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feen," to quote once more the old neglected book, “ servants upon horses, and princes walking as servants upon earth.” I may live to see Order restored, or " confusion worse confounded." I have seen, and I rejoice in the reflection, the Father of his People, and the Patron of Arts and Sciences, restored to his health, and his subjects restored to their loyalty and duty, rallying round them in the important crisis. And may they have disinterested firmness to persevere through the longest conteft, and to the latest posterity.” Pref. p. 10.
Thus far have we considered the Preface orly, which contains many judicious remarks, and much useful information. It lays before the reader a clear and concise account of the general state of sepulchral science, its progress, its most remarkabie defects, and chief improvements.
. mprovements « The Introduction to this volume, so much larger than that to the former, embraces a large field—the modes and rites of sepulture in general from the earliest periods of history, more particularly among the Greeks and Romans, to the primitive Christians, deducing the several conformities. Somewhat of the old ground has been gone over again ; with additions and corrections. There is much new matier, and some light it is hoped has been thrown on our orthography and numerals, as connected with this subject. If hints capable of farther improvement have been suggested, the purpose will have been answered, and no apology may be thought necessary," P. 10.
Having traced Sepulture, with its peculiar rites and ceremo. nies, from the darkeit periods of history, including all the inferior honours paid to the deceased previous to interment, Mr. G. proceeds (p. xxiv.) to the simplest and rudeft existing monuments, when an art less hillock was all that marked the burial of a favourite chieftain. The first barrow he refers to is that of Alyattes, king of Lydia, “ father of Croesus, raised 2358 years ago in Lydia, and seen by Dr. Chandler in 1764, five miles from Sart, the antient Sardis.” He then notes their frequent occurrence in every quarter of the world (not omitting America, where barrows are the inseparable appendage to great setilements) and concludes p. xlv. with these remarks.
« I agree with Mr. Douglas, that barrows are not necessary proofs of a batile: for our ancestors may be presumed to have had cemeteries as well as ourselves. These collective' modes of burying the dead are not peculiar to Christians, but have been annexed to temples in every age by every nation, except the Jews, among whom it would have been an act of the highest pollution. On the fame principle, the Chinese bary in mountains distant froin towns, and the monuments of the ancient inhabitants of Perfia are found in such remote places.”
From Barrows he passes to Tumuli of Stones, and then to the burning of the dead, a praciice introduced among the “ Danes by Odin, not long before the Christian zra.” Hence his Ае
enquiries advance to sepulchral cairns, or chests of various confuction under barrows, and regular coffins of stone.
“ Dr. Pegge* deduced stone coffins, afier the introduction of Christianity, from the Saxons, continued to the reign of Henry III. and in fome instances to that of Henry VIII, as in the infance of bishop Smith at Lincoln, who died 1513."
After an accuraie enumeration of the different materials in wliich the dead were clothed for ihe grave, and other smaller articles of preparation, we are conducted (p. Ixxxix.) to instances where human íkeletons have been found deposited in clay, and to the various pofitions in which the body was préserved. Mr. G. then proceeds to grave-stones with croflts, and all the peculiarities of position or ornament which distinguished our early monuments.
P. cxxxvii. furnishes us with several curious anecdotes of the frequent use of cenotaphs.
« Simon Sudbury, Archbishop of Canterbury, had one at Canter-' bury ; but was really buried at St. Gregory's church at Sudbury, his native townt. The same is observable of Sir John Hawkwood at Sible Hedingham and Florencer. Peter, first Abbot of Si. Auguftine's, at Bologne and Canterbury. Richard Wendover, Bishop of Rochester, in Bromley church and at Westminster|l."-" Archbiihop Courtney, who has a monument in his cathedral, was really buried in his collegiate church of Maiditone I; where his remains, only a few bones, were seen lately.”
The account of this discovery was communicated to Mr.' Gough by his worthy, and inuch-lamented friend, the Rev. Samuel Denne, F. A. S. in a letter which is preserved p. cxxxvi. to whose acuteness of research it bears honourable. testimony.
In several succeeding pages, many interesting formularies of interment, and funeral proceflions, are detailed with great precilion. Whence (p. clxxii.) Mr. G. recurs to the use of cemeteries and other burial places. He next palles 10 SHRINES, or monuments of rich stone-work, wherein the reliqucs of some holy person were reposited. With Dr. Slukeley, he has “ accurately diftinguished two kinds of thrines, both equally made for receiving the reliques of sainis: but with this difference, that one fort was portable, and used in processions, and the other fixed, as being built of stone, marble, and other heavy
“ * Gent. Mag. xxix. 66.
+ Weever, pp. 225, 743. I Sep Mon, 1. 154. § Weever, p. 250. | Sep Mon. l. 44., I lb. 1. 155. Weever, 285."
materials.” P. clxxxii. On this subject a variety of curious particulars are chrown together, which are the fruits of much personal investigation.
From Sepuliure and its accompaniments, we are naturally led to view the Harits and extravagancies of dress, as pourtrayed on ancient monninenis: which, though subjects of satire and invective in almost every age, were To in none more justly than the 15th century. Here, as throughout the work, Mr. Gough has not only selected and explained the dress and fashions of the time, from MSS. and printed documents, but compared them with coeval existing monuments in other countries. To point out the utility of such comparisons were surely needless. They enable us to ascertain our comparative progress as a nation in the arts of elegance; at the saine time displaying the general advancement of those arts.
Another, and an important portion of these introductory pages, is devoted to the EPITAPH. In treating of this insepasable appendage to Sepulchral Monuments, Mr. Gcugh, in a few lines of general reference, traces it to the same period to which he carried the tombs themselves; and goes back for the first inscribed funeral monuments in Great Britain, to those bearing names of Romanizsd Britons in Cornwall or Wales. In copies of a correspondence between Mr. Lethieullier with Bishop Lyttelton, Mr. G.'recommends a collection of inscriptions, on a plan like that pursued by Gruter and others for Roman antiquities. (p. ccxxxiv.) From Epitaphs he derives to us many valuable informations on our knowledge of leiters, in the Suuron, Norman, and Lombardic characters. The latter of these became general on tomb-ftones in the 13th century ; though instances of a mixed nature occur folate as the sixieenth. · From Orthography he proceeds to NUMERALS; and throws considerable light on the early use of our vulgar figures.
« A MS. de Algorismo in verse, Brit. Muf. 8 C. iv. 16. ascribed to Grosseteste, expressly brings them from India, probably by Spain, from the Moors and Arabs:
“ Hec Algorismus ars presens dicitur, in qua
Talibus Indorum fruimur bis quinque figuris.” P.cclix. Fronting p. cclxi. is a plate of the Greck, Roman, Iodian. . and Arabian numerals, according to the variations time imposed upon them, from a MS. of Maurice Johnson, Ero. of Spalding.
« The first date in Arabic numerals that has occurred to me on a tomb is on a brass of Elen Cook, at Ware, ishl, 1454.
• The second is 1488, painted on the plaster of the partition of the Poulet chapel in Baling church, Hants."
The variety of instances not only adduced, but delivered to us in facsimile, are but so many proofs of the author's care and aclivity in his favourite walk of science.
Nor, when considering the Epitaph, is he inattentive to the efforts of Literature in its composition.
- The composition of epitaphs must be referred to the depositaries of every species of learning, the religious. The names of our early epitaph makers are as difficult to ascertain as ihose of our architects or painters. In the 15th century we are sure of John Whetamstead, abbor of St. Alban's, whofe verses, recorded by Weever*, do honour to his monastery, already distinguished by producing so many learned men. We trace his munificence and poetry in all the churches of its dependance; and in his period, for at least fifty years, from 1392 to 1464, we trace also the revival of classical literature among us. The maker of Peter Arderne's epitaph at Latton t had set his naine to his composition; but time has deprived us of it, notwithstanding all his efforts at immortality.” P. cclxix,
« The epitaphs made for our princes in the izth and 13th centu. ries, favour of the gratitude of monks in after ages; for in general the inscription on the ledge was merely composed of names, titles, and dates, in Latin or French. They were lachrymæ in obitum, shed now only by universities, or an occasional mourner in the newspapers or magazines. Such were also the duplicates on founders or prelates, of which Chichely, in Camdent, is one instance. The epitaphs of prelates and ecclesiastics speak the language of Scripture: Credo quod redemptor meus vivit, et in novijimo die Jurre&urus jum, et rursum circumdabor pelle mea, et in carne mea videbo deum falvatorem meum; on Bishop Gravesend, at Lincolný; on others Credo in deum, Credo videre deum, &c. and on Bishop Brownscomb, at Exeter, three texts from the New Teltament'l.
" In Fleetwood's Sylloge of Inscriptions, Part II. Monum. Chris tian. p. 520, in Lombardic letters, not given in fac fimile, is this. B. is put for V.
“ Credo quia redemptor meus bibit et in nobiliffimo
Deum meum, &c. “ The Creed in Latin was curiously inlaid round the tombstone of John Paycock, 1533, at Coggeshall :
" Credo in Deum patrem, &c. “ About the verge of the stone in brass a Pater Noster inlaid, Pater Nefter qui es in celis fanétificetur nomen tuum, and so to the end of
"* P. 574-577. „ + See p. 217. § I. p. 60.
II. p. 61,"
I Remains, p. 506,
the prayer. Upon the middest of the marble this, Ave Maria graria plena: Dominus tecum : Beneditla tu: in mulieribus et benedictus fit fru&us ventris tui Jefus. Amen. I have not seen such rich monuments for so mean persons," says Weever*." P. cclxxv.
« On the slab over Robert Tendring, at Great Baddow, was in-. laid this prayer :
so + Omnipotens et mifericors Deus in cujus poteftate humana conditio confiftit animam famuli tui Roberti queso ab omnibus absolve peccatis ut penilentie fructum quem voluntas ejus optabit preventus morte non perdat : per dominum noftrum Jefum Christum. Ament.”
« On a brass, in Sibbesdon church, Leicestershiref, a fine figure of a priest, in his furred gown, extending his hands, from the palins of which proceed these scrolls addressed to the Saviour seated on a rainbow :
Intret pothulacio mea in confpeu tuo d'ne
Fiat manus tua ut salvet me. - Under him : Orate pro aia Johis Boore sacerdotis facultatis artium magifri Et prebentarii de D[monderley redorisq' p'chialis ecclefie de Sybbyttone in comitatu leceftrie qui obiit xxxviij die menlis Bayii 4° d'ni milleflimo CCCCCXXXII. cujus a'ie proptcietur deus. Amen."
P. cclxxvi. “ A specimen of our language in the close of the 15th century, may be seen in an epitaph from Weevery, in St. Benet’s church, Gracechurch-ftreet, 1491. " At Aldenham in the County of Hertford :
Here lyeth John Pen, who in his lusty age
A thousand four hundred seventy and oonl. « Another sample of the English of the time may be seen in this epitaph, in the square passage to the Chapter-House at York, cut in fone :
Merciful Thelu, son of heuen, for thi holi name and thi bitter paflion do thi grete mercy to the soule of Annes Huet, the which deceüd the vii day of Sovember, in the yere of our Lord, MCCCCLXXI.I
“ * Weever, p. 618. . + Ibid. p. 641.
“ | Engraved for the fourth volume of Ms. Nicholsos History of ; that County, under Sibbesdon. Il county, under Sibbeidon.
O P. 416. “ | Weever, p. 592. Chauncy, p. 494. This is not now to be found. I Drake's York, p, 478.".