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CHAP. LXXXVIII. OF THE HALF-HARDY PLANTS OF THE ORDER MYOPOʻRINÆ. Myoporum parvifolium R. Br., Bot. Mag., t. 1691., is a native of New Holland, with trailing stems and small white flowers, which are produced in great profusion nearly all the year. A plant against our conservative wall at Bayswater lived four years, producing shoots of 5 ft. or 6 it. in length in one season, which were most beautifully covered with flowers. The plant grows so rapidly, that we have no doubt it would cover many square yards of wall in a very short period. There are other specics of the genus having the same habit of growth, more particularly M. oppositifolium R. Br., M. diffusum R. Br., and M. adscéndens R. Br.
G. Alġpum L., Gar. Aix, fig. 42., the alypo globularia,
Státice monopétala L., Boc. Sic., t. 16., is a native of Sicily, where it grows to the height of 3 ft., and produces its fine bluish purple flowers in July and August. S. suffruticosa L. is a native of Siberia, which seldom exceeds 1 ft. in height. Both these species are very suitable for conservative rockwork.
Plumbago capénsis Thunb., Bot. Reg., t. 417., is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, with light blue flowers, which it produces in great profusion throughout the summer; and, though it is seldom seen above 5 ft. in height in green houses, yet we have seen it reach the top of a wall 10 R. or 12 ft. high, at Bishopstoke Vicarage, in Hampshire. (See Gard. Mag., vol. X. p. 130.)
Tue hardy ligneous species of this order have whitish or glaucous foliage, and small flowers of nearly the same colour : the latter have not a corolla, and are not showy. They are included in three genera; the names and characteristics of which are as follows:
CHENOPO'dium L. Flowers bisexual. Calyx inferior, with 5 sepals, perma
nent. Stamens 5, hypogynous; opposite to, and of about the length of, the sepals. Anthers with round lobes. Ovary orbicular, depressed. Ovule, according to the character of the order, 1, and erect. Styles 2, short. Stigmas obtuse. Fruit a utricle, invested by the calyx. Seed lens-shaped. Leaves alternate, generally lobed, bearing a friable, unctuous scurf. Flowers numerous, small
, green, in groups that are disposed in leafy spikes or naked panicles; or the flowers solitary, or 2-3 together, in the axils of leaves.
(Smith Eng. Fl.; Lindley Nat. Syst. of Bot.; and observation.) A'TRIPLEX L. Flowers some bisexual, some female; those of both kinds
upon one plant. — Bisexual flower. Calyx inferior, with 5 sepals, permanent. Stamens 5, hypogynous; opposite to, and about as long as, the sepals. Anthers with round lobes. Pistil and fruit much as in the female flower; but, in Britain, in the native species, seeds are scarcely produced from the bisexual flowers. — Female flower. Calyx inferior, deeply divided into two large, flat, equal, or nearly equal, lobes, and so compressed that the lobes have their inner faces approximate; permanent. Ovary compressed. Ovule, according to the character of the order, 1, and erect. Fruit a utricle, invested by the calyx, which is now enlarged. Seed compressed, orbicular. – Leaves alternate or opposite, undivided or jagged, bearing a meal-like scurf. Flowers numerous, small, greenish, in groups that are axillary or disposed in spikes. (Smith. Eng. Fl. ; Lindley Nat. Syst. of Bot. ;
and observation.) Dio'tis Schreb. Flowers unisexual, those of both sexes upon one plant.
- Male flower. Calyx inferior, with 4 sepals, permanent. Stamens 4, inserted at the bottom of the calyx; opposite to, and prominent beyond, the sepals. — Female flower. Calyx inferior, of one piece deeply divided, and ending in 2 horns, permanent, and, possibly, adnate to the ovary. Ovule, according to the character of the order, 1, and erect. Fruit a utricle, villous at the base, partly invested by the calyx.- Leaves alternate, lanceolate, entire, bearing hoary pubescence. Male flowers in axillary groups that are disposed in leafy spikes. Female flowers about 2 together, axillary. (Encycl.of Plants; Nuttall Gen.; Lindley Nat. Syst.of Bot.; and observation.)
CHENOPO'DIUM L. The GooseFoot. Lin. Syst. Pentándria Digýnia.
Description, &c. A genus of which there are only three ligneous species in British gardens: two of these formerly belonged to the genus Salsòla, or saltwort; and, like the other plants of that genus, they contain a large proportion of soda, more especially in their native habitats, near the sea. The plants are of the easiest culture in any dry soil; and they are readily propagated by cuttings.
. 1. C. FRUTICO'sum Schrad. The shrul by Goosefoot, or Stonecrop Tree.
Arbre, Fr. ; strauchartiges Salzkraut, Ger. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 635. ; Flor. Giac, t. 257. ; N. Du Ham., 6. t. 79. ; and our figs. 1156, 1157. Spec. Char., 8c. Shrubby, upright, evergreen. Leaves semicylindrical, bluntish, imbricate. (Smith Eng. Fl, and Willd. Sp. Pl.) This species is a low shrub, seldom exceeding 3 ft. or 4 ft. in height, with numerous cylindrical upright branches; and sessile, linear, fleshy, and alternate leaves, which are
glabrous, and flat on their upper surface,
is useful, in some situations, as a glaucous
1157 seeds, layers, cuttings, or suckers. It should be planted in a sheltered situation, as it is an evergreen, and the leaves, from their succulency are easily affected by the frost, which turns them black. The branches are very brittle, and apt to break off: they should not, however, be tied up closely, as the leaves will rot if they are not allowed abundance of light and air.
2. C. PARVIFO'lium R. et S. The small-leaved Goosefoot. Identification. Ræm. et Schult. Syst. Veg., 6. p. 266. Synonymes. C. fruticosum Bieb. in Fl. Taur. Cauc., 1. p. 181., exclusively of all the synonymes ; C microphfllum Bieb. in Suppl. to Fl
. Taur.-Cauc., 1. p. 275. Salsdla fruticosa Bieb. Casp., p. 149. App No 22., Pall. It., 3. p. 524.; Suaeda microphylla Pall.' Illust.,
3. t. 44. Engraving. Pall. II., 3. t. 44.
Description, &c. Imperfectly evergreen, frutescent, much branched, spreading, glabrous, about 2 ft. high. Leaves taper, oblong, obtuse, glaucescent, fleshy; the lower half an inch long, the floral ones shorter. Flowers of the shape of those of C. marítimum,
three together, attached to the petiole above its base, not bracteated. The sepals that attend the fruit are equal and convex at the back. (Bieb.) Frequent in the plains of Eastern Caucasus, towards the Caspian Sea, and near the salt river Gorkaja, where it is believed to be deleterious to horses. (R. et S. Syst. Vég.) It was introduced into Eng. land in 1825, but is very seldom found in collections.
1 3. C. HORTE'NSE R. et S. The Garden Goosefoot. Identification. Rom. et Schult. Syst. Veg., 6. p. 268. Synonymes. Suaeda hortensis Forsk. Ægypt
. Arab., p. 71.; Delile Déscr. de l'Egypte., No. 297.; Salsóla divérgens Poir. Enc. Meth., 7. p. 299.
Description, $c. Subevergreen. A shrub, about 2 ft. high, very diffuse. Stem, branches, and leaves spotted with white, having upon their surface a mealy matter that may be rubbed off. Leaves flat above, linear, fleshy. Flowers axillary, sessile, in groups. Stigmas 3, united at the base. Calyx, as it attends the fruit, fleshy, diverging. It is very similar to, if not identical with, Salsòla trígyna Car. (R. et S. Syst. Veg: A low uninteresting shrub, a native of Asia, and the south of Europe, supposed to be in British gardens ; but we are not certain that we have seen the plant.
A'TRIPLEX L. The OrachE. Lin. Syst. Polygàmia Monæ'cia. Identification. Lin. Gen., 745. ; Eng. Flor., 4. p. 255. Derivation. From ater, black; according to some by antiphrasis, in reference to the whitish, or mealy, hue of the plants.
Description, fc. Shrubs, with imperfectly woody branches, and succulent leaves, white or glaucous from being covered with a mealy powder. Natives of Britain or the south of Europe, of easy culture and propagation in any common garden soil.
. 1. A. Ha’limus L. The Halimus Orache, or Tree Purslane. Identification. Lin. Hort. Cliff, 469. ; Gron. Virg., 195. ; Roy. Lugdb., 218.; Mill. Dict., No. 2.,
Pall. It, 1. ; Append. It., 2. p. 477. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.
Clus. Hist., 1. p. 53.; the broad-leaved Sea Purslane Trec; Arroche, Fr.; strauchartige Melde, Ger. Engravings. Park. Theatr., 724. t. 2.; Ger. Emac., p. 522. 1. 1.; and our fig. 1158.
Spec. Char., &c. Stem shrubby. Leaves alternate or
opposite, their figure partaking of an oblong and a rhomb, entire. (Willd.) It inhabits hedges on the coast of Spain, Portugal, Virginia, and Siberia ; and was introduced in 1640. An evergreen shrub, which grows about 5 ft. or 6 ft. high, and forms a large broad head. The young branches are covered with a smooth white bark, which becomes grey, and peels off lengthwise, as the tree gets old. The branches are very brittle, and have but little pith. The leaves are soft, white, and silvery, and, in shape, resemble the Greek A. The shrub seldom flowers in Britain; but, from its not being quite deciduous, and from the silvery hue of its foliage, it is a valuable plant for shrubberies and other ornamental plantations. It may be propagated by cuttings made in the usual manner, but carefully
1158 protected from sparrows, which are so fond of the leaves of this shrub, that “when they once find them out, they will never leave or forsake them, until they have entirely stripped the plants; and though the shrub will shoot out afresh, yet they will as constantly repair to their repast ; and will thus continue to prey upon them, until they have entirely destroyed them.” (See Marshall on Planting and Rural Ornament, vol. ii. p. 29.) It requires a sheltered situation, being liable to injury from frost. Price of plants, in the London nurseries,
Is. 6d. each. 2 2. A. PORTULACÖr'des L. The Purslane-like, or shrubby, Orache, or Sea
Pl., 4. p. 957.; Smith Eng. Flor., 4. p. 256.
v A'triplex marítima, Hálimus et Portulaca marina dicta, angustifolia,
Raii Syn., 153. ; the narrow-leaved Sea Purslane Tree.
opposite, obovate-lanceolate, entire. Flowers gene-
1159 those of the preceding species; the whole plant, also, is much smaller. It may be grown in the open garden, or in pots among alpines. The name of Háli. mus, given to this and the preceding species by Clusius, has probably been the source of the epithet halimifòlia, applied to several other plants; so that Báccharis halimifolia, &c., ineans that the leaves are glaucous, and resembling those of certain kinds of A'triplex.
DIO'TIS Schreb. The Diotis. Lin. Syst. Monc'cia Tetrándria. Identification. Lin. Gen. Pl., ed. Schreber, No. 1423. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 368. ; Nutt. Gen. and Cat. N. Amer. Pl., 2. p. 207. It is not the Didtis of Desf. Fl. Aul.; Dec. Fl
. Fr. Smith Eng. Flor., 3. p. 402. ; which is the Otánthus of Link Enum., and the Santolina marítima L. Synonymes. Ceratöldes Tourn.; A'xyris. Lin.; Ceratospermum Pers.
Derivation. From dis, twice, and ous, otos, an ear. The calyx of the female flower ends in two segments, which fancy may compare to ears, although they more resemble horns : and this second idea is doubtless that referred to in Tournefort's generic name Ceratöldes, from keras, a horn, gen. keratos, and eidos, likeness.
1. D. Ceratör'des W. The two-horned-calyxed Diotis. Identification. Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 368. Synonymes. A'xyris Ceratoides Lin. Sp. Pl., 1389.; Jacq. Icon. Rar., 1. t. 189. ; Ceratospermum papposumn Pers. ; A'xyris fruticosa, flóribus femíneis lanátis, Gmel. Sib., 3. p. 17. No. 10. t. 2. f. 1.; Achyranthes papposa Forsk. Descr., 48.; Krascheninnikovia Guildenst. Act. Petrop., 16. p. 548. t. 17. ; Urtica foliis lanceolàtis, fæmininis hirsutus, Roy. Lugdb., 210.; Ceratöldes orientalis fruticosa Elæágni folio Tourn. Cor., 52. ; Orientalisches Doppelohr, Ger. Engravings. Jacq. Ic. Rar., 1. t'189.; Gmel
. Sib., 3. p. 17. No. 10. t. 2. 1. 1. ; Act. Petrop., 16. t. 17. ; and our fig. 1160.
Description, &c. A shrub, a native of Siberia and Tartary. Introduced in 1780, and producing its obscure apetalous flowers in March and April. It grows 2 ft. or more high, much more across, and abounds in slender spreading branches. Its leaves are lanceolate, narrow, and alternate. The whole plant is hoary. The male flowers are very abundant, and disposed mostly in approximate axillary groups about the terminal part of the branches. The female flowers are less numerous, and mostly upon a lower part of the branch, axillary, and generally two in an axil. Both male and female flowers are sessile, or nearly so. The female flowers are not obvious. The male flowers are not showy; though their number, grouped character, and the yellow anthers prominent from them, render the flowering of the shrub obvious. They have a slight scent of a honey-like sweetness. The stocky part of this plant is persistently ligneous. D. Ceratöides thrives in a light soil,
1160 and is easily propagated by layers, or by cuttings inserted in the soil and kept covered with a hand-glass. Plants in the Cambridge Botanic Garden, in August, 1836, growing, some in calcareous soil, and one or more in heath mould, were about 2 ft. high, and with widely spreading recumbent branches. This shrub, therefore, appears particularly well adapted for rockwork; and, if gardens were laid out with a view to the geographical or topographical distribution of plants, the D. Ceratöides, with the different species of Nitrària, Callígonum, &c., would form suitable species for the rockwork of Siberia. . D.landla Pursh Fl
. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 602., Nutt. Gen. N. Amer., 2. p.207., resembles D. Ceratöldes, but is easily distinguished, at first sight,
by the long, woolly, white tomentum which pervades all its parts. The stem is zigzag. The groups of flowers are so crowded as to produce the resemblance of spikes.
App. I. Half-hardy Species of Chenopodiacea. Anábasis tamariscifolia L., Cav. Ic., S. 293., is a curious little salsola-like plant, a native of Spain, where it grows 2 ft. high. It was introduced in 1752; but, being of little interest, except to the botanist, it is rarely to be met with even in botanic gardens. A. aphğlia L., Salsdla articulata Forst., is another plant of the same genus, a native of Asia Minor.
Kochia prostrata Schr., Jacq. Au., 3. 294.; Salsdla prostrata L.; is a native of the south of Europe, growing to the height of 5 ft., with the general habit of a salsola. It is almost sufficiently hardy to stand in the open air without protection. A plant in the Cambridge Botanic Garden, in a partly open border, is a freely growing
shrub, about 5 ft. high, with its lower branches prostrate, and its upper ones drooping. It is clothed with abundance of narrow, pointed, pubescent leaves, which are a little canescent. Bösca Yervamora L., Walt. Hort.,
24. t. 10., Encyc. of Plants, f. 3453., is a native of the Canaries, where it grows to the height of 8 ft. or 10 n. A plant in the Horticultural Society's Garden has stood out since 1834, against a wall. It is generally killed to the ground during winter, but grows up again vigorously during summer, and usually reaches from 5 ft. to 6 ft. high.
Camphorósma monspeliaca Schk. Hand., 1. t. 26., is a low heath-like shrub, a native of the south of Europe, common in various places in France ; for instance, at Avignon, on the ruins of the old castle. It is of a decumbent babit, with red bark to its young shoots, and with hairy narrow-pointed leaves, in groups along the branches. It is a most desirable plant for conservative rockwork; and if trained against a wall, we have no doubt it would cover several square yards of wall in a very short time.
Other Genera belonging to Chenopodiaceæ contain species which may be reckoned half-hardy; but as they may be readily found by turning to the enumeration in our Hortus Britannicus, we do not give them here.