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would be as well pleased to barter “ solid pudding for empty praise,” as this writer imagines, and whether the saving in salaries would arnourt, upon the whole, 10 any thing that could be deemed a national object, we will not at present discuss; but we think it right to intorm him, that the part of his plan on which he seems most to rely, namely, the proposal « to take on the public account, every fee, and every emolument possessed by every individual," arises from a misapprehension (we had almoit said ignorance) of the subject in question. We believe there is no subject on which greater pains have been taken, both by Government and Parliament, to form a juft and uniform system, and none which is involved in more difficulties. At all events, the sweeping mode which this writer proposes, would not answer his purpose fince, if all tees and emoluments were taken on the public account, the individuals concerned must be compensated, in some degree at least, by additional salaries, or they would, in many instances, literally want bread. If such additional salaries, on the one hand, a nounted to less than the fees before received, the fees themselves would be very diffi. cult to collect, when they no longer produced that alertness and dir. patch of business for which the persons concerned had voluntarily and cheerfully paid thein. But this matter has some tiine since been rege. lated in moit of the public offices (though not by one uniform mode in all) and it yet we believe is doubtful, whether any saving to the revenue, or any improvement in the dispatch of business, will be the consequence. The remainder of this desultory tract consists of a long speech which the author would make to the King if he were Minister; 1ome trifling remarks on finecure places, pensions, and grants; a scheme for a new office for arıny agency (on which we do nor feel ou felves competent to decide) some general observations on the duty of Peers; 'complaints' of abuses in boroughs; and arguments againit imprisonment for debt. Some of the parliamentary regulations proposed, para cicularly as to a bribery oath, and qualifications of inembers, seem not unworthy of attention.
ART. 41. Considerations on the Increase of the Poor- Roses, and the - State of the Workboufe, in Kingf|cn-upon-Hull : to which is riow added,
a foort Account of ine Improvement in the Maintenance of the Pour of : the Town. 8vo. 98 pp. Robinson, &c. also the Bookfellers in
Hull and York. 1800. '
We have here two cracts united. The first was published in 1999, to with a view to excite the atiention of the inhabitants in Hull, to the numerous abuses which had long prepailed in the maintenance of the poor of the rown.” P. 3, (Parc ii.) The effort was as successful as it was vigorously and judicivusly made. Abules were discovered so nu. merous and gross, that the existence of them coulj scarcely have been credited, without actual demonstration. A general disposition to correći them was happily found leven in a corporate town, fending menbers to Parliament) among those persons who had the chief power to Z z 2
do do so, and in the inhabitanis of the place at large. The result bas been, that the poor-rates in Hull, which, on the ift of July, 1999, amounted to 8320l. per annum, were reduced, on the roth of January following, to 41601. though, at the latter period, wheat was selling at nis, 6d. per bofhel. The deserving objects of charity appear to harc fared better than before, vice and idleness seem to be in a great degree extirpated, and habits of viriue and industry planted in their room. The provision for fpiriraal instruction is highly creditable to all parties concerned in it. Most just is the remark, that “ the poor-laws have often been condemned, when, in reality, the fault has been in the indolence or incapacity of those who ought to carry them into execurion." P. 43. Mr. Thompson, the chief author of this reform, has well earned the high esteem of his neighbours, whether rich or poor; nor is it easy to say to which of these clafles he has been the greater benefactor. May this, and other such recent cxamples, peryade and animate every parish in the kingdom!
ART. 42. Infecto-Theology; or, a Demonstration of the Bring and Per
feations of God, from a Confideration of the Strućture and Economy of 'Inferts. Illustrated with a Copper-Plate. By M. Leffer : with Notes, by P. Lyonet. 8vo. 439 pp. 6s. Creech, Edinburgh ; Cadell and Davies, London.
Lesser was an author of some fame among his countrymen, the Germans, and wrote not only an Infecto-Theology, but a Litho-Theology. Lyonet was the famous author of the “ Traité anatomique sur la chenille,” &c.-a prodigy of physiological labour and exactness. The origin of the notes of Lyonet upon this work is thus related by himself. : « The success which this book had in Germany, and the encomiums bestowed upon it in the Leipfic Transactions, induced the publisher to have it tranllated into French. He requested me to revise the manuscript, and to correct those passages which the transacor's ignorance of the subject might have occasioned. That I might not deprive the public of the advantage to be derived from a book, intended to promote the glory of God, I undertook the talk ; but I had no sooner begin than I found that the faults of the translator were not the only ones I had to correct, but shat the original itself in many places ftood in need of revision and elucidation." P. ix. Besides fome notes of the author, to which an afterik is prefixed, there are several by the translator. The notes are placed at the end, with proper references to the text. · The word infect is used in this work with fome latitude, as is exa plained in the following passage of the introductory advertisement, which it will be aseful for readers to know. “ As the original work was publifhed before the accurate definition of an insect was given by Linnæus, the word is ufed much more loosely than at present. By Lera fer, all the animals that compose Linnzus's class of vermes are called infects; and even Lyonct, who defines an insect to be an animal with "an external skeleton, gives the same name to snails. The naturalia, accustomed to the Atrict acceptation of the term, will revolt at this inaccuracy ; but it was thought better to retain the expression.” P. xi.
The use and pleasure of a work like this will not require to be explained, to those who have seen che excellent writings of Ray and Der. ham. Abundance of very curious information is here accumulated, especially in the notes; and though the translator modestly apologizes for the style, we see nothing in it at which found criticism ought to take offence; on the contrary, it appears to us unusually simple and chafte,
' ART. 43. Elements of Botany. IlInfrated by Sixieen Engravings. By
Jobr Hull, M. D. Member of the Corporation of Surgeons, and of the Physical Society of London, of the Natural Hijtory Society of Edinburgh, and Secretary of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, In Two Volumes. Svo. About 800 pp. 18s. Clarke, Mancheiter; Bickerstaff, London. 1800.
« Botany," says this author, " is that branch of Natural History which treats of vegetables, and includes not only the knowledge of them, but the confideration of every circumstance relative to them, as their Aructure, functions, properties, uses,” &c. As chis science has of lace years been cultivated with great affiduity, systems of it have been multiplied in a great variety of forms; but anong these works there have been few, if any, which contained so much, within so small a compass, as this compilation by Dr. Hull.
Though this author ftri&tly follows the Linnæan System, and de. fends it with great skill and judgment from the reducing plans of Thunberg and others, he gives a diftin&t, though comprehensive view, of other methods. He allo explains ar large the terms adopted by Hedwig in his System of Mosses, and by Gæriner in his very elaborate and excellent work on Fruits and Seeds. He gives also both an English and Latin dictionary of Botanical terms. He translates the Linnæan terms into English, in our opinion, with more judgment and taste than was formerly done by the Lichfield Society. His decision, at the close of his Preface, on the subject of the four classes which
Thunberg retrenched, being the result of due examination, deserves, we think, to be made known. ." To conclude," he fays, " after a careful consideration of the objections raised by Professor Thunberg, against the four classes, Gyandria, Monoecia, Diæcia, and Polygamia, I am of opinion that they are founded upon true principles, and only liable to particular exceptions, in common with all the other classes; and that the abolition of them will, by the confusion it has introduced into botanical writings, rather retard than promote the extension of the science." P. xxxi..
In this opinion we most cordially unite, and hope that the manner in which it has been defended by Dr. Hull, will tend to recal botanists from that rage of innovation, which threatens to destroy the use of the Linnæan System, by gradually reducing the number of its classes. Could they be reduced to three or four, how little better would they be than no classification at all. · In his popular illustration of the Linnæan divisions, the author is, rather unhappy in comparing species to parishes, and varieties to villages. If the species are parishes, the varieties are more like extra., parochịal spots.' .
MISCELLANIES. ART. 44. A Method of making Abridgements; or, easy and certain
Rules for analyfing Authors. Divided inie Two Parts; the Firft, containing preliminary Explanations, and the Rules for making Abridgements; ihe Second, the Application of those Rules to various Selections from the best Authors. By the Abbé Gaultier. Part ibe Second. 410. 130 pp. 1os. Od. Elmdy, Newberry, &c. 1801.
The merits of the Abbé Gaultier's improvements in the art of analysis, wire inentioned in the Britith Critic for September last. This Second Part exemplifies the method of the author, by applying, it first, to che eleven consecutive pipers in the Spectator, on the pleasures of Imagination ; fi condly, to the Sermon of Bifhop Alterbury, on the duty of praise and thanksgiving; 3dly, to Dean Swift's Proposal to the Earl of Oxford, for correcting, improving, and ascertaining the English language. They are the same works on which Blair has cominented in his Lectures un Rbetoric, &c, and evidenily derive a new and material illustration from this method. The talents of this author, and particularly his skill in the arts of instruction, have gained liima patronage highly honourable, among the most illustrious families in this kingdom, and we doube not that the present work will materially contribu:e to extend his gencral fame. ART. 45. Thoughts on the Frequency of Divorces in modern Times, and " on the Necessity of Legislative Ex rlion, io prevent their increasing Pre? valence. By Adam Sibbit, M. A. 8vo. 54 pp. 25. Cadell and
Davies. 1800.' Mr. S. proposes to consider soine of the causes which have a tendency to produce the crime of adultery; and then to make a few ob. fervations on the adoption of measures to prevent it. (P. 6.) He takes a view of tie educalion, babiis, and manners of the women of the present age; prelenting to us a very unfavourable, but, we hope, exaggerated account, of che fyftem of mudern female educarion, in our fashionable boarding-schools, and indeed all over the kingdom. (Pages 9 10, &c.). We ašteni, however, to his reprobation of many books, which tend to relax and deprave the minds of females ; such as have been furnished by Rouff au, the German novelists, the English author of che Monk, &c. who leem to have written for the express purpole of corrup ing the minds of their readers. “The Cyprian dress, and Ciprian manners of fiome amoug, the ladies of our times, and the Spirit of tentation which marks the present age,” are reprobated with due severini. (Pages 19, 20.)
The profl gacy of R. man wonen in former times, and of French women in late rimes, is alledged to have been the principal cause of the ruin which betel each of ihese people. The measures to be adopt. ed, for preventing the crime in queliion, are not set forth with fufficient distinctness; and tive whole tract, though evidently written with the beit inten ions, is tets argumen'ative and more declamatory and verbok, than the friends of religion, morality, and social order, might deure,
ART. 46. The Creation ; in Six Books. After the Manner, and as an
introductory Companion, 10 the Death of Abel and Death of Cain. By William Henry Hall, Author of the Royal Encyclopaedia, &c. 8vo. 145 pp. 25. 6d. Crosby and Letterman. 1801.
Poems in prose (if the terms do not, as we think they do, in. volve a contradiction) are not, even when well executed, agreeable to our taste. They are, for the most part, minute and tedious, or bombastic and extravagant. Of all these qualities, the performance before us has its due share. The simple and sublime narrative of the creation, in Scripture, is not always dilared to advantage, even by Milton himself. What must it be in the hands of an inferior writer, in a prose composition, like the present, which describes the mode and process of the creation in minute and aff-ctedly scientific terms, and puts a number of pompous and vain glorious speeches, more proper for Some boastful tyrant on the stage, into the mouth of the Supreme Being? Where, however, a work seems to have been written with good intentions (which the very respectable patronage implied by the dedi. cation imports) we refrain as much as possible from severe censures. The Death of Abel, by Gessner (of which this book professes to be an imitation) has some pa: hos and interest ; but in that Poem the story is, in a great measure, domestic, and in itself affecting. Here the fübject is above the grasp of human intelleét; and the writer's know. ledge favours of pedantry, as his piery is, we fear, not a little tinctured with enthugasm. Art. 47. Another Efence of Malone, or the Beauties of Shakspeare's i Editor. 8vo. 128 pp. 38. 6d. Becket. 1801.
The man who invented second parts often seems to deserve a share of the anaihema which has sometimes fallen upon the inventor of fifth acts. We have here a fecond Essence of Malone, so exiravagantly witty, and fo querly confused, that to read it through seems an áblo. lute impossibility. Yet the criticism enveloped in this strange vehicle appears almost uniformly to he just. The brief result is this, that ihe. perion attacked is (which cannot be denied, and was well known toaccurate obiervers before) in general unfortunate in his remarks on fyllables and rhymes; and that he has bestowed too minure an attention on the not very important point of the exact spelling of Shakespeare's name; and this atiention also not always successful. But why all this eagerness of attack on these points; which, after all, will leave Mr. M.. the character of a very diligent, and, generally, a very uletul editor? We fear chiefly for the purpose of making a book, which certainly is made, in this instance, with as litle skill as temperance. The most amusing part of this tract is the tale of Abel, the famous musician, and the Sermon; but told with rather too much ambition of tacecie. ousness, and in fact but too literally applicable to the case. ::: Art. 48. An Examivation of tbe Merits and Tendency of the Pursuits 1
of Literature. Part Second. By W. Burdon, M. A, formerly Fellow of Emanuel College, Cambridge. 8vo. 143 pp. Brown, Newcastle upon Tyne; Clarke, London, 1800. .
" Je viens,” fays Moliere, in one of his prefaces; “ auffi difficile de combattre un ouvrage que le public approuve, que d'en défendre un