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the Apostles themselves. For example; admonition is given to hiin to lay hands suddenly on no man. He was invested therefore with the absolute power of ordination; a power exclusively belonging to epifcopacy. He had also, as in the text, a power to receive an accujalion against an Elder (or Presbyter*, before witnesses; he had therefore a jurisdiction over such Presbyter, or Prieit. And he had instructions given him in this same Epittle respecting the sobriety of life and conversation to be required in Deacons. Here therefore is at once a portrait of the Church, with the several gradations of rank in her respective officers ; Timothy the Bishop, Priests, and Deacons, in subordi. nation to him.” P. 5.

The last leaf of this discourse announces Mr. Blackstone as the author of a tract, very juftly commended by us in its anonymous form, namely, “ Serious Confiderations on the Signature of Testimonialst."

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Art. 29. The Importance of Religious Establishments, on Esay. By

the Rev. Alexander Ranken, One of the Ministers of Glasgow. 8vo. 136 pp. 25. 6d. Glasgow printed, by David Niven. 1799. .

Though we are not able to inform our readers how to procure this tract, otherwise than by employing a bookseller to send to Glasgow for it, we cannor feel ourselves juftified in passing it unaojiced. It contains a sensible and temperate defence of religious eliablishments in general ; upon principles drawn from the common nature of man, the experience of the world, and the necessity of religion. It includes an historical view of the practice of different countries in this respect, and an account of what is now the case in various countries, particu. larly America. As the circumstances of the latter country are fometimes supposed to prove establishments and professions of faith not necessary, Mr. R. observes, very judiciously, that “ it remains to observe the want of a full and universal establishment, on the morals and good order of the people. The experiment is not yet of sufficient duration to demonstrate the absolute neceffity of it; but the probable issue of it is becoming every year more apparent. Mr. Morse, the able and judicious author above-mentioned, observes repeatedly the in. creasing evils, in most of the States, arising from the want of an established Religion. Every intelligent observer, on returning froin America, re. marks the same thing. Their testimony is corroborated by letters."

He then quotes an account in proof, which he says may be depended on. « In consequence of the want of a religious establishment in America, Infidelity increases, and the very femblance of Religion decays rapidly. The congregations are the fewest, where the population is greatest, and are not likely to increase. Many Presbyterian Ministers have been dismissed by their congregations, without any

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* Kalo Tigro UTEPB.

+ See Brit. Crit. vol. xvi, p. 205. I There are booksellers in London, particularly connected with Scotland, who would perhaps execute such a commillion more readily than others. For example: Kay, opposite Somerset House; Arch, in Gracechurch-street, &c,

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complaint either against their life or doctrine." P. 39. This is an alarming fact, and is followed by others of a fimilar kind.

Though this tract was drawn up principally with a view to the Scot. tish church, there is much in it of general ose to all elablishments; and particularly some excellent remarks in favour of creeds and confessions of faith. We consider the whole Eflay as highly beneficial to the real interests of society.

Art. 30. Sermons of the late Rev. John Touch, A. M, Minister of

Abertour and Morilach, Banffshire. Revised by the Rev. P. Touch, late a Chaplain in his Majesty's Navy, and Author of several Theologia cal and Political Tracts. In Three d'olumes. Vol. i. Dedicated, by Permission, to his Grace the Duke of Northumberland; and including, in the Preface, Memoirs of the Author. 8vo. 251 pp. Scoit, 28, Brydges-street, 1800,

When the posthumous publication of discourses is intended to alleviate the distress of a family, a confiderate critic will be particularly on his guard left, by a precipitate or harsh judgment, he should defeat a purpose so important. The author of these discourses ap. pears, by the short Memoirs prefixed, to have been a pious and exemplary minister. He had no delign himself of publishing wliat he had prepared for his flock; they are, however, of a useful kind, and full of sincere piety. The second, third, and fourth Sermons, are on the subject of public devotion, which is defended against all objections, and recommended with great earneftness. The fifth and fixth are on a subject well calculated for general benefiim-the exalta. tion of "he human character hy means of righteousness. In a word, the impression naturally produced by this volunie is, that the wris ter of it well merited the character given of bin by his for; and that his discourses well deserved to see the light, without reference to the motive of expedience which immediately occasioned the publication,

Being rather largely printed, and not compressed in the writing to the modern extent, these Sermons are only eight in number. The edicor promises two more volumes; but the prolecurion of that desiga will of course depend, in part, upon the success of the first experi. ment.

Art. 31. A Funeral Sermon, delivered at the Interment of an exem:plary Parish Prift. By Laurence Halloran, D. D. To which is ad

ded, an Elegy on the Death of the Right Honorable Lord Andover, re(pectfully inscribed to W. Coke, Esq. M. P. 410. 42 pp. 25. White, Wisbech; Rivingtons, London.

The picture of a very exemplary clergyman, whose name is fuppressed, is delineated in the Preface in this Sermon, and in the dif. course itself. We give all due credit to the feelings which occasioned the composition : but the author has not the power of mind to attain originality on a subject so exhausted; nor has he taste enough to avoid such paragraphs as chis: “ Could I deign to prostitute my ministry to he meanness of adulation, it could not joothe the dull cold ear of death,

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ang and surviving virtue would condemn the incense! But I disdain to decorate vice or folly with posthumous applause, as much as I feel it a pleasing, though melancholy duty to pronounce, from this facred place, the eulogium of departed virtue, &c." P. 9. This half verse, half profe style, is little suited to a di.course on such an occasion. The verfes fubjoined, both Latin and Englith, are very indiffere.it.

Art. 32. On the Obfirvance of the Sabha!h, a Sermon. ' By the Rewa

L. H. Halloran, D. D. To which is added, a Form of Morning and Erening Service for the life of Schuls. 40. 38 pp. 15. 6d. The saine Publishers. 18co.

A very common, and in some parts rather injudicious, recommendation of the Obfervance of the Sabbath. Meritorious as the design of hoth these Sermons evidently is, the author's friends might have been less eager than they were to have them pullicly characterized.

ART. 33. A Servon, preached in the Parish Church of Langton juxta

Pariney, in the County of Lincoln, on Sunday, June 8, 1800, being the First Day appointed for a public Thanksgiving to Almighty God, for the providential Protection of the King from the late atrocious tiempo against his facred Person. By the Rev. Robert Uvedale, M. A. of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Corresponding Member of the Literary and Philosophical Society at Manchester. 410. 12 pp. 18. Deighton, Cambridge ; Hurft, &c. London. 1800.

A very found and sensible discourse on the nature of the duty owed to God, and the honour required to be paid to the supreme magistrate, and the influence of religion on the welfare of nations. By an Advertisement at the back of the title, we learn that the author has many works prepared for publication, on the Hebrew and other Oriental Languages, which have been inspected and approved by Professor Carlyle.

ART. 34. An Ejay on the Conduct and Character of St. Peter, confi

dered as giving Evidence to the Truth of the Christian Religion. Pube lifbed in Pursuance of the Will of the late Mr. Norris, as having gained the Annual Prize instituted by him in the University of Cambridge, By the Rev. Thomas Grimwood Taylor, M. A. Fellow of Trinity Col. lege. 8vo. 40 pp. 15. Deighton, Cambridge; Rivingtons, London. 1799.

We heartily concur with this author in the observation with which his Essay commences, that “were we to reft the evidence of the Christian religion upon the lives and deaths of the first Apostles, all con. firming the particulars of that reftimony which is delivered in their writings, there would be more than enough to satisfy the scruples, and establish the belief of every rational enquirer.”

The purpose of the Essay is to consider the conduct and character · with this view, something in the manner in which those of St. Paul were considered by an eminent writer. This talk has been sensibly performed by Mr. Taylor, and in a manner creditable to the institution under which he obianed his academical reward.

Art.

Art. 35. Scripture the only Guide to Religious Truth. A Narrative of

the Proceedings of the Society of Baptists in York, in relinquishing the popular Systems of Religion, from the Study of the Scriptures. To which is added, i Brief Account of their prefent Views of the Truth and Practice of the Gospel, in a Series of Letters to a Friend. By D. Eaton. Svo. 134 pp. 25. Lund, York; Johnson, London, 1800.

From the account given by these apparently well-meaning persons of themsel: es, it appears that, from having opened their eyes to per. ceive the errors of Methodifin, in which they had been involved, they have undertaken to make a religion for themselves, which they conceive to be authorized by the Scriptures. From the partial and imperfect views which they have been able to take, they have constructed a fyrtein of Socinianifin and Materialism, which they attempt to defend from the books of Revelation. Heartily do we wish them truer views of things, and a religion founded on divine authority. When we reviewed Mr. Graham's excellent defence of the Church of England *, we had not seen this Narrative, which, in fact, occasioned that defence. Whatever poisonis here ingiauated, by a real or pretended deference to Scripture, will find its best antidote in the perufal of Mr. Graham's tract.

ART. 36. A short and easy Method with the Deifts, wherein the Cer

tainty of the Christian Religion is demonstrated by infallible Proof fronte Four Rules, which are incompatible to any Iin poliure that ever get has been, or that posibly can be. In a Letter to a friend. Extracted from the Works of Mr. Charles Leflie. To which is prefixed, A Prefatory Address to the Deistical Leader. By Joseph Nighliugale. 8vo. 56 PP. 19. Macclesfield printed, and soid. 1800.

This admirable tract of Charles Leslie is so well known to all who have studied the evidences of Religion, that there can be no occafion for any recommendation of it. We are glad to see it republished in every possible form; and we commend the zeal of the present editor for endeavouring to add to its celebrity. His own appendix contains fome useful tables of prophecies, as given and fulfilled.

POLITICS.

Art. 37. A Letter to the Right llon. William Pitt, on the influence of

she stoppage of Illues in Specie at the Bank of England, on the Prices of Provisions, and other Commodities. The Second Edition ; with auto ditional Notes, and a Preface; containing Remarks on she Publicatim of Sir Francis Baring, Bari, By Walter Boyd, Esq. M. P. Svo. 55. Wrighi. 1801.

If we do not allow that Mr. Boyd's doctrine of the effect of the fufpenfion of issues in specie, at the Bank of England, is just in itself,

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* See Brit. Cris, February, 1805, p. 182,

We

we thall by no means deny that he has enforced his opinion by much plausible reafining. That he is fincere, we feel sufficiently persuaded.

Throughout his publication, he discovers the most entire conviction of the truth of his own theory. Mr. Boyd's principal antagonift is Sir Francis Baring, a gentleman of great experience, ample fortune, and considerable reputation in the commercial world. It is to this gentleman's observations, that the additions in this second edition are directed; and, however different opinions may be on the general argurnent, candour mult allow, that Mr. Boyd has discovered great acuteness, and a degree of temper and coolness, not frequently to be met witli in controversies of any kind.

SCARCITY.

Art. 38. Remarks on the Deficiency of Grain, occafioned by the bad · Harvest of 1799 ; on the Means of prefent Relief, and of future

Plinty. With an Appendix, containing Accounts of all Corn imported and exported, with the Prices from 1697 10 the roih of October, 1 800 ; and also feveral other Tables. By Juhn Lord Sheffield. 8vo. 120 pp. 35. Debrett. 1800.

The noble author proposes to state, without reserve, the nature, progress, and extent of our present distress; and thus to enable us to judge how far we have the remedy in our power, and especially the prevention of a recurrence of the same emergency. In Part I. it is fhown, that, our present difficulties being dependent on, and blended with those arising from the bad harvest in 1799, the whole of that period is properly included in the following observations: the cry againtt mozopoly and iniquitous practices, is reprobated; and the whole crop o! 1794 (meaning, we presume, wheat only) is asserted to have been less than two thirds of the usual consumption. We mceti with an useful note at p. 22, showing it to be probable, that an army and navy, of 300,000 men, do not consume more British corn than they did as individuals, particularly as peasants. Farmers are vindicated from the charge of combining to hoard their grain. The late conduct of millers, near London, is not commended; but they are vindicated from the charge of monopoly. Part II. sets forth the means of relief from the present scarcity. A maximum price of provision is strongly reprobated, and is shown to have failed in three instances, in 1315, in 1689, and under the atrocious tyranny of Robespierre. The scheme of raising farmers' rents, in proportion to the increased price of wheat, is said to be extravagant and impracticable ; public magazines, an ad. vance of the price of labour, and parochial largefles are oilcommended. « There seems, then, to be no reasonable expectation of relief, except through management, including the use of substitutes, and importa. tion." P. 66. Some of us can atteft strongly the juftice of the fol. lowing remark: “ The assize is set on a bad principle; and, if we retain any assize, it fhould be changed : besides, it is at present more favorable to the bakers to make bread of the finefl, than of the whole of the flour; it Thould be the reverse." P. 85: Very justly is the

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