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pretensions for “ preluining to offer an opinion on a very in teresting subject arising out of the Union."
The substance of rice Observations would have been sub. mitred to Parliament, if she length of soine speeches on this subject, the impauience for the question, and the able and . comprehensive speech of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, in answer to Mr. Wilberforce, had not interposed, p. 4.
Having mentioned, in respectful terms, the manufa&urers, their patron Mr. Wilberforce, and their counsel, Lord S. ad. verts to the petitions presented to the House of Commons, and to evidence given before the Committee ; much of which apa pears to him questionable, both in point of-facts, and of reasonings upon them, p. 5.
“ The petitioners and their advocates assert, if the exportation of Brirish wool should be allowed, Ireland will rival England in the manufacture of her own wool, whilst Ireland on her pari claims the conTinuance of protecting duties for her own woollen manufactures against the British. They also affert, that the growth of wool in Great Britain is not fufficient to supply the manufactures; and that, in case British wool should be permitted to be exported, great quantities would be conveyed to foreign countries, under pretence of carrying
it to Ireland. Although the ableft of our writers have argued in fa. · vour of a free trade in wool, I am glad that it is not necessary to enter
upon that delicate subject, relative to which we do not always allow ourfelves to reason freely. To me, I confefs, the question seems to amount to no more than this. Whether or no, until a complete arrangement of Excise and Customs can take place between Great Britain and Ireland, the wool of this country shall for a time he exportable to Ireland, the utmost possible inconvenience of which would be to raise a little during such limited time, the price of the coarser wools?'' But in truth, I conceive the material question is, whether wool fhall go from England to Ireland, when the two countries are incor. porated ? For, I have heard our liberal manufacturers acknowledge, that in case of an Union there ought to be a free intercourse, but that there should be no protecting duties against the woollen manufacture of England, while the linen manufacture of Ireland enters duty free. I Thall not attempt to defend these protecting duties, that are to take place, until the arrangement can be completed ;– far less shall I at... tempt to justify the commercial policy of Ireland in requiring them. In the firit place, they will act as a iax on the people of Ireland ; and the experience of a century has proved, that, under the operation of such duties, the inport of English woollens into Ireland has not been checked, the average of nine years, ending 1798 inclusive, being 425,6761. in value: but, above all, it appears to me, that the intro. duction of this fyftem, which establishes the same protecting duties in woollens imported from Ireland, will counteract one of her main objects, namely, the introduction of English manufacturers and capitals; for, were I a manufacturer, I certainly should not fertle in Ireland during the existence of a system that would exclude me from the
N a a
ir asket of Great Britain, which, in every other instance, Ireland has found the belt, and through which almost the whole of her commerce is carried on. I should wish, even if it were only for the sake of appearance, that there should not seem to be any want of reciprocity beiween the two countries. Perhaps it was not worth while to furnish fuel that would i:flame apprehensions in Ireland ; but, if fairly considered, it is only a remporary expedient, a temporary gratification to the Irish, which is to exist for a period much too short to produce any material disadvantage to the woollen manufacture of England, lo firmly and so well established that all countries apprehend the ruin of their own manufacture, if English woollens, charged as they are with duties, be admitted into them." Pp. 6, &c.
The author next examines, “ What are the expectations of benefil entertained in Ireland, if wool should be exportable from hence to that country :” and he gives the evidence of Mr. Pim on this subject, printed by order of the Irish House of Commons, “ with extracts from two speeches of Mr. Foster, Speaker of the Irish House of Commons, and of Mr. Beresford.” P. 10..
« Mr. Foller, and also Mr. Pim, appear to under-rate the advantage of importing wool from England. I agree with Mr. Beresford, that Ireland may derive considerable advantage from the circumstance, and without prejudice to Great Britain, as she may exteud those ma. nufactures for which she has a demand, and in which the excels ; but it can only be when the price of wool is low in England : and I af. fert, that whenever the demand shall raise the price in this country to any thing like its true value, Ireland cannot afford to pay it ; that rise would immediately check the demand from Ireland, and she will never be able to import British wool at near fo low a price as the British manufacturer may always have that article. The permission to import wool from hence may prevent its becoming a drug in this country, and may also prevent its deterioration. It tends to encourage a good quality of wool, because it will promote a steady, reasonable price : but no more of it can go to Ireland than what our manufacturers do not want. The export will be regulated by the price; and furely our manufacturers, protected by machinery, which goes far in equalizing the price of labour, and many other advantages, cannot dread a manufacture in Ireland, made of British wool, charged with the expence of carriage, freight, insurance, commission, &c. Few countries become industrious until the expence of living has rendered constant labour necessary. The increase of manufactures will increase that expence and the price of labour in Ireland; where skill is required, wages are higher in Ireland than in England." P. 17.
Lord S. then makes a statement, taken from observations which he publithed in 1785, showing, “ what the Irish woollen manufacture has been and is likely to be." P. 20. The result is, that the Irish manufacture very little intertered with
the British, “even when it flourished most, and occasioned alarm in this country." P. 37.
« In short, it seems evidently the interest of Ireland not to divert her attention from her staple manufacture, by ruinous endeavours contrary almost to nature, and to imperious circumstances, to aim at rais. ing her woollen manufactures to a rivalry with those of England.”
These are the leading topics of this judicious tract; which speaks of the Union in dispaflionate terms.
“ The good sense of the country fees that the measure of Union is necessary, in which light I have always considered it; and I shall be happy indeed when the arrangements shall be completed, by removing all diftinctions between the two countries, and every idea of separate and jarring interests. This will not be the case until all customs, duties, drawbacks, and bounties shall cease, and the two islands shall be. on the same focring as two counties in England. The great object to be obtained is a free intercourse; that liberal principle is the basis of the Union between the two countries; yet it requires time, though of no great length, for a measure of such importance, and is impracticable perhaps during a war.” P.64.
“ I have on a former occasion given my opinion on the principle and the necessity of this great measure of Union: the longer I reflect, the more I am convinced of the commercial and other advantages which will be derived from it. As an Irishman, I am highly gratified by the liberality of giving the turn of the scale, in almost every instance, to the weaker country, which was more necessary than perhaps appears to thole who have not attentively considered the state of the manufactures in that kingdom: as an Englishman, I am fatisfied with that part of the arrangement relative to which I contess I was most anxious, and which appeared to me the most difficult ; namely, the mode of settling the representation in Ireland., My difficulties on that head are removed, by the strict attention that has been paid to every circumstance that could preserve the independence of Parlia. ment. Sixty-four of the hundred members are to be sent from counties, and the remainder from the University, the cities, and principal. towns; and the Peers are to be elected for life.
" Some clouds, which in the early stages of this measure threatened its success, have disappeared. It now drau's towards a conclusion with so happy a prospect, that I feel relieved from great anxiety. When the arrangements fhall be completed, I shall enjoy more satisfaction from it than I have ever done on any other public occafion; and while some triumph in our splendid victories, and in those of our allies, I shall consider this great event with abundantly more satistaction than I could any conqueft, however brilliant, achieved even against our most inveterate fue." P. 69.
. We trust that both nations, now one kingdom, will have ample and lalling cause for contemplating this event with the same patriotic satisfaction.
ART. XII. Domesday; or an aétual Survey of South-Britain,
by the Commissioners of William the Conqueror, completed in tbe Vear 1056, on the Evidence of the Jurors of Hundreds, janca ligned by the Authority of the County Jurors; faithfully tranh lated, with an Introduction, Notes, and luftrations. By Samuel Hensball, Clerk, M.A. Fellow of Brazen-Nole College, Oxford, and thu Wilkinson, M.D. F.R.S. and S. A. This Number comprehends the Curties of Kent, Sullex, and Surrey. Number One, and Ten fimilar Numbers unl contain beth Volumes of the Original. 40. 268 pp. 123. Nicol, Payne, &c. 1799. THOUGH we cannot entirely agree with the learned editors
of this specimen in their estimate of the neceflity of the work, thinking the original much more intelligible than they allow, with such aids as are already publishe*; yet we regret that it should stand fill for want of adequare encouragement. In an Address, subjoined to the Introduction, it is indeed re. commended to the patronage of Parliament; but it is well known that nothing can be obrained from such a body, without regular steps of recommendation, and a plan proposed by some person of weight and influence sufficient to engage the a' tention of the House. A great step was gained when the Parliament ordered an exact copy of the original to be printed, which has now been for some years in the hands of the public, The further process of rendering is perfectly easy to njodern readers, is in some respects desirable, but by no means of equal importance. The Maps would form a very valuable part of the publication proposed by these editors.
But surely the following statement, in their Inuroduction, iş somewhat joo strong. " It is universally allowed, that no nation in Europe possesses documents of equal authenticity, antiquity, and accuracy.” So much perhaps will be granted.
" But, ftrange as it may appear, we assert, without fear of contradi@lion, that there never exifted Books or Manuscripts Yo little underAtcod. that there never was found a Record so inaccurately illustrated, or a system to regulate judicial decisions, on which the common law of a great and polished kingdom depends, that has been so little invefj.
An assertion so strong demands some particular confirmation. Besides the general illustration above-mentioned, by
* Particularly Mr, Kelham's “ Domesday Book illustrated,” 8vo. 1788,
Mr. Kelham, a very competent and able examiner, almost every compiler of a county history, of late years, has inferred so much of Domesday as related io his subject. We cannot readily believe, that all these attempts can be fo very furile as the senience above-cited evidently implies. To illustrate the mode in which this collective work is proposed to be performed, we will insert a part of the beginning of Domesday, with the corresponding portion of this trandation ; removing the. contractions of the MS.
“ DOVERE tempore regis Edwardi re:ldebat 18 libras, de quibus denariis habebat Rex Edwardus duas partes, er comes Godwinus ter." ciam. Contra hoc habebant Canonici de fancto Martino medietatem aliam, Burgenfes dederunt viginti naves regi una vice in anno ad xv dies, et in unaquaque navi erant homines viginti et unus. Hoc faciebant pro eo quod eis perdonaverat faccam et focam. Quando missatici regis veniebant ibi, dabant pro caballo transducendo tres de. narios in hieme er duos in estate. Burgenses verò inveniebant liremannum, et unum alium adjutorem, et fi plus opus effet, de pecunia ejus conducebant. A festivitate Sancti Michaelis, ufque ad feftum Sancti Andreæ, treuva regis erat in villa. Si quis eam infregiffet, inde propositus regis accipiebat communem emendationem. Qui. cunque manens in villa affiduus reddebat regi consuetudinem, qui. etus erat de theloneo per totam Angliam. Omnes hæ consuetudines erant ibi, quando Wilhelmus rex in Angliam venit. In ipso primo Adveniu ejus in Angliam fuit ipfa villa combusta, et idcirco pretium ejus non potuit computari, quantum valebat quando Episcopus Baiocenfis eam recepit. Modo appreciantur 40 libræ et tarnen propofitus inde reddit 54 libras. Regi quidem 24, libras de denariis qui funt viginti in orâ, comiti uno 30 libras ad numerum,”
" Dover, in the time of King Edward, rendered eighteen pounds, of which sum, Edward had two portions, and Earl Godwin a third, Besides this, the Canons of St. Martin had another moiety. The Bur. gesses provided twenty fhips for the Monarch once each year for fifteen days, and in each ship were twenty one men. They rendered this service because the King had liberated chem from Sac and Soc. When the Messengers of the Monarch came to this port, they paid chreepence in winter, and two-pence in summer, for the transportation of a horse; but the Burgeffes found a pilot, and another affiftant; and if more were required, they were furnished at the Royal expence.
“ From the Festival of St. Michael to St. Andrew, the Royal Peace. was established in the village. Whoever violated this, the Superintendant of the Monarch received the common forfeiture,
« Every resident inhabitant, that rendered the Royal Customs, was quit of Toll throughout the Realm of England, All these customs existed, when King William came to this country. At his first arrival this village was destroyed by fire ; and therefore its value could not be eftimared, or its worth ascertained, when the Bishop of Baieux received it. At the present period ic is valued at forty pounds, yet the Mayor pays fitty-four pounds. To the monarch ewenty-four pounds, of twenty-pence, in the Ore; co the Easl thirty pounds in tale." P.1.