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DA'phne L. Calyx inferior, somewhat salver-shaped ; in most, of some other
colour than that of the leaves, and, from its shape and colour, resembling a corolla: segments of its limb 4, deep, ovate, or oblong, imbricate in æstivation. Stamens 8, in two rows; the filaments with but a short part distinct from the tube of the calyx; the anthers not prominent beyond it. Ovary solitary. Ovule solitary, pendulous. Style very short. Stigma capitate. Fruit an ovate carpel, pulpy externally. Seed 1, pendulous. Shrubs. Inner bark silky. Most of the kinds evergreen. Leaves entire, in most alternate; if not alternate, opposite. Flowers terminal or axillary, mostly in groups, highly fragrant. The whole plant, in most, perhaps in all, intensely acrid and dangerous. (Smith Eng. Flora; Lindl. Nat. Syst.; Brown Prod.,
and observation.) Di'rca L. Calyx inferior, funnel-shaped, ending in 4 (Du Hamel has stated
in the “ essential character” 5) unequal teeth : it is of a pale yellow colour, and hence, and from its figure, resembles a corolla. Stamens 8, arising from the middle of the calyx, and prominent beyond its tip, unequal. Ovary solitary. Style thread-shaped, extending a little beyond the stamens. Stigma a simple point. Fruit a dry carpel. Seed 1, pendulous. D. palustris L. is the only species described ; and is a low shrub, that has upright branches, a very tough bark, and flowers 3 together. (Du Ham., Bot. Reg., Lindl. N. S., and observation.)
DA'PHNE L. The DAPHNE. Lin. Syst. Octándria Monogynia. Identification. Lin. Gen., 192. ; Juss. Gen. Pl., 77.; Lam. Il., t. 290.; Smith Eng. Flora, 2. p. 228. Symonyme. Thymelæ'a Tourn. Inst., t. 366., Garin, t. 39. Deriration. Daphne is asserted by Lindley, and some other botanists, to have been the Greek name
of the Rúscus racemosus, or Alexandrian laurel, into which it is fabled that Daphne was changed. * Why the name has been applied to the shrubs now called Daphne, it is not easy to say." (Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 1177.). It is stated in Rees's Cyclopædia, under Laurus, that L. nóbilis “is certainly the Daphne of Dioscorides, and, consequently, the classical laurel. It is still called by the same name among the modern Greeks;" this is also the popular belief (Sce St. Pierre's Etudes de la Nature, Lempriere's Class. Dict., &c. &c.) Supposing the Daphne to have been the Laúrus nobilis, or bay tree, it is easy to account for its being applied to this genus, the D. Mezèreum being formerly called the dwarf bay in England ; and nearly all the species retaining the names of laureole and Laureola in France and Italy.
Description, &c. Undershrubs, evergreen and deciduous, natives chiefly of Europe, but partiy also of the cooler parts of Asia, including Japan and China. The odour of some of the species is very agreeable; and the bark of all of them is acrid. They are all beautiful, and rather difficult to propagate, except by seeds. The price of plants, in the London nurseries, is from Is. to 28. 6d. for all the sorts, except D. Mezèreum, and D. Laurèola, which are 6d. each.
A. Leaves deciduous.
1. D. MEZE'REUM L. The Mezereon Daphne, or common Mezereon. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., p. 509.; Willd. Sp. Pl, 2. p. 415.; Mill. Dict, n. 2.; Smith Eng.
Flora, 2. p. 228. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Synonymes. Spurge Olive, Spurge Flax; Flowering Spurge, Parkinson ; Dwarf Bay, Gerard; Laureole femelle, Bois gentil, Mézèreon, Bois joli, Fr.; gemeiner Seideibast, or Kellerbalz, Ger. ; Peperachtige Daphne, Dutch; Laureola femina, Biondella, Camelia, Ital. ; Laureola hembra, Span. Derivation. Mezereum and Mezereon are said to be derived from madzaryon, the Persian name for
this shrub. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1381. ; Cd. Fl. Dan., t. 268. ; and our fig. 1180. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves lanceolate, deciduous. Flowers distributed over the branches in threes mostly, and in pairs and fours, expanded before the leaves are protruded. A native of the woods of northern Europe. (Willd., Smith, and obs.) Found in woods, but rare, in the south and west of
England; growing to the height of 4 ft., and flowering in February, March,
or April. Varieties.
D. M. 2 flòre álbo has white flowers and yellow fruit.
tigiate in its mode of growth, but spreading; also with larger leaves
propagated by the Messrs. Backhouse of York. Description, fc. The mezereon is a well-known shrub, much valued in our gardens and shrubberies for the beauty both of its flowers and fruit. It produces its agreeably fragrant flowers in February or March, before the leaves; when, as Cowper has beautifully expressed it, its branches are
"Though leafless, well attired, and thick beset
With blushing wreaths, investing every spray." Task, book v. The whole shrub is poisonous to human beings, though the berries are a favourite food for finches, and other birds, more especially the robin. The bark is powerfully acrid: it is used in France for forming setons or slight blisters, and is very efficacious in cases where it is thought desirable to produce a slight serous discharge, without raising a large blister. When either the bark or berries are chewed, they produce violent and long-continued heat and irritation in the mouth and throat. The mezereon is sometimes used in medicine; but it requires to be administered by a skilful hand. When the berries have been eaten by children or others, accidentally, the best remedies are oil, fresh butter, linseed tea, milk, or some other kind of emollient, to allay the violence of the inflammation. The branches of this plant afford a yellow dye. The mezereon is of very easy culture. It is generally
1180 propagated by seeds; which, if suffered to get dry before they are sown, will remain two years in the soil; but which, if sown in autumn immediately after gathering them, generally come up the following spring. The best time for transplanting this shrub is in October, as it begins to vegetate very soon after Christmas. It thrives most in a loamy soil, and in an open situation ; and, when it is properly treated, and has room, it will in 8 or 10 years form a bush 5 ft. or 6 ft. high, and 7 ft. or 8 ft. in diameter. There is a plant in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, 6 ft. high. Price of plants, in the London nurseries, 50s. a hundred; and of the autumn-flowering 'ariety, Is. 6d. a plant : at Bollwyller, 50 cents a plant: and at New York, 20 cents, and of the white-flowered variety, 50 cents.
s 2. D. Alta'ica Pall. The Altaic Daphne. Identification. Pall. Fl. Ross., 1. p. 53. t. 35. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 2. p. 422. ; Sims in Bot. Mag., t. 1875.;
Lodd, Cat., ed. 1836. Synonymes.Daphné altaique, Laureole de Tartarie, Fr.; Sibirischer Seidelbast, Ger. Engravings. Pall. Fl. Ross., 1. t. 35.; Bot. Mag., t. 1875. ; Bot. Cab., 1. 399.; and our fig. 1181. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves obovate-lanceolate, glabrous. Flowers sessile, in
terminal umbels, about 5 in an umbel. (Sims in Bot. Mag., t. 1875.) Bark reddish brown in colour. Leaves oblong, broader towards the upper extremity, and narrowed downwards, of a somewhat glaucous and yellowish green, the latter colour prevailing most while they are young, Flowers white, and scentless ; produced in May and June. Lobes of the calyx revolute. A native of the Altaic Alps, in Siberia. (Ibid.) In the Nouveau Du Hamel, it is stated that this plant bears a striking resemblance, in its general appearance, to the mezereon, with the exception of the flowers, which are disposed in terminal umbels, and are white and scentless. It is at present
1181 not very common in British collections, though it well deserves a place there, from its neat compact habit of growth; and from its flowers, which come in in succession to those of the common mezereon. Plants, in the London nurseries, are 2s. 6d. each.
– 3. D. ALPI'NA L. The Alpine Daphne. Identification. Lin. Sp., 510., Syst., 371. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 2. p. 418.; Mill.
Diet., n.5.; Gouan Ilustr., 21., Willd. Arb., 99. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836,
1182 gate. (Willd. Sp. Pl., ii
. p. 418., and observation.) A native of the Alps of Switzerland, Geneva, Italy, and Austria; where it grows to the height of 2 ft., flowering from May to July. It was introduced in 1759, and is frequent in collections.
Description, &c. A low branchy shrub, with white flowers, silky on the outside, which come out in clusters from the sides of the branches, and are very fragrant. They appear in March, and are succeeded by roundish red berries, that ripen in September. It is quite hardy, and is very suitable for rockwork; as the roots fix theinselves deeply into the crevices of the rocks.
B. Erect. Leaves persistent. Flowers lateral. 4. D. Laure'ola L. The Laureola Daphne, or Spurge Laurel. Identification Lin. Sp. Pl., 510.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 2. p. 418. ; Smith Eng. Flora, 2. p. 229.; Hook. Fl.
Scot., 119; Jacq. Austr., L. 183. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.
Ger. Em., 1404. ; Thymelæ'a Laurèola, Scop. Carn., 2. n. 463. ; the Evergreen Daphne; Lauréole
fig. 1183. Spec. Char., &c. Evergreen. Leaves obovate-lanceolate, smooth. Flowers
in axillary, simple, drooping clusters, that are shorter than the leaves : flowers in each about 5. Calyx obtuse. (Smith Eng. Flora., ii. p. 229.) An evergreen shrub; a native of Britain, and most other parts of Europe, in woods; growing to the height of 3 ft. or 4 ft., and producing its yellowish green flowers, which are disposed in clusters of 5 each, soon after Christmas, if the weather be not very severe, and continuing Powering till March. Though not showy in its flowers, it is a valuable plant for a shrubbery, from its being evergreen, and from its
+ thick, glossy, shining leaves being disposed in
1183 tufts at the ends of the branches, so as to give it a full bushy appearance; which has a good effect in plantations, where it is desirable to produce masses of dark green. It thrives best in the shade, and will flourish in situations under the drip of trees, where few other plants would grow.
If exposed to the sun, the leaves turn back with a kind of twist; and, instead of their natural pure deep green, they assume a brownish tinge. The berries are oval, green at first, but black when ripe; and they are a favourite food of singing birds : though, as De Candolle observes in the Flore Française, they are poisonous to all other animals. The spurge laurel is propagated by seeds, like the mezereon ; but, as they will remain two years in the ground before they vegetate, they are generally treated like haws, and kept for some time in the rotting-heap. It may also be propagated by cuttings; but not readily. It is much used in nurseries, as a stock on which to graft the more tender species of the genus; but as, like all the other daphnes, it
has few roots, it requires to be transplanted with care. • 5. D. POʼntica L. The Pontic Daphne, or twin-flowered Spurge Laurel. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 511.; Pall. Fl. Ross., 1. p. 54. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 2. p. 419. ; Lodd. Cat., Synonymes. Thymelæ'a póntica, citrei foliis, Tourn. Itin., 3. p. 180. t. 180.; Lauréole du Levant,
Fr.; Pontischer Siedelbast, Ger.
bractless, glabrous, in many-flowered upright clusters, each of the long partial stalks of which bears two flowers. Lobes of the calyx lanceolate, long. (Spreng.) A native of Asia Minor, where it forms a shrub, growing to the height of 4 ft. or 5 ft., and producing its greenish yellow flowers in
April and May. It was introduced in 1759, and is frequent in collections. Varieties. • D. p. 2 rùbra Hort. has red flowers, and is supposed to be a hybrid. It
is rather more tender than the species. - D. p. 3 folüs variegatis Lodd. Cat., 1836, has variegated leaves. Description, &c. The whole plant, in general
1184 appearance, strongly resembles the common spurge laurel; but the leaves are more oval, and shorter; and the flowers, which are disposed in twos instead of fives, are yellower, and of a sweeter scent. The leaves somewhat resemble those of the lemon tree, especially in colour; whence Tournefort's trivial name. When bruised, they smell like those of the elder. This fine plant was first discovered by Tournefort, on the coast of the Black Sea, on hills and in woods; and Pallas says that it is also found in Siberia, in thick woods, and in the valleys which occur between the ridges of lofty mountains. It is, generally speaking, sufficiently hardy to bear the winters of the climate of London without protection; but, being disposed to put forth îts young shoots very early, they are often injured in exposed situations, by the spring frosts; "an inconvenience which probably might be avoided by planting it in thickets, and under the shelter of trees.” (Bot. Mag., t. 1282.) It thrives best in soil similar to that usually prepared for American plants, on the shady side of a wall, or in some other sheltered situation, where it will form a very handsome bush,4 ft. or 5 ft. high, and 6 ft. or 8 ft. in diameter. It may be propagated by seeds or cuttings. Plants, in the London nurseries, are ls. 6d. each.
• 6. D. THYMELÆN L. The Thymelæa, or Milkwort-like, Daphne. Identification. Vahl Symb., 1. p. 28. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 2. p. 416. Synonymes. Thymelæ'a foliis polygalæ glabris Bauh. Pin., 463. ; T. alpina glabra, Aosculis subluteis ad foliorum ortum sessilibus, Pluk. Alm., 366. t. 229. f. 2.; Sanamúnda viridis vel glábra Bauh. Prod., 160.; Sanamúnda glabra Bauh. Hist., 1. p. 592.; Passerina Thymelæ'a Dec. ; the Wild
Olive; La Thymelie, Fr.; astloser Seidelbast, Ger. Derivation.' Thymelæ'a is probably derived from thymos, poison, and elaia, or elæa, the olive tree,
in reference to the poisonous qualities of the plant, and its slight resemblance to the olive. Engravings. Ger. Prov., t. 17. f. 2.; Pluk. Alm., t. 229. f. 2. ; and our fig. 1185. Spec. Char., &c. Evergreen. Stem much branched. Branches simple, warted.
Leaves lanceolate, broader towards the tip, crowded. Flowers axillary,
sessile. (Vahl Symb., 1. p. 28.) A native of Spain, and of the neighbourhood of Montpelier, where it forms a shrub 3ft. high, flowering from February to April. Introduced in 1815; but rare in collections. The leaves are of a glaucous hue; and the flowers, which are produced in clusters on the sides of the branches, are of a yellowish green; they are inconspicuous, and they are succeeded by small berries, which are yellowish when ripe. The plant requires to be kept warm and dry; and to be grown in sandy peat, kept in an equable degree of moisture. For this reason, this and other species of Dáphne form very suitable plants for being grown together in a daphnetum, in the same manner as the heaths in an ericetum. • 7. D. TARTON-RAI'RA L. The Tarton-raira, or silvery-leaved, Daphne. Identification. Lin. Sp., 510.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 2 p. 417. ; Lodd. Cat.,
1186 Synonymes. Thymelæ'a foliis candicantibus et serici instar mollibus Bauh. Pin., 463; Tarton-Raire Gallo-provinciæ Monspeliensium Lob. Ic., 371. ; Sanamánda argentàta latifolia Barr. Ic., 221. ; Passerina lárton-ratra Schrad. ; the oval-leaved Daphne; Lauréole blanche, Fr.; Silberblättriger Seidelbast Ger. Engravings. Lob. Ic., 371. ; Barr. Ic., 221. ; FL Græca, t. 354. ; and
our fig. Î186. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves persistent, obovate, nerved, silky, hoary. Flowers sessile, lateral, aggregate, imbricated with scales at the base. (Vahl Symb.) A native of the south of France, where it grows to the height of 3 ft., flowering from May to July. Cultivated by Miller in 1739, and now frequent in collections. This species is remarkable for the smallness and silkiness of its leaves, and the white appearance of the whole plant. The flowers are small, yellowish, sessile, and come out in thick clusters. The plant is very suitable for rockwork, as its branches are weak, irregular, and scarcely ligneous; it requires a warm dry situation, exposed to the sun. Plants, in the London nurseries, are ls. 6d, each.
. 8. D. (? T.) PUBE'scens L. The pubescent Daphne. Identification._Lin. Mant., 66. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 2. p. 417. Synonymes. Thymelæ`a itálica, Tarton-raire Gallo-provinciæ similis, sed per omnia major, Micheli,
cited in Tuli Cat. dort. Pisani; behaarter Seidelbast Ger. Engraving. Tilli Cat. Hort. Pisani, t. 49. f. 2. Spec. Char., gc. Stems pubescent, simple. Leaves linear- lanceolate, almost mucronate, alternate. Flowers axillary; 5, or fewer, in an axil; sessile, narrow, shorter than the leaf; the tube thread. shaped and downy. It seems different from D. Thymelæ'a, and was found in Austria by Jacquin. (Willd.) It is stated to have its leaves nearly deciduous. Introduced in 1810.
• 9. D. (? T.) TOMENTO'sa Lam. The tomentose Daphne. Identification. Lam. Dict.; N. Du Ham., 1. p. 26. Synonymes. Passerina villosa Lin. ; Lauréole cotonneuse Lam. Encyc., 10. Spec. Char., &c. Flowers sessile, axillary. Leaves oblong-obtuse, covered with tomentum on both sides. (Lam.) A low shrub, very nearly allied to D. Tårton-raira, but larger in all its parts, and with more obtuse leaves, which are covered with tomentum, instead of a silky down. It is a native of Asia Minor and the Levant, and produces its white flowers in May. It was introduced in 1800, but is now probably lost.
C. Erect. Leaves persistent. Flowers terminal. . 10. D. COLLI'na Smith. The hill-inhabiting Daphne, or Neapolitan
Mezereon. Identification. Smith in Fl. Græca, t. 359. ; Smith Spicil., t. 18.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 2. p. 423.; Bot. Mag, t. 428. ; N. Du Ham., t. 2. ; Wikström Diss. de Daphné, p. 32. ; Enum., p. 9.; Lodd. Cat.,
Lauréole à Feuilles de Santé, Fr.; Stumpfblättriger Seidelbast, Ger.