In Kircudbright, at St. Mary's Isle, it is 80 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 4 ft., and of the head 84 ft. In Haddingtonshire, at Yester, 100 years planted, it is 98 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 3 ft. 9 in., and of the head 63 it. ; at Tynningham, it is 46 ft. high,

diameter of the trunk 3 ft. 5 in., and of the head 48 st. In Renfrewshire, at Erskine House, it is 60 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 4 ft. 5 in., and of the head 60 ft.; at Bothwell Castle, it is 86 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 5ft., and of the head 98 ft.

U. campestris North of Edinburgh.' In Banffshire, at Gordon Castle, it is 86 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 3 ft. 4 in., and of the head 75 ft.; at Cullen House, it is 89 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 31., and of the head 90 ft. In Fifeshire, at Dysart House, is one 70 ft. high, with a trunk 2 it in diameter, and that of the head 36 ft.; at Wemyss Castle, it is 90 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 9 ft. 3 in., and of the head 51 ft. In Forfarshire, at Cortachy Castle, 102 years old, it is 70 ft. high, diameter of the

trunk 4 ft., and of the head 45ft. In Perthshire, at Taymouth, 20 years planted, it is 36 ft, high; another is 100 years old, and 40 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 6 ft., and of the head 75 ft. In Ross-shire, at Brahan Castle, it is 75 ft, high, diameter of the trunk 4ft., and of the head 60 it.

U. campé stris in Ireland. In the Glasnevin Botanic Garden, 30 years planted, it is 50 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk if ft., and of the head 20 ft.; at Terenure, it is 50 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 24 ft., and of the head 45 ft. In Kilkenny, at Mount Juliet, it is 102 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 4 ft. 2 in., and of the head 32 ft. In King's County, at Charleville Forest, 45 years planted, it is 85 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 4 ft. 8 in., and of the head 65 ft. In the county of Down, at Mount Stewart, 50 years planted, it is 56 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 2 ft. 4 in., and of the head 38 ft.; at Ballyleady, 100 years old, it is 40 ft, high. In Fermanagh, at Florence Court, 60 years planted, it is 70 ft. high. In Galway, at Coole, it is 60 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 2 ft., and of the head 45 ft. In Sligo, at Makree Castle, it is 90 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 3! ft., and of the head 40 ft,

U. campestris in France. At Nantes, in the nursery of M. De Nerrières, 80 years old, it is 70 it. high, the diameter of the trunk 6 ft. ; in the Botanic Garden at Avranches, 40 years old, it is 40 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 2 ft., and of the head 20 ft.

V. campestris in Germany. In Saxony, at Wörlitz,.60 years old, it is 50 ft. high, with a trunk 3 ft. in diameter. In Bavaria, in the Botanic Garden, Munich, 84 years old, it is 50 it. high, with a trunk 1 R. in diameter. In Austria, at Vienna, in the Laxenburg Garden, 100 years old, it is 40 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 11 tt., and of the head 20 ft.; at Kopenzel, 40 years old, it is 36 n. high, the diameter of the trunk 1 ft., and of the head 18 ft.; at Hadersdorf, in the garden of Baron Loudon, 40 years old, it is 30 ft. high, with a trunk 14 in. in diameter, and the diameter of the head 18 ft. In Prussia, at Berlin, in the Botanic Garden, 50 years old, it is 40 ft high, the diameter of the trunk 28 in., and of the head 24 ft.; in the Pfauen Insel, 43 years old, it is 42 Rt. high, the diameter of the trunk 14 in., and of the head 30 ft.

U. campestris in Italy. In Lombardy, at Monza, 29 years planted, it is 75 nt. high; the diameter of the trunk I ft. 9 in., and of the head 45 ft.

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Commercial Statistics. Plants, in the London nurseries, from 3 ft. to 4 ft. high are 20s. per hundred, from 5 ft. to 6 ft. high 36s. ; the striped-leaved variety 50s.

per

hundred. At Bollwyller, large plants are 1 franc each ; and at New York, 37 cents.

1 2. U. (c.) SUBERO'sa Mænch. The cork-barked Elm. Identification. Ehr. Arb., 142. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., p. 1324. ; Baumz., 391.; Host Fl. Austr., 1. p. 398.;

Eng. Bot., t. 2161. ; Engl. F1., 2. p. 91. ; Hook. Br. F1, p.111.; Lindl. Synop., p. 226, ; Mackay Fl.

Hibern., pt. 1. p. 241. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Synonymes. U. campestris Woodv. Med. Bot., t. 197.; U. campéstris and Theophrasti Du Ham.

Arb., 2. p. 367. t. 108. ; U. vulgatíssima fdlio lato scabra Ger. Emae., 1180. f., Raii Syn., 168.; U. montana Cam. Epil., t. 70., upper fig. ; common Elm Tree, Hunt. Evel, Syl., p. 119; l'Orme Liège,

l'Orme fungeux, Fr. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 2161. ; Hayne, t. 28.; Wood. Med. Bot, t. 197 ; Du Ham. Arb., 2. 6. 108.;

Math. Valgr., 1. p. 130. f. ; our fig. 1240. ; and the plate in our last Volume. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves pointed, rough, doubly and sharply serrated. Flowers

stalked, 4-5-cleft. Samara almost orbicular, deeply cloven, glabrous. Branches spreading; their bark_corky. (Smith Eng. Fl.) Taller and more spreading than the common English elm. Bark, when a year old, covered with very fine dense cork, in deep fissures; whence the specific name, suberòsa, first given by Mænch, and adopted by Ehrhart. Leaves rough on both sides, more rounded, and twice or thrice as large as in U. campestris; very unequal at the base, strongly, sharply, and doubly serrated, hairy beneath, with dense broad tufts at the origin of the transverse ribs. Flowers much earlier than the foliage, stalked, reddish, with 4 or 5 rounded segments, and as many stamens, with dull purple anthers. Samara nearly orbicular, with a deep sinus reaching to mag the place of the seed. (Sm. Engl. Fl.) A very marked kind of elm, but evidently a variety of U. campestris ;

1210 and we should have included it among the varieties of that species, had there not been some very distinct subvarieties of it, which, we think, may be more conveniently kept by themselves; and because we should, for the same reason, have been obliged to include U. major, also, under U. campestris, it being, in our opinion, as much a variety of that species as U. suberosa. It varies exceedingly in the character of its corky bark; sometimes being deeply furrowed, and sometimes much less so. It also varies much in the character of its head; being sometimes low, loose, and spreading, as represented in the plate in our last Volume; and sometimes being tall and

narrow. It is propagated by grafting on U. montàna, or by layers or suckers. Varieties. * U. (c.) s. 1 vulgaris, U. suberòsa Hort. Dur. The Dutch cork-barked

Elm. — This, except the American elm and the Canterbury seedling (U. montàna màjor glàbra), is the quickest-growing of any that Mr. Masters cultivates. It is, moreover, valuable, on account of its growing well upon the Kentish chalks; and it keeps its leaf till late in the autumn. It is a tree of large growth : many of the elms

at Windsor are of this kind. * U. (c.) s. 2 folus variegatis Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; U. suberosa variegata

Hort. Dur.; is precisely like the last, except in its variegation. Mr. Masters has seen a few of very large dimensions; and there is one in the grounds of G. May, Esq., Strood House, Herne, remarkable for its

size and beauty. * U. (c.) s. 3 álba, U. suberosa álba Masters. - A lower tree, of more

coinpact growth, than the two preceding varieties; and often growing into an oval, or rather cone-shaped, head. Young shoots pubescent. Foliage thickly set. Bark much wrinkled, and becoming white with age. Fine specimens of this are growing in Lee Park, near Canterbury.

* U. (c.) s. 4 erécta Lodd. Cat., ed. 183 has a tall narrow head, re

sembling that of the Cornish elm; but differing from that tree in

having much broader leaves, and a corky bark.
# U. (c.) s. 5 var. The broad-leaved Hertfordshire Elm, Wood, nursery-

man at Huntingdon. — The shoots show some tendency to become
corky, which, in our opinion, determines this variety to belong to

U. (c.) suberòsa, rather than to U. montàna or U. (m.) glabra. * U. (c.) s. 6 var. The narrow-leaved Hertfordshire Elm, Wood.

Leaves and shoots differing very little from those of U. campestris. Statistics. The largest trees of U. (c.) suberdsa, in the environs of London, are at Hampstead, in different small gardens, and in Kensington Gardens. In Dorselshire, at Melbury Park, trees, 30 years planted, are 50 ft. high. Jn Pembrokeshire, at Stackpole Court, a tree, 50 years planted, is 40 lt. high. In Shropshire, at Kinlet, there is a tree 102 ft. high ; the diameter of the trunk is 56 in., and of the head 55 it. In Scotland, in Clackmannanshire, in the garden of the Dollar Institution, a tree, 12 years planted, is 30 ft. high the diameter of the trunk 12 in., and of the head 12 ft. In Cromarty, at Coul, it is 28 ft. high; the diameter of the trunk 11 ft., and of the head 20 ft. In Forfarshire, at Monboddo, 70 years planted, it is 45 ft. high. In Ireland, near Dublin, in the Glasnevin Botanic Garden, 35 years planted, it is 40 ft. high. In Hanover, at Göttingen, in the Botanic Garden, so years planted, it is 60 ft. high. In Bavaria, in the Munich Botanic Garden, 24 years planted, it is 50 ft. high, with a trunk 15 in. in diameter. In Austria, near Vienna, at Kopenzel, 24 years planted, it is 18 ft. high. In Prussia, at Berlin, in the Botanic Garden, 14 years planted, it is 36 ft. bigh; the diameter of the trunk 15 in., and of the head 9 ft. In Italy, at Monza, 29 years planted, it is 70 ft. high; the diameter of the trunk 11 ft., and of the head 40 ft.

Commercial Statistics. Price of plants, in the London nurseries, transplanted, 3 ft. high, 50s. per thousand; at Bollwyller, 1 franc each, and the variegated variety 2 francs ; at New York, 75 cents.

* 3. U. (c.) Ma'jor Smith. The greater, or Dutch cork-barked, Elm. Identification. Sm. Engl. Bot., t. 2542. ; Sm. Engl. Fl., 2. p. 21. ; Hook. Br. Fl., p. 142. ; Lindl.

Synops., p. 226.; Host Fl. Austr., 1. p. 328. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.
Synonymes. U. hollándica Mil. Dict., ed. 8. No. 5. ; U. major hollándica, &c., Pluk. Alm., 393. ; U.
màjor, amplidre folio, &c., Du Ham. Arb., 2. p. 568. ; Tilia mas Matth. Valgr., 1. 158. f., Cam.

Epit., 92. f.; U. latifolia Michx. N. Amer. Syl., 3. t. 129. f. 2
Engravings. Engl. Bot., t. 2542. ; Cam. Epit., 92. f. : N. Amer. Syl., 3. t. 129. f. 2; our fig. 1241. ;

and the plate of this tree in our last Volume.
Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves rough, unequally and rather bluntly serrated.

Flowers nearly sessile, 4-cleft. Samara obovate, slightly cloven, glabrous.
Branches drooping, their bark corky. (Smith.) The branches spread widely,
in a drooping manner, and their bark is rugged, and
much more corky than even the foregoing. Leaves on
short thick stalks, larger and more bluntly serrated than
the last; rough on both sides, especially beneath ; but
the hairy tufts at the origin of each transverse rib are
very small. Segments of the calyx short and rounded.
Stamens 4. Samara obovate, with a very small rounded
sinus, not reaching half so far as the seed. (Id.) This
appears to be the kind brought over by William III.
from Holland; which, from its quick growth, was, at
first, much used for hedges, and formal rows of clipped
trees; but, when the Dutch taste in gardening declined,
the tree was no longer cultivated; as its wood was
found very inferior to that of most other kinds of elm.

1241
The elm trees in the old part of Kensington Gardens,
near the palace, are of this kind : many of them are upwards of 70 ft. in
height; and a number, which have been blown down in different winters
since 1816, were constantly found rotten at the heart. The Dutch elm is
propagated by layers, and grafting on the U. montàna. Price as of the
preceding kind.

* 4. U. CARPINIFO'LIA Lindl. The Hornbeam-leaved Elm. Identification. Lindl. Synop., p. 226.; Hook. Brit. Fl., p. 142. Spec. Char., $c. Leaves ovate-acuminate, coriaceous, strongly veined, simply crenate, serrated, slightly oblique and cordate at the base; shining, but rather scabrous above ; smooth beneath. Branches bright; brown, and nearly smooth. Samara – ? A tree. (Lindl.) The locality which Lindley has quoted for this is :-“ Four miles from Stratford on Avon, on the road to Alcester," We have not seen a plant of this sort.

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