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practice censured, “ which was almost general in the country, of felling wheat or flour at reduced prices, thereby counteracting the na. tural and salutary effect of market prices, and greatly promoting the consumption of that article, the scarcity of which is so alarming." P. 86. " An Act of Parliament is recommended (p. 87) and has since been made, for relieving the poor, in part, by subftirutes for bread. Governor Pownall's plan for putting millers, as well as bakers, under material regulations, is properly commended. The compassionate ata tention, in various ways, of families residing in the country, towards their poor neighbours, is moit highly and juftly extolled. If there be not an error of the press at p. 96, the case is one unheard of by us, of occupiers of land paying 255. in the pound, at rack-rents, cowards the maintenance of the poor. At p. 99, we were disappointed, by find. ing that the third Part, “ On the Means of future Plenty," is for a short time postponed, with the view of dispatching the publication of the first and recend Parts. To this third Part we shall be glad to pay attention, having found in the present tract many practicable and very useful suggestions.

Art. 39. Industry, and a pious Submission, Charity, and a friet com

nomy, recommended and enforced, as the best Means of alleviaring the - present Diltres. A Sermon, preached in the Parish Church of St. Anne, Weftminfter, on Sunday, the 14th Day of December, 1800, being the Day on which his Majesty's Proclamation, on the Scarcity of Grain, was directed to be read. By Jof. Jefferson, A. M. and F.A.S. 8vo. 34 pp. 15. Lea. 1800.

The author's dedication of this Sermon to Mr. Archdeacon Eaton, Rector of St. Anne's, is very creditable to both of them. From John vi, 5, the preacher begins by impressing upon the minds of his hearers an attention to those evident cruths, the creative power, and providential care of God; and a conviction, “ that when God deranges the usual order of his bounty, and bestows, with a sparing, what is generally given with a profuse hand, it may be amongst his designs, the severest of which, we know, are tempered with wisdom, to draw our attention to these truths, so as to enforce religion and piety: to teach us by his judgments, what we have refused to learn by his inercies.” P. 8. He then states, in substance, the miracle of the five barley loaves, and the two small fishes; and deduces from it a summary of those duties which the circumstances of the times call us to perform; namely, “ a submissive acquiescence on the part of the lower ranks, a diffufive charity on the part of the higher, å rigid æconomy in all." P. 12. These several topics are discussed with much good sense, and with a considerable portion of energy and eloquence. The admoni. tion to fervants, at p. 26, is calculated to be generally useful; for we fear, that, if economy in the use of flour and bread has not been so universal as might be wilhed, much of the blame may be impused to the perverseness of persons of this description. The proceedings (stated in the Appendix) of the inhabitants of St. Anne's parish, in sestry, in consequence of the Royal Proclamarion, appear to have been very prudent and judicious.

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ART. 40. Causes of the Scarcity investigated. Also, an Account of the

most striking Variations in the Weather, from October, 1798, to Sepe tember, 1800. To which is prefixed, the Price of Wheat, every lear, from 1600, to the present Æra. By Samuel Hopkinson, B. D. Inie Fellow of Clare-Hall, Rettor of Elion in Northamptonshire, and l'icar of Morton. 8vo. 52 pp. Newcomb, Stamford; Jacob, Peter. borough; Debrett, London, 1800.

The Preface to this tract is not quite unexceptionable : “ How the leisure hours of divines, in convivial cities and rural towns, are coma inonly taken up, it is not neceffary to inform the public." We know that many of those hours are taken up in ways at least as useful and respectable, as in forming descriptions of “variations in the weather ; of the seasons of fowing wheat, barley, beans, and oats ; of the getting in of harvelts; or even of the size of the hail-stones which fell on the fourth of May, 1800.'' If a divine should think, that invidious refleétions upon any among his order will help to amend it, he may, in these times, very safely, and not indecorously, leave the business to those who do not belong to that order.

We agree with the author, “that one, amongst other existing causes of the scarcity, so much complained of, is the extraordinary ungeni. ality of the seasons." P. 2. Indeed, we account this to be the grand cause. The description, at p. 36, of the effects of the present war upon our supply of provisions, is at least greatly overcharged, if not wholly erroneous : and very unjust, we ihink, at present, is the re- mark, that our various distreffes “ are rendered ftill more intollerable, by the dissolute conduct of many in the higher Grades of Life, and by the Festivity of the middle orders." P. 37. That some useful ob. servations may be found in this tract, we readily allow ; but they are greatly counterbalanced by the rasness of its animadversions, and (in a literary view) by the affectation and turgidity of its style.

MISCELLANIES.

Art. 41. A Hebrew Grammar, for the Use of the Students of the

University of Dublin. By the Rev. Gerald Fitzgerald, D.D. Hebrew Proflur in *faid University. 8vo. 194 pp. Dublin printed, at the University Press, by R. E. Mercier and Co.

This Hebrew Grammar is upon the Masoretical plan, and is a mea dium between the more voluminous and complicated work of Buxtorf and the shorter inftitutional works that have been made out of it, in later times. Nothing can be done, in this walk of Grammar, but to day the subjeet before the student, with simplicity and perfpicuity. Dr. Fitzgerald is entitled to this praise; and we have no scruple in faying, that this appears to be as good an introduction to the knowledge of Hebrew Gramınar as can be desired.

* So printed, without the article.

We

We may just remark, that in The Scale of equal Parts, Jewing the Serviles and Radicals at one View, which is placed opposite to the title page, is a very ingenious contrivance for exhibiting, in a small dia. gram, the form and claflification of the Hebrew leiders. It is to be regretted, that the nun is placed among the radicals, inftead of the serviles, which seems its proper place.

We rather think, that the dagely, in the gimel, in p. 20, is not eu. phonic, but is meant to compensate the he, and therefore comes under The second, and not the third rule. In p. 61, it might have been bet, ter not to say, that pronouns compensate the defect of the verb fuba ftantive; but that it is an idiom peculiar to the Hebrew, to make the sentence elliptical, by leaving out the verb substantive, as the author has more correctly itated it in p. 155. In p. 69, he omits to mention the dagelb forte, as a characteristic of the conjugation Hithpael, though he has properly noticed it in p. 101. In pp. 38, 39, in speaking of the rule for forming the plural of nouns feminine, he should rather have said, when the he and the tau are radicals, they are not omitted in forming the plural.

We mention these as matters of small importance, and to show that. when we commend the whole of the work, it is not without having examined its parts.

ART. 42. Eight Meteorological Journals of the Years 1793 to 1800. · Kept in London, by William Bent. To which are added, Observations

on the Diseases in ihe City, and its Vicinity. Also an Introduction ; including Tables from Eight preceding Journals of the greatest, leaf, and mean Height of the Barometer and Thermometer, in every Monib of ihe Years 1785 10 1792. 8vo. 155. neatly bound. Bent, Paternoster, Row. 1801.

We have regularly noticed these Journals from their commencement, and have seen occasion to praise both the plan and the execution. The collective tables now published, to complete the volume, give 29,88 as the mean state of the barometer for the whole period, and 50,8 for that of the thermometer, without doors. The greatest height of the barometer is 30,68, and the least 28,57. The greatest height of the ihermometer 87, and the least 11,5. So useful a work will doubtless be continued.

ART. 43. Practical Philosophy of social Life ; or, the Art of converfing

avith Men: after the German of Baron Knigge. In Two Volumes. By P.Will, Minister of the Reformed German Congregation in the Savoy. Crown 8vo. 108. Cadell and Davies. 1799.

Our previous knowledge of some part of Baron Knigge’s Life, gave us licile inclinarion to study his “ Practical Philosophy." His errors and eccentricities are very curiously painted by himself in his Introduction ; he seems to us exactly the Old Man and his Ass in the table, trying to please all, and therefore offending all. The part he took in the pernicious society of illuminati, is mentioned only in general terms,

A a
ERIT. CRIT. VOL. XVII, MARCH, 1801.

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by himself or his editor. Behold then the picture of she philosopher drawn by him.felt:

“ I was very young ahen I first stepped upon the theatre of the world, and the Court. My temper was lively, restless, and easy to be aff Erd, and my blood warm : the feeds of many violent paffions lay corcealed within me; I had been somewhat spoiled in my first educa. tion, and had too great a'tention paid my little person, which induced me lo demand too much consideration from those around me.- My liveline's caused me to commit many inconfiftent actions; I was precipitate in every thing, always doing either too much or too little, ever being too late or too soon; becaule, invariably, I was about to commit a folly or to retrieve one. I generally missed my aim from onitting to act upon a simple plan. When first I appeared at Court, I was to careless, ico open, and unsuspicious, which did me a great deal of injury. I refolved however to become a complete courtier; my conduet grew artificial, and I lost the confidence of good men; I was too pliant, and this deprived me of external regard, internal dignity, and self-confiftency. Being dissatisfied with myself, I grew reserved and fingular. This created astonishment; my fociety was courted, and my fociability resived again. I renewed my former connections, discard. ed my fingularities, and the charm which my seclufion from the world had created, and which had attracted the attention of others, disappeared at once. At another period I lashed the follies of the times with some degree of wit; I was now dreaded, not beloved ; this grieved me; and being desirous to repair this loss, I proved myself a harmless being, displayed kind and benevolent sentiments, and thowed that I was incapable of hurring and persecuting others. But what was the consequence ? Every one of those I had offended by my former con, duct, or who imagined themselves the object of my sarcasms, abused me on seeing me defend myself only with blunted weapons, which could do no harm. At other times, when my fatirical humour was encouraged by the applause of jovial companions, I lashed great and little foods without mercy; the wits laughed; but those that were wiser Thook their heads, and created me with coldness. Being desirous of thowing that my humour was not tinctured with malice, I ceased ridi. culing others, and palliated every folly. This however made me apa pear to some a fimpleton, while others suspected me of hypocrisy." P. xxv, &c.

A more complete picture of a weak and frivolous mind than the author here draws, and goes on to finish as his own, we never faw, The precepis of the author are, in our opinion, proportionably friyolous; nor can we think that the English public will feel any gratitude to the translator for providing such an instructor for them. We cannot account for the tale of the German public in taking off several editions ; but we can answer for it, that the experiment will not fur. ceed in England. We have little notion that a frivolous man cau blunder himself into superior wildom, What will the reader think of these specimens?

« Old uncles and aunts, particularly such as are married, are very apt to scold, to vent their gouty and hyfteric humours, at their nephews and nieces," Vol, i, fi 180.

" When

• When you have long journies to make on foot, a glafs of water on setting out in the morning, and a dish of coffee, and some bread and butter after two hours walk, will prove very wholesome and rea freshing." Vol. ii, p. 105.

« Ič is not adviseable to rest under a tree within a small distance of the high road ; for at such places beggars are used to rest and leave vermin,” Ibid.

Here are discoveries!

ART. 44. The Life, Adventures, and Opinions, of Col. George Hanger. Written by Himself. To which is added, Advice to the Prelates and Legislators, how to correct the Immorality and Jacobinism of the prefent Age, and at the fame Time increase the Revenue.--Advice to the lovely Cyprians, and io the Fair-Sex in General, how to pass their Lives in

future to their better Satisfaction, and to enjoy with Discretion the Thrret · Cardinal Virtues.On Matrimony, Compulsive Wedlock, and on Poly

gamy.-On the Mifery of Female Prostirution.-The Hiftory of the lovely A gyptia, the Pamela of Norwood, and Paragon of the Egyptiar Race; the Author's Marriage with her, and her cruel Infidelity and Elopement with a Travelling Tinker. --- And a Hiftory of the King's Bench Prison, written by the Author during his Custody under the Marfoal of that Prison, descriptive of the Miseries endured by the Prisoners, and the extravagant Expence incident to their Confinement. Two Volumes. 8vo. 148. Debrett. 1801.

Very foolish, and often very profligate. But she general example, compared with a few of the sentiments of the author, inay serve to show, that even some good qualities, without common prudence, will not save the circumstances from ruin, or the character from degradation.

Art. 45. 1. Account of a Plan for the better supplying the City of

Edinburgh with Coal, together with an Examination of the Merits of the Two principal Lines, pointed out for the intended Canal between Edinburgh and Glasgow. . By Henry Sienart, Esq. LL. D. F. R. and A. S. E. 8vo. 142 pr. Bell and Bradsute, Edinburgh; Robin

sons, London. 1800. ART. 46. 2. Observations on the Account of a Plan for the better fupe

plying the Cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow with Coal. By an old

Coal-Maftcr. Hill, Edinburgh. 8vo. 63 pp. 1800. Art. 47. 3. Supplement to an Account of a Plan, for the better supply

ing she City of Edinburgh with Coal; comprising an Examination of an anonymous Pamphlet, lately published, under the Signature of an old Coal-Mafter. By Henry Srcuart, LL. D. F. R. S. and F. A.S.E. Svo. 204 pp. Hill, Edinburgh; Longman and Rees, London.

It has long been proposed to cut, between Edinburgh and Glasgow, a canal of such a depth, as to let goods be transported, by water, id light vefsels, from the one city to the other. The expence of such a canal must be very great; but it appears not to have alarmed our

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