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ime apside is slow, m is first assumed equal to 1, and then by Correction, its true value is found to be very nearly =0,99164, and therefore ! --- m = 0,00836 the motion of the apogee, the mean motion of the moon being unity; and by observation it is found = 0,008455. Now' in finding the value of m, some very small quantities were onnitted; the operation there. fore ought to be a very near approximation, and accordingly we find it to be fo; hence we may conclude, that the theory of gravity is suflicient to account for the motion of the moon's apogee.
Chap. XXVIII. is upon the Tides. Tides are caused by the attraction of the sun and moon on the waters upon the surface of the earth; the computations of the effects are therefore made upon the principle of the law of gravitation. Kepler was the first who assigned the true physical 'cause of ihis phænomenon ; buc Newton was the first who gave the principies of the calculation. The present author first proves, that if the earıh were a perfect sphere, and without any rotation, the figure which it would put on from the attraction of the fun or moon, would be that of a spheroid : and, from the attraction of the sun, he computes that the difference of the radij will i be 2,033 feet, and from the moon's attraction, that it will be 5,412 teet. He next proceeds to explain the method given by D. Bernoulli, who has taken for granted that the earth will put on the form of a spheroid. If the difference of the radi arising from the sun's attraction be m, and that of the moon be n, and the sun and moon be in a meridian passing through the pole of a spheroid ; and b be the radius of the earth, s the cosine of the distance of the sun from any place on the above
mentioned meridian, r the coline of the moon's distance, then ., the altitude of the tide at that place will be 3 :
The 3.52 — b2 3 r” – b2
xn. From hence a method is given to find the ratio of m to n, which appears to be that I : 2į. The method given by Sir I. Newion is subject to greai uncertainty. A rule is next given to find the effect arising from the declination of the moon; and in like manner for the fuo : and hence the general effect of the tides on different parts of the earth, and in different situations of the moon, is discovered. If S = the cosine of the moon's declination, C = its Gue, s = the fine of the distance of the place from the pole,c=the coline, y=the cofine of the angle between the meridians palling through the place and the moon ; then from the effect of the moon, S sy.+.C.CX m = the height of the water above the lowest
point. Hence this author deduces ten of the most remarkable cases. He shows why Small collections of waters are not subject to much tide ; and gives two tabies for finding the times and heights of the high tides. The reader will here find great satisfa&ion upon this subject.
Chap. XXXIX, is upon the Principles of Projection, and the Construction of geographical Mops. The author here explains the principles of orthographic, fiereographic, and Mercator's projection; and then applies them to the construation of the respective maps. He points out the imperfeâion of thefe maps, in giving the true representations of countries ; and ex. plains the particular utiliiy of the latier construction, in navi. gation.
Chap. XL. is on the Use of Interpolations in Astronomy. The author has here investigated the rule for interpolations, and very clearly explained the principle; and then applied it to a variety of examples. He has also shown, that the rule given by Dr. Halley, for finding the time of the solstice, cannot be depended upon.
Chap. XLI. is upon the History of Astronomy. Here the author has traced out the rise and progress of astronomy, giving an account of all the discoveries which have been made in this branch of science, and to whom we are indebted for them. It is divided into the following heads : on the Astronomy of the Egyptians and Chaldeans; on the Astronomy of the Chinese and Indians; on the Astronomy of the Greeks to the Time of Piolemy; on the Astronomy of the Arabs, Perfians, and Tartars; on the Progress of Aftronomy, from its Resto, ration in Europe.
The author having thus completed his valuable work, proceeds in his conclusion to take notice of those extraordinary marks of design in the construction of the universe, which prove so clearly ihat it could not have owed its formation to chance, but to the contrivance of Infinite Wisdom. The proofs here adduced in support of a Deity, are of so strong and satisfactory a nature, that, to a mind open to conviction vpon rational grounds, their force is little inferior to demonftration. We cannot, by abridging this part, do justice to the author; but we earnestly recommend it to the serious allension of the reader, as we think it cannot fail to convince him, that the system of the universe is thë work of an infinitely powerful, wil-, and good Be ng. We will, however, present the reader with the conclusion, .“ If we carry our views up to the firmament of the fixed stars, tho power of the Deity will be still mote astonishing. Let a man contem
plate plate the starry heavens, and consider those glorious bodies only in respect to number,magnitude, and distance, and it can scarcely fail to convince him of the existence of an Omnipotent Being. By the late improve. ment of telescopes, the starry system appears to be without bounds; and the greater part of these bodies not being visible to the naked eye, we may conclude that they were not made for our use, nor for the use of any part of our system. 'I hey are undoubtedly bodies similar to our fun, appearing so small from their immense distances; for opaque bodies at that distance could not be seen by refiected light. From the uniformity of Nature, in all those parts which we have been able to examine and investigate, we may conclude, that bodies. fimilar to our fun were created for the same cause, that of giving light and heat to the inhabitants of syftems of planets surrounding them. We may therefore conceive the whole universe to be filled with created beings, enjoying the bounty of their Creator, and admiring his works. This benevolence of the Deity, in giving life to an almost infinite number of beings, must raise our admiration, till we are lost in contemplating his goodness. That every individual should exift under his protection, and be regularly supplied by his bountiful hand with every thing which is necessary for enjoyment, ought to make us very humble before him. And that every being in the universe should be under his çare, and training up here for the further enjoyment of him hereafter, is a thought which, if duly impressed, would penetrate us with the deepest sense of gratitude to our Creator, and excite us to love and obedience. The disappearance of fome fars may be the destruction of that system at the time appointed by the Deity for the probation of its inhabitants ; and the appearance of new stars may be the formauion of new systems, for new races of beings, then called into exiftence to adore the works of their Creator. Thus we may conceive the Deity to have been employed from all eternity, and thus continues to be employed for endless ages ; forming new systems of beings to adors him; and transplanting those beings already formed into happier regions, where they may have better opportunities of admiring his works; and still rising in their enjoyments, go on to contemplate system after fyftem through the boundless universe."
To render this work more valuable, the author has added 51 Tables for facilitating astronomical calculations; with precepts and examples to each. He has also given Dr. Bradley's Caia. logue of 389 fixed stars; M. de la Caille's Catalogue of 515 zodiacal stars, and his Catalogue of 307 principal stars ; Zach's Catalogue of 381 principal stars, and his Caralogue of the de. clination of 162 principal stars; and Mayer's Catalogue of 992 principal stars. These Tables and Catalogues are an inyaluable treasure to the practical atronomer.
Thus we have finished our account of this truly valuable work; a work embracing every object in astronomy, and executed with an ability which does the highest credit to its author. We therefore recommend it to all lovers of allronomy, as a work in which they will find theory and practice so unired, as to form a system calculated to make a complete astronomer.
Art. V. An Hr Arical Account of ih je Purijhes in the County
of Middiefix, which are not described in the Evirons of Lone din. By ite Rev. Daniel Lins, M. A. F.R.S. and F.S.A. 410. 11. IIs. 6.1. Cadvil and Davies. 1805.
THE four volumes of Mr. Lyfons, containing an Account
1 of the Envirors of London, were severally noticed in our first volume, p. 173 ; our 6th vol. p. 463; and in our roth vol. p. 50. The author was induced to the publication of this additional volume from the consideration, that as the de. fcription of in large a part of the County of Middlesex was ·comprised in his former work, and as no history of that
county is extant in any perfect form, an account of the remaining parishes mußt of course be acceptable. It was an additional incitement to his undertaking, that there existed no perfect account of the antiquities of the Honour and Palace of Hampton Court, which form one of the most prominent features, to use the writer's own words, of this additional volume. We did indeed object to the former portion of this elaborate performance, that it must be tedious to many readers to toil through many a long page of names, and catalogues of gravestones, which, though useful for the purpose “ of tracing defcents and making genealogies”, can certainly be deemed of no great importance to the cause of literature, and can at best communicate but a parlial and solitary gratification. We adhere nevertheless to those praises which we before have communicaled with no, scanty hand, and confirm our allertion, that the diligence, the perseverance, and the arrangement, which this work exhibits, prove Mr. Lyrons to be peculiarly qualified for the province which he has at once illustrated and adorned.
A description will be found, in this volume, of twenty-two parishes; and it is also elegantly ornamented by seventeen plates.
The plan observed is the same as in the former work, to which this is a necessary appendix. Each parish by itself is defcribed ; the boundaries defined ; and historical, biographical, and local anecdotes interspersed.
As the account of Hampton Court forms the most material part of the publication ; and as this place, according to Mr. Lyfuns, has been hitherto very imperfectly described, we shall here select our specimen of the method which he has thought proper to observe. This is more peculiarly entitled to attention, because a great part of it is taken from a manuscript, of which but little has been printed.
“ After Cardinal Wolsey became possessed of the lease of the manor of Hampion, “ he bestowed (says Slow) great cost of building upon
it, converting the mansion-house into fo ftately a palace, that it is said to have excited much envy; to avoid which, in the year 1526, he
gave it to the King, who, in recompence thereof, licenced him to lic · in his manor of Richmond at bis plafure; and so he lay there at certain times." It appears that Cardinal Wolley after this occasionally inhabited Hampton Court (as keeper perhaps of the King's palace); for in 1527, when some French Ambassadors were in England, the King willing that they should be treated with the great it respect, fent them to be entertained by Cardinal Wolsey at Hampton Court. The following account of the entertainment will give the reader an idea of the magnificence of that prelate's establithment: “ Then was there made great preparation of all things for this great assembly at Hampton Court; the Cardinall called before him his principal officers, 25 fieward, treasurer, controller, and clerk 'of his kitchen, to whom he declared his mind touching the entertainment of the Freuchmen at Hampton Court, commanding thein neither to fpare for any com, expence, or travayle, to make such a triumphant banquet as they might pot only wonder at it here, but also make a glorious report of it in their country, to the great honour of the King and his realm; to ac compliih his commandinert they sent cit caters, purveiors, and divers other persons, my Lord's friends, to make preparation; also they sent for all the experi cookes and connyng persons in the art of cookeric which were within London or elsewhere, that might be gotten to beautify this noble feait; the purveiors provided, and my Lord's friends fent in such provisions as one would wonder to have seen. The cookes wrought both day and night with furtleties and many crafty devices, where lacked neither gold, silver, nor other coilly thing meet for their purpose: the yeomen and groomes of the wardrobe were busied in hanging of the chambers, and furnishing the same with beds of flk and other furniture in every degree: then my Lord Cardinall sent me (Mr. Cavendith) being his gentleman ulher, with two other of my fellows thither, ro foresee all thing touching our rooms to be nobly garnyshed : accordingly our pains were not small nor light, but daily travelling up and down from chamber to chainbersthen wrought the carpenters, joinera, masons, and all other artificers necessary to be had to glorily this noble feast. There was carriage and recarriage of plate, Ituff, and o:her rich implements, so that there was nothing lacking that could be imagined or devised for the purpose. There was also provided two hundred and eighty beds furnished with all manner of furniture to them belonging, too long particularly to be rehearsed, but all wise men do sufficiently know what belongeth to the furniture thereof, and that is Tufficient at this time to be said."
" The day was come to the Frenchmen alligned, and they ready assembled before the hour of their appointment, wherefore the officers caufed them to ride to Hanworth, a place and parke of the Kinges, within three miles, there to hunt and spend the day untill night, at which time they returned againe to Hampton Court, and every of them was conveyed to their leverall chambers, having in them great fires, and wine to their comfort and relief, remaining there untill their supper was ready. The chambers where they supped and banquetted were ordered in this fort: first the great wayting chamber was hanged