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of God. 2. Of the Reasons for believing the Old Teladeat. 3. CA the Reafoos for believing the New Tetiament. 4. Of the Rearses for believing the preferi Scriptures to be agreeable to the original 5. Additional Reasons for believing in the divine Origin of Christ anity. In the following pallage, a very judicious and impreff: ve a. gument is drawn, from even:s which we all have lately wirneded a deplored. Speaking of the improvements of society produced by ste Chriftia a religion, the author says:

“ On this head, indeed, little occafion has the advocate for Chrifti. apity to go back to the former ages of the world. They that will not allow it the credit of liaving meliorated and improved the condition of man, have had an opportunity of witnessing the effects thar have resulted from its open rejection. They have seen men absolved fros every religious obligation, and left to their own natural propenfities, to guide their conduct towards each other; and the consequence has been such as mighe easily have been predicted ; the venerable fabrick of social order has been shaken to its base, and but for the timely interference of divine Providence, inult have been prostrated in the daft. ** P. 42.

Ms. Robinson has certainly compressed much useful argument into a very narrow compass, and thereby has probably rendered a material service to a large class of readers.

ART. 32. Reflections on the present State of Popery compared with its

former Slate. A Sermon in Commemoration of the grea: Delrverances of Britain in 1605 and 1658, preached at Salters'-Hall, November 2, 1800, 10 the Supporters of the Lord's Day Evening Le&ture at that Place; and published at their Requeft. By Robert Winter. 8vo. 31 pp. 15. Corder, &c. 1800.

The general purpose of this discourse on Rev. xv, 3, 4, is to confi. der the wonderful change which has taken place in the state of the Romilh church, as a fource of very important religious instruction, And, ift, "As affording an awful and impressive moral leffon, on the uncertainty of all earthly greatness, and on the power and wisdom of the Governor of the universe." P. 8. 2ndly, ** As a memorable inftance of the retributive justice of God." P. 12. This is an awfol topic, and is created (we think) fomewhat prefumptuously. 3dly, “ As affording a molt convincing evidence of the truth of Revelation.” P. 16. This important topic is well, but briefly infifted upon. 4thly, “ As à caution against even seeming to countenance a cause, which God abhors." P. 21. srhly, “ As leading our thoughts forward to its final deftruction, and the universal diffusion of the Gofpel in all its native fimplicity and glory.” P. 26. In some p-stages, the preacher fpeaks with just abhorrence of the atrocious wickedness which has allićted France; and we could with that he had torborne to speak of any among their late deeds in such soft terms as, the enterprifing spirit -The exersions of that nation : " the enterprising spirit of that nation has completely burst the chain of dependence on Rome, by which she had long been held in captivity. And one important consequence of the exertions of the French has been, the weakening, to a very great


degree, of the Papal cause." P. 10. Even the annihilation of Popery, and all its corruptions, by such a spirit, and such exertions, should be fpoken of with unmitigated horror. We do not, however, heftate 10 repeat the praise which we have more than once awarded to Mr. Winter ; but willingly pronounce him to be an able divine, and an eloquens · preacher.

* Art. 33. Sermons sur le Culte Public, par Louis Mercier, Pasteur de

l'Eglise Française de Londres. Two. Volumes. 8vo. 125. Dulau. · These Sermons are evidently distinguished by found good sense, by unexceptionable sentiments, by the purest moral doctrine, and by a {pirit of true loyalıy; but they are without that fpirit and energy which usually diltinguish French compofitions of a similar nature.

They have not the fascinating eloquence of Bourdaloue, nor the intereiting manner of Bossuet.


ART. 34. A Twelve Penny Answer to a Three Shilling and Six Penny Pamphlet, intituled A Letter on the Influence of the Stoppage of Ifues in

Spacie at the Bank of England, on the Prices of Provisions, and otber
Commodities. 8vo.' '29 pp. 15. Richardson. '1801.

The author contends, that if the main position of the letter-writer could be maintained, these consequences must have appeared : ift. the discredit of the bank.paper; zdiy, ils rejection at its original and intrinsic value; and, lastly, the circulation of it at a discount. Here is a grent deal of matter, well compressed within a small compass.

Art. 35. Short Thoughts on the prefent Price of Provisions. By an

Officer of the Volunteer Corps. 8vo. 15 pp. Wright. 1800..

Few, as well as short. The dearness of bread is attributed to two causes ; a succession of three bad years, 1795, 1796, 1799; (to which may now be added 1800) and, " speculators being possessed of that degree of ftariftical knowledge, by which is ascertained the exact confumption; and then, by means of combination, feeding the ovens from day to day, and the public markets from week to week." P. 4. Concerning the existence of the former of these causes, no doubt can be entertained ; and perhaps it is alone sufficient to account for our calamity, continued from the last to the present year. The combination of fuch a multitude of persons, as the dealers of corn throughout the kingdom, each pursuing his own individual intereft, is much mo:e queitionable : and if the ovens and markets were not thus regularly fed, what would become of us ? A return to government of the quan. tities of corn grown and consumed, an ascertainment of twelve month's corn being within the kingdom, and a correspondent opening or thucting of the ports, are the remedies suggested in this tract; which seems to contain abundance of good meaning, with a scanty stock of found information.


Art. 36. Thoughts on the Dearness of Provisions, and the most certais

Method to reduce the present high Price of Wheat; addreffed to tbe principal Inhabitants of Great Britain. 8vo. 15 pp. 6d. Robiz. fons, &c.

These Thoughts, at the price of sixpence, are dearer, in our opinion, than provisions have ever been; and the “ certain method to reduce the present high price of wheat," is of less value than one handful of the most damaged wheat we have seen.

· Art. 37. Refutation of certain Misreprefentations relative to the Na

ture and Influence of Bank- Notes, and of the Stoppage of Ifues in Spee cie, at ibe Bank of England, upon the Prices of Provisions, as stated in she Pamphlets of Walter Boyd, Esq. and Mr. William Frend. By T. S. Surr. 8vo. 44 pp. 1s. 6d. Hurst. 1801.

The author's purpose is to show, that, from the very nature of the operations of the Bank, ic is impoffible that the Directors can have availed themfelves of the refriction, to have issued a single pound more than they could have done, had it never exifted. (P. 42) And his conclusion is, that the restriction of the Bank from payment in spe. cie, has not increased the circulating medium. (P. 43)This tract appears to have been written with the best intentions; but the author cha. racterizes it juftly, when he speaks of it as “ touching too lightly on the subject." P. 21.


ART. 38. The Queflion, as to the Admission of Carbolics to Parliament,

considered upon the Principles of existing Laws; with supplemental Obfervations on the Coronation Daih. To which is annexed, a further Supplement, occafioned by the Second Edition of Mr. Reeves's Confiderations on the fame Subject. By John Joseph Dillon, Esq. Barrister at Law. 8vo. 53 pp. 35. 6d. Booker. 1801.

The seasons which, on * a former occasion, we alledged for declining to enter into a full discussion of the Catholic Quieftion, sublitt in their full force, and must necessarily abridge our account of the tract before us. It is, however, but justice to say, that it is written not only with ability and information, but with candour and temper.

The claim of the Ca:hulics to be rendered eligible to seats in the legislature, is the point chiefly urged by this writer; and his principal argument is drawn from the circumstance, that Protestant Diflenters, though incapacitared (by the Test Act) from holding ofáces, or being members of corp rations, are not disqualified (as the Catholics are by another statute) from fitting in Parliament. Thence he infers, that “ by no principle of the British Conftitution, are those who exercise parliamentary functions obliged to profess the religion of the state;"

* See Brit. Crit. for May, 1801, p. 549.


and he infifts, that “ the principle on which Catholics were originally excluded from Parliament has ceased to exist, being destroyed by mo. dern Acts of Parliament, and that the Legislature itself has acknowa ledged the persons who take the Catholic Test to be good subjects of his Majesty, and has declared, that, as such, they ought to be relieved from disabilities imposed folely and peculiarly on their." We ftate not these argumenrs exactly in the faine order in which Mr. D. has arranged them, but as the course which his teasoning seems to us to take.

Without examining the validity of his inference from the case of the Dissenters (though we think ir too much to draw an omission, perhaps casual, perhaps owing to some peculiar circumstances, into a fixed conftitutional principle) it will, we apprehend, be obvious, that the cases of the Protestanı Diflinters, and of the Roinan Catholics, differ widely from each other, inalipuch as the former do not acknowledge the jurisdiction or authority of any foreign prince or potentate, either in temporal or spiritual concerns within this kingdom.

As to the argument that because the penalties, and some even of the disabilities, imposed on Roman Catholics, have been taken away, no diftinction whatever between them and the members of the established church should remain ; but chat they must be invested, in all its plenia tude, with political power, the discussion of it would lead us far beyond the limits within which we have hitherto judged it proper to confine ourselves on this great Question. Mr. Dillon's reasonings, we have admitted to be ingenious, as they are elaborate. They have not, however, convinced us that it can be expedient or safe to admit the professors of a religion, ever hostile to our own, into that assembly, on which the maintenance of the established conftitution, both in church and state, so essentially depends. On this point, some of the arguments of Dr. Duigenan, and others, appear to us unanswerable. Much of this treatise, as of most others on the same side of the Question, is ema ployed in replying to Mr. Reeves's tract on the Coronation Oath. We have (in the article referred to) already expressed our opinion upon that subject.

Art. 39. Observations on the Income Tax; with Regulations, fuggefta

ed for the Security of the Revenue, and preventing the Waste of public Money. Together with a proposed Plan for an Auxiliary io the Sinking Fund. By Joseph Burchell, One of the Joint Clerks to the Commision ers of Taxes for Holborn Division, Middlefex. 810. 24 pp. 15.

Jordan. 1801. · Although the public are, no doubt, obliged to every individual who, with honeit purposes, applies his mind to so important an object as the improvement and easier collection of the revenue, yet, of the numerous volunteers in finance, few have the fagacity to devise beneficial measures, or the clearness of mind to elucidate and digeft them.

The writer before us objects to what he calls “ an equal tax on an unequal income," ftating, that “ an equal charge, of a tenth only, on' an income of forty thousand pounds, and one of two hundred a year, mut tend to privation and deitruction of one class, while another en2 z

jove BRIT. CRIT. VOL. XVII, JUNE, 1801.

joys every luxury." As “ men of the pen," who are not likely to be in the highest classes of income, our feelings accord entirely with his opinion; and posibly the scale of taxation might be regulated in a manner more consistent with the ease of the classes moft affected by it, and equally productive to the state. Yet, as the very large incomes are comparatively few, much could not be done for the relief of perfons of this description, without a considerable defalcation in the se. venue. The temporary nature of this tax also renders it the less necessary to hazard doubtful experiments. These difficulties are, how. ever, trilling compared with that of applying the assessment to the 13ture of every man's income, and even (as this author seems to propof) to his rank, profeflion, and habits of life. The mode of taxing conmercial men according to the same rule as land owners, and an increasing no higher than a stationary income, may, in some degree, produce the consequences here described ; but, we conceive, an attempt to prevent them by such alterations as could alone be effectual (and which must be founded on doubtful speculations) would be a remedy far worse than the disease. • The next proposal is to simplify schedules of property, and to require a verification, on oath, in the first instance, appointing persons of character in every parish to adminifter it. These measures, the writer thinks, would (in many instances) render printed notices, and even Commissioners of Appeal, unnecessary, as every man would thas charge himself. We fear this great confidence would often be extremely abused, and an additional temptation to perjury would be held out, which many persons, now perhaps deterred by the dread of a subsequent examination, would find it difficult to resift. Other regulations, of less conka quence, are suggested ; one or two of which it might perhaps be ad. viseable to adopt. The proposed Auxiliary to the Sinking Fund (which confifts in charging interest for public money in private hands, and introducing the law of set off) seems unexcepcionable, but not likely to have, as this author supposes, a powerful effect.

ART. 40. Thoughts on Parliamentary Reform, and on Reforrt in Gene

ral : in which the Nature of the British Conftitution, the Government, its component Parts and Efablifoments, &c. &c. &c. are freely, but briefly confidered. By an Ex-Member of the prefent Parliament. Svo.

52 pp. 18. Jordan. 1801. - Of this Ex-Member it may be said, that he appears rather excentric, that his arguments are frequently extraneous, and his work, opon the whole, somewhat extravaganr. He proposes, in the first place, to so add to the splendor of the Monarchy," and yet “ reduce the expences of it:" two very defirable objects, we admit, but not perhaps Io easily attainable as this worthy gentleman concludes. He begins, by striking off the whole salaries from four great offices, giving the poffeffors in return four ribbands, with precedence above other Pers. From inferior officers in the houshold, and (as the author terms it)

mere stately departments," he would deduct only a part of their falaries, or rather a part of the overplus beyond a certain income. Whether the four great officers thus reformed (as the modern term is)


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