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Art. III. A Topographical Description of Cumberland, Weat.

marland, Lancashire, and a part of the Weft-Riding of Yorkfhire; comprehending, first, a General Introductory View; fecondly, A more detailed account of each County, its Extent, generul Appearance, Mountains, Caves, Rivers, Lakes, Canals, Soils, Roads, Minerals, Buildings, Market-Towns, Commerce, Manufactures, Agriculture, Antiquities, and the Manners and Cift.ms of its Inhabitants ; thirdly, a Tour through the most interesting Parts of the District, de cribing, in a concise and perfpicuous Munner, such Objeets us are best Worth the Allen. tion of the curious Traveller and Touriji. Illustrated with various Maps, Plans, Views, and other useful Appenduges. By John Houfman. 8vo. 550 pp. Fine Demy, 10s. Od. Superfine Medium, 125. Law. 1800.

IN our number for Sep'ember last, p.451, we noticed to our

readers Mr. Housman's Guide io the Lakes, &c. which we perused with much pleasure, and recommended to fulure tourists as the most satisfactory Guide we had seen. Our remarks on that part of the work were very few, because we regarded it as a part only of a more extensive publication, which is now brought to a conclufion, and appears in a more finished and compiere form, enriched with a great variety of pleasing and interesting subjects, which the author has arranged with considerable inethod, and discussed in a plain and perspicuous manner. Our curiofily has been highly gratified by the perusal of this volume, the contents of which we shall now detail more ar lengih, and represent impartially to our readers the merits of the performance, which, though not faultless, has strong claims to the notice of the public.

The volume opens with a brief outline, descriptive of the general appearance and various produce of the kingdom ; after which, the author proceeds to notice the most striking features of those counties which are more immediately the object of his atvention.

From the ample ritle-page, which we have copied out at length, the reader may for some idea of the contents of this part of the volume ; and we can juftly remark, that the candour and good sense of the author, entitle his observations to a confiderable share of attention and regard. The following short extract, descriptive of the general appearance of Weit. moreland, will furnish a specimen of this part of the work.

“ The general appearance of this country is marked with some of the strongeft features in nature ; immense tracts of mountains, beautiful but contracted valleys, extensive lakes, and large rocky districts,

containing

containing many high, steep, and bulging crags. Weftmoreland is not only encircled with mountains but the greatest part of its interior surface is swelled into hills. The long range of heavy looking hills beføre-mentioned bounds the eastern side of the county ; in front of which is a pretty extensive tract of tolerably level ground. The reft of the ccuntry , almost wholly hill and dsle. farw houics and small villages, beautifully covered with blue flate, and whitened with lime, are fcated about the feet of the hills, with their small irregular fields spreading up che sides of the mountains, and almost universally divided with stone walls. This last circumftance gives the country a naked appearance; but the numerous pieces of woodland interspersed, enliven the scene. Every dell or hollow has its liccle brook or rivulet, and even the findent of these is plentifully supplied with fish. Several low heachy commons are seen towards the eastern side of Weltmoreland; and the western fide is characterized with high ragged pruminences, and even some rocky plains, small coppices, and a large extent of low, fiar, peat-moss; while, on the north, the fine woods above Lowther add a striking feature to the landscape.”

Of the remaining part of the volume, which is the most con. siderable, containing the author's descriptive tours through the district, we Thall give a more minute analytis, with such brief exiracts as may enable our readers to form a judgment of his abilities as a writer.

The tour commences at Sheffield, the southern point of the district; and, afier describing the flourishing state of its manufacture, of its hardware, population, and buildings, the author proceeds northwards, with a detailed account of the manufaciories at Wakefield, Leeds, and Halifax; and a judicious report of the state of agriculture and produce of the country. :

From Sercle, which is briefly noticed. Mr. H. proceeds to visit the Caves, &c. in its vicinity. Among a great variety of natural curirfries in this pari of Yorkshire, Giggleswick Well, we think, deserves particular notice.

“ About two miles from Settle, and close by the road, is that remarkable ebbing and flowing, or rather recipocrating well, which is deservedly noticed by all travellers who pass that way. A stone trough, of about a yard square, is placed over the spring, with openings at different heights to admit the issuing of the water ar different times. Its reciprocations seem very irregular, and are said almost to cease in times of very great rains, or long-continued droughts.' Sometimes it will rise and fall ncar a tooc in this reservoir every ten or fifteen minotes. In October, 1797, abou: one o'clock, P. M. this fingular well rose and fell twice in ten minutes but very irregularly. Just after our arrival the water began to fisik, and in three minutes it fell five inches; it then continued stationary for about half a minute, and afterwards rose alınoit to the same height in less than one minute, boiling up violently in different places, and throwing out a quantity of sand. It af. terwards fell one inch and a half, and then only rose an inch. The

boiling, boiling, or emission of water from the ground, seems to Atop almost initantly, and to resume its operations, when it begins to flow again with equal al rupeness.

“ This fingular phänomenon is difficult to be accounted for ; nor has it ever yet been satisfactorily done. That conjecture, however, which supposes it to be occasioned by a natural Syphon in the bowels of the earth, though liable to some objections, seems the most plausible.” P. 206.

From the Caves we are next conducted to Kendal, and from thence, by way of Lowther-Hall, &c. to Penrith, with a brief defcriprion of the Lake Haws-water, and other objecs worthy of notice in the intervening country. The town of Penrith, and fome curiofiries in its vicinity, are minutely noticed. Mr. H. proceeds next to visi, the romantic scenery of Ullfwater and Paiterdale, of which we are presented with an elegantly ei.graved view, and some accurate description. We could müke some plealing extracts from this part of the volume; bur the confined liinits of our Review urge us to pursue the tour, by ihe nearest road, io Keswick; “ the distant prospect of which must naturally excire ihe curiosity of every traveller, and render them impatient 10 lake a nearer view of those romanlic scenes around the marchless Lake of Derwent water." Mr. Hulman feems to have examined minuttly, and points our with great accuracy, the different Nations for viewing the Like; and the most eligible mode of visiting the vasious objects of curiofily in this pleasing and romantic diftris.

The view trom Cattle. Crag, in Borrowdale, we will present to our reai'ers.

• Callie.Crig, a somewhat detached mountain of rock, the sides of which are adorned with various sorts of trees and shrubs hanging from the fissure's, lands nearly opposite, on the right, in the very Pass of Birrowdalr. The view from its top will amply repay the labour of climbing therto, which may be done up the narrow pachs cut in the side of the hill for carrying down the fate, quarried on its top. From hence the Lake and Vale of Kerwick are spread out before us in the moft picture'que manner; the village of Grange ftands romantically below us, at the foor of the rock, beyond which every bend of the river, as it ferpentine's through a range of marshy meadows to the lake, may be difinally traced; the fides of the lake seem diftended, and its length contractert; while linie i ands, like so many gems, decurate its bolom in a beautiful manner. The Atrip of low ground, along she line of fhore on each Gde, is nearly loft in the vaftness of its circumscribing neighbouts; chofe furly guardians (which) with all their beautiful accompaniments of projecting rocks, and hanging woods coloured in va. rious iints, drop down almoft perpendicularly to the lake, and form a barrier infinitely more Itrong and grand, than the famous wall of China. Ar the lower eng vi che lake, che cultivated vale, interspersed

with

with villages, seats, farm-houses, cottages, and the church of Crofthwaite almost in the centre, forms an interesting part of the picture; beyond which, Skiddaw, with a mild countenance, rises majestically to the skies, smiling over his more savage neighbours, and forming an excellent back.ground to the whole.

" Turning to the other hand, the scene becomes sublimely terrible, the rocky mountains Itrangely interfect each other, and are huddled together in the most extraordinary arrangement, as if just emerging from, or returning to the wildest chaos : rock riots over rock, and mountain triumphs over mountain. Among the numerous crags of immense height and magnitude, many of which are nameless to all, except a few shepherds, is fagle-Crag, so called from the bird of Jove having his annual neft thereon. These nests are generally plundered by the neighbouring thepherds; who, taking advantage of the absence of the parent birds, let down one of their companions from the summit of this dreadful rock to the neft, about twenty fathoms, by means of a rope. The carnage made among the lambs by these birds of prey, during the breeding feason, is conliderable, namely, about a lamb a day: consequently we cannot wonder that the shepherds venture so far to effect the destruction of the young eagles." P.271.

From Keswick, which is a central situation, and much frequenied by strangers, on their tour to the lakes, and other curiosities in this neighbourhood, Mr. H. makes a variety of excursions, and points out every object worth the attention of the curious visitor. Into this part of the volume he has introduced copious extracts, from the works of several popular writers, and quoted such passages as appear the most interefting and illustrative; which (though he may by this method appear tedious to some) is a circuinstance that must give his work considerable advantage over that of any individual writer upon the same subject.

"From Keswick, we are next directed, along a good road, through new scenes of mountains, rocks, and lakes, towards Ambleside ; which, being briefly noticed, we are conducted towards Lancaster. The market towns, principal villages and seat houses, in this part of the country, are particularly de, scribed, with a full account of Furness Abbey, extracted chiefly from Mrs. Radcliff's interesting description of that magnificent monastery.

Mr. Housman concludes his first tour, with some remarks on the town and castle of Lancaster ; whence, before he proceeds to visit the southern parts of this county, he returns to make a circuit through those parts of Westmoreland and Cumberland, which have not been particularly noticed in the preceding tour. He arrives at Appleby, by way of Orton, Kirkby-Stephen, and Brough; and thence proceeds to furvey

Ss
BRIT, CRIT. VOL, XVII, JUNI, 1801.

Ekby-Stephen He have not paris his counce befomarks

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the eastern and northern parts of Cumberland, till he reaches Maryport, whence he continues his roule along the coast, with particular description of the sca-ports, and their rapid increase of shipping, commerce, popularion, and buildings. From the southern point of Cumberland, he enters Lancashire at Dud. dun-Bridge, and proceeds towards Lancaster, through the diftri&t already noticed.

The concluding portion of the volume contains an account of the southern part of Lancashire, commencing at Preston, · with a general description of the manufacturing towns, and

seat houses in the county. Liverpool, Warrington, and the rise and progress of their trade, population, &c. &c. are parti. cularly noticed. This topographical sketch concludes with a short description, and some hiltorical account of the populous and Aourishing town of Manchester, and its vicinity, abridged principally from Dr. Aikin's accurate and copious hiftory.

The perusal of this elegant volume has afforded us much satisfaction, and we recommend it as a valuable piece of topography; as (from a personal knowledge which the writer of this has of many parts of the district described) we have reason to believe that his remarks are as accurate as they are minute. In addition to a neat type, which we have seldom seen equalled from any provincial press, the volume contains six elegantly engraved views of the lakes, besides a general map of the district, ground-plans of Manchester, Liverpool, Lancaster, and Kendal, and an Index, pointing out the distances of places along the roads, with references to the pages where noticed.

ART. IV. Sketches of the State of Manners and Opinions in

the French Republie, towards the Clofe of the Eighteenth Century. In a Series of Letters. By Helen Maria Williams.

Two Volumes. 8vo. 125. Robinsons. 1800. FEW of our readers are probably ignorant, that Paris has I been for some years the resort of desperate exiles, from almost all the countries of Europe, that have hitherto escaped the yoke of France. It is almost as generally known, that the common occupation of these mifcreants is by libel and conspiracy to promote the views of France against their respective countries. The majority of them indeed had no other means of fubfiitence but the wages which they have received from the fucceflive iyiants of France, and which they were compelled tu earn by ihe practice of such wickedness. Others there are

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