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6 ft. from the ground, leaving the soil with the same inclination as the trellis, a tree trained on it would receive the solar influence to great advantage, and would probably ripen its fruit much better than a standard.(Hort. Trans., &c.) When the mulberry is trained against a wall, and required to produce very large and fine fruit, the following mode of pruning is recommended by Mr. Williams :-“ All the annual shoots, except the foreright, are neatly trained to the wall; but these last must be left to grow till towards midsummer, and then be shortened about one third of their growth, to admit light to the leaves beneath. By the end of August, the foreright shoots will have advanced again, so as to obstruct the light, and they must then be shortened nearer to the wall than before. In the month of March or beginning of April, the ends of the terminal shoots should be pruned away down to the first strong bud that does not stand foreright; and the front shoots, which were pruned in August, must also be shortened down to two or three eyes. If trained after this method, the tree will afford fruit the third year. The foreright shoots should then be shortened at the end of the month of June, or beginning of July, so as to leave one leaf only beyond the fruit; the terminal shoots being nailed to the wall as before, and left without any summer pruning; the foreright shoots, thus nailed, will not advance any farther, as their nutriment will go into the fruit ; which, when quite ripe, will become perfectly black, very large, and highly saccharine.(Ibid.) As a standard tree, whether for ornament, or the production of moderately sized fruit, the mulberry requires very little pruning, or attention of any kind, provided the soil be tolerably good.

Statistics. Morus nigra in the Environs of London. The oldest tree (supposed to be planted in the loth century, by the botanist Turner,) is at Syon, where it is nt. high. (See tig. 1922 in p. 1315.) There is another tree B ft. high, diameter of trunk 3 it. 3 in., and of the head 57 it. At Hampstead, at Kenwood, 33 years planted, it is 25 ft high, diameter of the trunk 1 ft. lin., and of the head 25 ft. and at Mount Grove, Middlesex, 12 years planted, it is 9 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 2} in. At Battersea, on the estate of Earl Spenser, one, 500 years old, is from 30 1t. to 40 ft. high, the diameter of the head 70 ft. by 50 ft. ; with 14 trunks, averaging about i ft. in girt at I ft. from the ground.

M. rlgra South of London. In Devonshire, at Bystock Park, 22 years planter, it is 17 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 7 in. In Kent, at Canterbury, in a garden which belongs to the ruius of the Abbey of St. Augustine, is a mulberry tree of great antiquity. It had once been a tree of considerable height; but is supposed to have been blown down about the end of the 17th, or beginning of the 18th, century. The trunk lies horizontally along the ground; and is in length 21 ft., and about 2 ft. in diameter, at 4 ft from the root. Two large branches have risen perpendicularly from this trunk, and now form trees with trunks, the one 8 ft. high, and about 14 in. in diameter, where it proceeds from the main trunk; and the other still higher and thicker. This tree was inspected by the deputation of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, when on their way to France, in August, 1817. “On ex un ination” they “ perceived that a continuous portion of the bark was fresh all the way from the original root; and by rernoving a little of the earth" they “likewise ascertained that inany new roots, though of small size, had been sent off from the base of the two branches which had formed themselves into stems and heads." “ The fruit of this aged tree," the deputation add, “ is excellent ; indeed it is commonly said that the fruit of the oldest mulberry trees is the best In 1815, the berries, sold at 25. a pottle, yielded no less than 6 guineas. (Journal of a llort. Tour, &c., p. 14.) We are informed by Mr. Masters of Canterbury, that this tree has increased considerably in size since 1817; the two trees being now, the one 19 ft. high, with a head 25 it, in diameter; and the other 16 ft high, with a head 20 ft. in diameter. In Somersetshire, at Hinton House, 18 years planted it is it ft. high, diameter of the trunk 6 in., and of the head 13 . ; at Nettlecombe, 45 years planted, it is 24 it. high, diameter of the trunk 1 ft. 4 in., and of the head 26 it. In Surrey, near Ripley, at Sutton Place, is a very old mulberry tree, which must bave been blown down early in the 18th century, as the branches from the prostrate trunk have all the appearance of old trees. The house at Sutton Place was built by the brewer of Henry VIII., about the end of that king's reign. Sussex, at Cowdray, it is 25 ft. high, with a trunk i ft. 8 in. in diameter. In Wiltshire, at Wardour Castle, 100 years old, it is 40 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 1 ft. 6 in., and of the head 26 ft.

M. nigra North of London. In Bedfordshire, at Ampthill, 85 years planted, it is 25 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 25 in., and of the head 30 ft. In Cambridgeshire, in the grounds of Christ Church College, at Cambridge, is one planted by Milton when a student of the college, 20 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 2 fl. 2 in., and of the head 30 ft. In Cheshire, at Kinmel Park, it is 20 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 16 in., and of the head 20 ft. In Cumberland, at Ponsonby Hall, 15 years planted, it is 24 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 1 ft. 2 in., and of the head 18 ft. in Gloucestershire, at Doddington, 50 years planted, it is 25 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 1} ft., and of the head 90 ft. In Leicestershire, at Whatton House, 20 years planted, it is 13ft. high, against a wall, circumference of the trunk 1 ft. 4 in., and of the head 70 ft. In Oxfordshire, in the Common Room Garden, at Pem. broke College, are two mulberry trees, which are said to have been planted before the college was founded, which was in 1624. One of these is only about 25 ft. high, but it has a trunk 2 it. ?in, in diameter at 4 ft. from the ground; a little higher it divides into two large arms, one of which girts 5ft, and the other 3 ft. I in. The other tree appears to have been much larger, but is now decayed. In Pembrokeshire, at Golden Grove, 60 years planted, it is 25 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 2 it., and of the head 14 r. In Radnorshire, at Maeslaugh Castle, 26 ft. high, diameter of trunk 1 ft., and of the head jo ft. In Rutlandshire, at Belvoir Castle, 10 years planted, it is 15 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 4 in., and of the head 8 ft. In Suffolk, at Finborough Hall, 10 years planted, it is 40 11. high, diameter of the trunk 2 ft., and of the head 42 it ; at Ampton Hall, 12 years planted, it is 10 ft. bigti, dhimeter of the trunk 6 in., and of the head 16 ft. In Worcestershire, at Croome, 40 years planted, it

p. 87.

is 30 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 15 in., and of the head 25 ft. At Hagley, 20 years old, it is 10 ft. high, diameter of trunk 18 in., and of the head 11 ft.

M. nigra in Scotland. The following specimens are all against walls. In Mid-Lothian, at Gosford House, 15 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 1 ft. 3 in., and of the space covered by the branches 21 ft. In Haddingtonshire, at Tynningham, 14 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 1 ft. 8 in., and of the head 30 ft. In Renfrewshire, at Erskine House, 15 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 1 ft. 2 in., and of the head 17 ft. In Banffshire, at Gordon Castle, 12 ft high, against a wall. In Perthshire, at Kinfauns Castle, 8 years planted, and 4 ft. high. In Ross-shire, at Brahan Castle, 6 years old, and 10 ft. high, extent of the branches 18 ft.

M. nigra in Ireland. Near Dublin, in the grounds at Terenure, there is a remarkable specimen, the trunk of which divides, close by the ground, into five limbs, nearly of equal bulk, the largest exceeding 10 in. in diameter, height 25 ft., cireumference of the head 130 ft. 'At Castletown, 30 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 2 tt. 6 in., and of the head 30 ft. In Galway, at Coole, 14 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 8 in., and of the head 14 ft. In Sligo, at Makree Castle, 8 years old, it is 8 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 5 in., and of the head 7 ft.

M. nigra in foreign countries. In France, at Nantes, in the nursery of M. De Nerrières, 60 years planted, it is 49 ft. high, with a trunk 24 ft. in circumference. In the Botanic Garden, at Avranches, 40 years planted, it is 40 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 1 ft., and of the head 20 ft

. In Saxony, at Wörlitz, 30 years old, it is 19 ft, high; the diameter of the

trunk 6 in. In Cassel, at wil helmshöhe, 7 years planted, it is 6 ft. high.' In Bavaria, at Munich, in the Botanic Garden, 18 years planted, it is 20 ft. high. In Austria, near Vienna, at Brück on the Leytha, 42 years old, it is 33 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 9 in., and of the head 15 ft. In Prussia, near Berlin, at Sans Souci, 70 years old, it is 30 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 14 in.,

and of the bead 11 ft In the Pfauen Insel, 40 years old, it is so ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 13 in., and of the head 44ft.

* 2. M. A’lba L. The white-fruited Mulberry Tree. Identification. Lin. Hort. Cliff., 441.; Mill. Dict., No. 3. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 368. ; N. Du Ham., 4. Synonymes. M. candida Dod. Pempt., 810. ; M. fructu albo Bauh. Pin., 459. ; M. álba fructu

minori albo insulso Du Ham Arb., 2. p. 24. Engravings. Schkuhr Handb., 3. 290. T. Nees ab Esenbeck Gen. Pl. Fl. Germ., fasc. 3. No. 5.

f. 1-6., the male ; and our plate in Vol. III. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves with a deep scallop at the base, and either heart

shaped or ovate, undivided or lobed, serrated with unequal teeth, glossy, or, at least, smoothish ; the projecting portions on the two sides of the basal sinus unequal. (Willd. Sp. Pl.) A deciduous tree, growing to the height of 30 ft. A native of China. Introduced in 1596; flowering in May, and ripening its

fruit in September. Varieties.— These are extremely numerous; and the same kinds are even dis

tinguished in different countries by different names. The following are
some of those most generally cultivated for their leaves, as affording food for
the silkworm:
1 . M. a. 2 multicaulis Perrottet in Ann. de la Soc. Lin. de Paris, Mai, 1824,

p. 129., Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; M. tatárica Desf., but not of Lin. or
Pall.; M. bullàta Balbis ; M. cucul-
làta Hort. ; Chinese black Mulberry,

1223
Amer. ; Perrottet Mulberry, many-
stalked Mulberry; Mûrier Perrottet,
Fr.; Mûrier à Tiges nombreuses,
Mûrier des Philippines, Ann. des Sci.,
i. p. 336. pl. 3.; and our fig. 1223.;
Moro delle Filippine, Ital. – This
variety was introduced into France,
in 1821, by M. Perrottet, “ agricul-
tural botanist and traveller of the
marine and colonies of France,” from
Manilla, the capital of the Philippine
Islands ; into which country it had
been brought as an ornamental tree, some years previously, from
China. It is considered, both in Italy and France, as by far the
best variety for cultivation as food for the silkworm. It is a tree,
or, rather, a gigantic shrub, as the name implies, of rapid growth,
with vigorous shoots, and large pendulous leaves, which, even
in poor dry soils, are 6 in. long, and 8 in. or 9 in. broad; but which, in
rich humid soils, are often 1 ft. in breadth, and 15 in. or 16 in. in
length. They are convex on the upper surface, of a beautiful glossy
green,

and of a succulent texture. The fruit of this variety was unknown in Europe till 1830. It is long, black, and of a flavour somewhat resembling that of the common black mulberry. This variety of mulberry differs from all the others, in throwing up suckers freely from the roots. It also strikes more readily by cuttings, either of the young or old

[graphic]

wood, than any other variety. It is extensively propagated in the French and Italian nurseries; and it has also become a favourite variety in North America. In the Gardener's Magazine, vol. xii., the numerous good qualities of this variety will be found pointed out in detail, by Signor Manetti of Monza. See, also, Kenrick's American Orchardist, and the American Gardener's Ma. gazine, vol. i. p. 310. and 336., and vol. ii. p. 33. From the colour and excellence of the fruit, we think it highly probable that this sort

of mulberry belongs rather to M. tatárica Pall., than M. álba. 1 M. a. 3 Morettiàna Hort., Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; Dandolo's Mulberry;

has black fruit, and very large, perfectly flat, deep green, shining leaves, which are thin, and perfectly smooth on both surfaces. Its leaves rank next to those of M. a. multicaulis as food for silkworms; and the silk made by worms fed on them is of a beautiful gloss, and of a finer quality than any other. It is, however, neither so productive nor so hardy as M. a. multicaulis. It was first brought into notice in 1815, by M. Moretti, professor in the university of Pavia ; whence its name of Morettiana. Its name of Dandolo Mulberry was given in honour of Count Dandolo, who has not only devoted much time to the improvement of the culture of the silkworm, but has written

an excellent work on the subject. * M. a. 4 macrophylla Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836 ; M. a. latifolia Hort. ; M.

hispánica Hort.; Mûrier d'Espagne, Feuille d'Espagne, Fr.- This variety produces strong and vigorous shoots, and large leaves, sometimes measuring 8 in. long, and 6 in. broad, resembling in form those of M. nigra, but smooth, glossy, and succulent. The fruit is white. If grown in rich soils, this sort, it is stated in the Nouveau Cours d'Agriculture, is apt to produce leaves which are so exceedingly succulent and nourishing, that they occasion the worms fed on them to burst. It is a most valuable variety for poor soils, particularly in

rocky calcareous situations. 7 M. a. 5 romàna Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; M.a. ovalifòlia; Mûrier romain,

Fr.; bears so close a resemblance to the above sort, as not to require

any more particular description. * M. a. 6 nervosa Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; M. nervosa Bon Jard., 1836;

M. subálba nervosa Hort.; has the leaves strongly marked with thick white nerves on the under side. There is a subvariety (M. n. 2 longifolia) mentioned in the Bon Jardinier, which has longer

leaves. * M. a. 7 itálica Hort.; M. itálica Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; has a lobed

leaf. In 1825, and for a few years before and after, while attempts were making to introduce the culture of silk into England and Ireland, this variety was principally planted. The plants were imported from the Continent, chiefly by Messrs. Loddiges. M. a. i. rùbra, the M. rubra of Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836, is a subvariety of this

sort. * M. a. 8 ròsea Hort., Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; the small white Mulberry;

Mûrier rose, Feuille rose, Fr.; is one of the kinds called, in France, a wild variety. The fruit is small, white, and insipid ; and the leaves resemble the leaflets of a rose tree, but are larger. This kind is

said to produce remarkably strong silk. 1 M. a. 9 columbássa Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; Columba, Fr.; has small deli

cate leaves, and flexible branches. It is considered the most tender

of all the kinds. 1 M. a. 10 membranacea Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; Mûrier à Feuilles de Parchemin, Fr.; has large, thin, dry leaves.

* M. a. 11 sinensis Hort.; M. sinénsis Hort.; M. chinensis Lodd. Cat.,

ed. 1836; the Chinese white Mulberry, Amer.; is a large-leaved

variety. * M. a. 12 pùmila Nois., ? M. a. nàna Hort. Brit, is a shrub, seldom

exceeding 10 ft. high. There are plants bearing this name in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, which have leaves nearly as large

as those of M. a. macrophylla. Other Varieties. All the above sorts are in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges; but in the catalogues of foreign nurserymen there are several other names. In the Humbeque Nursery, near Brussels, a number of varieties are cultivated for the American market, where the white mulberry is now much in demand ; and a list of their names will be found in Gardener's Magazine, vol. xi. p. 539. Castelet, in his Traité sur les Múriers blancs, which is generally considered the best work on the subject extant in France, divides the varieties of M. álba, now cultivated in Provence for their leaves, into two classes, the wild and the grafted; the latter being propagated by grafting, and the former by cuttings, layers, or seeds. Wild Mulberries.

La Feuille rose. - This is the same as M. a. 8 , dsea, mentioned above.
La Feuille dorée, M. a. lucida Hort., M. lucida Hort., which has large, heart-shaped,

shining leaves, and small purplish fruit.
La Reine bắtarde has the leaves twice as large as those of the Feuille rose, and

deeply toothed. This is probably the Foglia zazola of the Italians.
La Femelle.-Tree spiny, and sending forth its fruit before its leaves, which are trilobate.
Grafted Mulberries.
La Reine, which has shining leaves, much larger than any of the wild varieties; and

ash.coloured fruit.
La grosse Reine. This is a subvariety of M. a. macrophylla, which has the leaves of a

very deep green, and the fruit black, instead of white. La Feuille d'Espagne.-This variety is the same as M. a. 4 macrophylla, mentioned above. La Feuille de flocs has the leaves of a very deep green, and growing in tufts at the ex.

tremtities of the branches. The fruit is produced in abundance, but never arrives at maturity. This is probably the Poglia doppia, or double-leaved variety, of the

Italian gardeners. Besides these, there are many garden varieties in the French, German, and Italian nurseries.

Description, &c. The white mulberry is readily distinguished from the black, even in winter, by its more numerous, slender, upright-growing, and white-barked shoots. It is a tree of much more rapid growth than M. nigra, and its leaves are not only less rough and more succulent, but they contain more of the glutinous milky substance resembling caoutchouc, which gives tenacity to the silk produced by the worms fed on them. They are generally cordate and entire, but sometimes lobed, and always deeply serrated.

The fruit of M. álba and its wild varieties is seldom good for human food, but it is found excellent for poultry; and, for this purpose, a tree of the species was formerly generally planted in the basse cour of the old French châteaux. (Bosc.) The fruit of M. a. multicaúlis, and some other of the highly cultivated varieties, is not only eatable, but agreeable. The rate of growth of young plants is much more rapid than that of M. nìgra; plants cut down producing shoots 4 ft. or 5 ft. long in one season ; the tree attaining the height of 20 ft. in five or six years ; and, when full grown, reaching to 30 ft. or 40 ft. Its duration is not so great as that of M. nìgra.

Geography. The white mulberry is only found truly wild in China, in the province of Seres, or Serica; it is, however, apparently naturalised in many parts of Asia Minor and Europe ; and nearly all its varieties are of European origin. It does not embrace so extensive a range of country as M. nìgra, being unable to resist either great cold or great heat. In a cultivated state, it is found, as a road-side pollard tree, in many parts of France, Spain, Italy, and Germany as far north as Frankfort on the Oder. In England, it is not very common; and it is scarcely to be found in Scotland, even against a wall.

History, fc. The Chinese appear to have been the first to cultivate the mulberry for feeding silkworms; and they are supposed to have discovered the art of making silk 2700 years B. C., in the reign of the Emperor Hong, whose empress, Si-ling-chi, is said to have first observed the labours of the silkworms on wild mulberry trees, and applied their silk to use. From China, the art passed into Persia, India, Arabia, and the whole of Asia. The caravans of Seres, or Serica (the part of China where the silk was most abundantly produced), “performed long journeys, of 243 days, from the far coasts' of China to those of Syria. The expedition of Alexander into Persia and India first introduced the knowledge of silk to the Grecians, 350 years before Christ; and, with the increase of wealth and luxury in the Grecian court, the demand for silks prodigiously augmented. The Persians engrossed, for a time, the trade of Greece, and became rich from the commerce of silk, which they procured from China. The ancient Phænicians also engaged in the traffic of silk, and carried it to the east of Europe; but, for a long time, even those who brought it to Europe knew not what it was, and neither how it was produced, nor where was situated the country of Serica, from which it originally came.” (Kenrick's Amer. Silk-Grower's Guide, p. 11.;

N. Du Ham., 4.; Nouv. Cours d'Agric., &c.) From Greece it passed into Rome; and, though the exact year of its introduction is unknown, it was probably about the time of Pompey and Julius Cæsar ; the latter, we find, having used it in his festivals. In the reign of Tiberius, an edict was passed prohibiting the use of silk as effeminate. Heliogabalus, about 220, is said to have been the first emperor who wore a robe made entirely of silk; which then, and for some time afterwards, sold for its weight in gold. Aurelian, in 280, is said to have denied his empress, Severa, a robe of silk, because it was too dear. About the beginning of the sixth century, after the seat of the Roman empire had been transferred to Constantinople, two monks arrived at the court of the Emperor Justinian, from a missionary expedition into China : they had brought with them the seeds of the mulberry, and communicated to him the discovery of the mode of rearing silkworms. Although the exportation of the insects from China was prohibited on pain of death, yet, by the liberal promises and the persuasions of Justinian, they were induced to undertake to import some from that country; and they returned from their expedition through Bucharia and Persia to Constantinople in 555, with the eggs of the precious insects, which they had obtained in the "far country,” concealed in the hollow of their canes, or pilgrim's staves. Until this time, the extensive manufactures of Tyre and Berytes had received the whole of their supply of raw silk from China through Persia. (See M'Culloch's Dict. of Com., Nouv. Cours, and Amer. Suk-Grower's Guide.) “The eggs thus obtained were hatched in a hot-bed, and, being afterwards carefully fed and attended to, the experiment proved successful, and the silkworm became very generally cultivated throughout Greece."(Sat. Mag. vol. iii. p. 2.) The silk worm and the black mulberry were introduced simultaneously into Spain and Portugal by the Arabs, or Saracens, on their conquest of Spain in 711. When the silkworm was first introduced into the north of Europe, there appears little doubt but that it was fed on the leaves of the black mulberry. The white mulberry is more tender ; and, putting forth its leaves much earlier than the black mulberry, it is more likely to be injured by spring frosts. It was, consequently, long confined to Greece; but, when Roger, king of Sicily, in 1130, ravaged the Peloponnesus, he compelled the principal artificers in silk, and breeders of silkworms, to remove with him to Palermo, and determined to try the white mulberry in that country. The white mulberry was accordingly transplanted into Sicily; and, flourishing in its fine climate, that island became the great mart of nearly all the raw silk required for the manufactures of Europe. On Mount Ætna, the Mòrus nigra is grown at an elevation of 2500 ft., for the silkworm, to the exclusion of M. álba, probably on account of the tenderness of the latter tree in that elevated region. (See Dr. R. A. Philippi on the vegetation of Mount Ætna, in the Linnæa, as quoted in Hook. Comp. Bot. Mag., vol. i. p. 50.). In 1440, the white mulberry was introduced into Upper Italy; and, under the reign of Charles VII., the first white mulberry tree was planted in France, as it is said, by the Seigneur d'Allan; and it is added that this tree still exists at the gates of Montelimart. Silk manufactures were first established in France in 1480, at Tours. This was in the reign of Louis XI. ; that monarch having invited

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