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ART. 43. Thoughts on the present Prices of Provisions, their Coules,
and Remedies; aadrejed io ci! Ranks of People. By un ind pendent Gentleman. 8vo. 87 Pp. Reynoius, Oxford-Screet, 1800.
The principal cause here afligned, is not any actual Scarcity, but the avarice and extortion of furmers; and the grand for cific proposed is a maximum, to be fixed by justices of the peace. This is the most injudicious and unsatisiactory tract, which we have so far met with, on the Scarcity, ART. 44. Aber! Enquiry in!o the Nature of Monopoly and Forestalling,
Und Eartim, with confiderable Additions. By Edward Morris, F/7. Barrister al Law. Svo. 54 pp. 15. Cadell and Davies. 1600.
We commended this tract very strongly, on its first appearance, at p. 62, of the oth volume of oor Review; and we wish again to fix the public aliention upon it, as containing a very concise, argumentative, and temperate discussion of those subjects, which our present visitation of Scarcity has rendered so highly interesting.
Art. 45. An Investigation of the Cause of the present High Price of
Provisions. By the Auhor of the Eljay on the Principle of Population. . Second Edition. 8vo. 28 pp. 18. Johnson. . 1800.
The author of this pamphlet suspects, that the principal cause of the high price of provisions, in proportion to the actual degree of fcarcity, has hitherto escaped detection: (p. 1.) and that this is no other, than “ the attempt, in molt parts of ihe kingdom, to increasc the parish allowances in proportion to the price of corn, combined with the riches of the country, which have enabled it to proceed as far as it has done in this attempt." P.4. At pp. 5, 6, 7, this opinion is supported by a supposition, rather ingenious than satisfactory. As far as our information enables us to speak, we question the fact of this grneral increase, in the proportion here fiated. A crop of wheat in 1800, deficient by one third, succeeding a crop ftill more deficient, at least in qualily, with the very increased use of fine bread, will account for high prices much inore forcibly. We agree, that “in an article (v. 14) which is in fo many hands as corn is, in this country, monopoly, to any pernicious exteni, may safely be pronounced im. poflible." Yet, in particular districis, of which the produce is scanty, and the access to il difficoli, we apprehend that this monopoly may exist long enough, to enrich a few, and to starve the rest of the inhabitants. Differing in opinion, as we do in many points, from this writer, yet we readily acknowledge, that his tract is one of thole) which deserve much attencion at the present junclure.
ART. 46. The Case of the Farmers, at the present important Crisis, fated by a Hertfordshire l'armer. 8vo. 20 pp. 61. Law. 1800.
Among the pernicious tendencies of many of the Agriculturai Sur veys dulcly published, one has repeatedly been noticed by us; naineky,
a tendency to exasperate the minds of farmers again:t their landlords, for refusing to grant lung leases. Here is a farmer, or rather (we suspect) a fate-riformir, who has read the Surveys attentively, and has been duly improved by them. Moft curious is the exordium of this tract: “ The afflicted and opprefled African has found advocates: but the oppressed and insulted farmers of this island are left to their fate : oppreffion will make a man mad; and that the farm-rs of England are oppressed, must be admitted ;-_a set of men whose hants are bound, and whose feet are in fetters, manacled Naves,--doomed to a state of humiliating abjeétness to the will of another, that degrades the dignity of the human mind.” The Surveys are appealed to, in proof of this; and not without reason; for such are, in many cases, the incimations contained in them. But in what consists all this oppreffion? Why, in the refusal of land-owners to grant long leares, upon liberal terms; and in degrading, unnecessary, and illiberal restrictions." In cases where leases are granted, they generally run for five, seven, or nine years endurance only : nineteen years, or twenty-one, may be confidered as the maxinum." And pray, honest farmer, for how much longer time, would you in lift upon a landlord's resigoing to you his eftate ; which you would probably re-leaf, by soine device or other, before half of the term should expire? When the London feditioussocieties, in the summer of 1798, had their emissaries at work throughout the villages of the kingdom, one tract of this fort for the use of farmers, another of the same stamp for their labourers, and a third for the poor in general, (all which might have been extracted from the County Surveys) would have operated Itron ly towards a general transa fer of landed, and all o her property, from the old to new malters,
Art. 47. An Address to the good Senke and Gandour of the People, in · Behalf of the Dealers in Corn: with some few Obfervations on a laia
Trial for Regrating; by Sir Thomas Turton, Bart. The Second Edi
tion, with a Poftfcript. 8vo. 189 pp. 38. 61. Egerton, &c. i8oo. · A very eloquent harangue in defence of farmers, corn-dealers, monopolizers, atque id genus omne. There is such a profusion of words in this oration, that we cannot easily pick out the maiter from among them. But the purport of the whole is to show, that combinations of farmers to board their corn, or of dealers to monopolize it, are utterly impracticable; that the general profits of the latter are overe rated ; and that they who keep back corn from the market, during the early months after harveit, are, in fact, whatever may be their intention, real benefactors to the public : fince, by producing a remporary scarcity, and consequently high prices, they compel the people to economy in the use of corn; and thus prevent, during the latter months, an actual famine. Though we are not prepared to assent to all which is here urged in favour of thele gentry, yet we acknowļedge that they have found, in this worthy Baronet, a very acute, entertaining, and able advocate.
· Art. 48. An Account of the Irides, or Corcue, which appear around,
and contiguous to the Bodies of the Sun, Moon, and other luminous Obe jects. 8vo. · 46 pp. 15. 6d. Cadell and Davies. 1799.
Four principal sorts of Irides, or Coronæ, such as are frequently formed in the clouds and vapours of the atmosphere, round the bodies of the sun, moon, &c. are mentioned in this short essay; namely; 1. Those which consist of many coloured circles contiguous to the bodies of the sun and moon; 2. The Iris of 450 in diameter, which has the sun or moon in its centre; 3. and 4. The two rainbows, whose diameters are about 84o and 100°, and which appear opposite to the ly oinous budy that produces them.
Barefoot to the explanation of those phænomena, this author (of whose rame we knuw only the initials. viz. G. W. J. which are signed at the end of the tract) observes that the principles, upon which the first depends, have been discovered only within these few years; and for those principles he refers the reader to a work entitled New Objervations concerning the liflections of Light, which, we have some reason to believe, was writen by himself; and of which due notice has been taken in a former number of the British Critic.
The couc, he thinks, has not been satisfactorily explained; but he allows that some succetsful approaches have been made towards an explana:ion of the other ļwo; namely, of the primary and secondary rainbows.
This description of these appearances is followed by a statement of their various breadris, which were measured by means of a sextant, “ The general result of many observations and measurements was, that most frequently the breadth of the first order was rather more than forty-five minutes, or once and a half the breadth of the moon's dife; the second not so broad; the third less broad than the second ; and the fourth less broad than any."
Several pages of this tract are employed in refuting Sir I. Newton's attempt to explain the phænomena in question, after which, “ the only true principles of explanation" he fay's “ are to be found among those new obfervations conceroing the inflections of light before referred to." These he proceeds further to stare in pp. 30, 33.
In the fequel, the above mentioned explanation is illustrated by referring to a diagram in a plate subjoined to the tract. To this are added feveral particulars, and collateral observations, respecting the fame phænomena,
ART. 49. The Cambrian Register, for the Year 1796. Vol. II. . 8vo. 575 pp. gs. E. and T. Williams, 11, Strand. 1799.
This work has something of the form, and something of the tardiness of an Annual Register, yet why it should be annual, it is not
easy easy to say, fince nineteen twentieths of its contents refer to years long past. Its divifions are, 1. History of the very Ancient Britons. 2. Biography of various times. 3. Antiquities. 4. Ancient laws of Wales. 5. Starittical accounts written iu 1792, &c. 6. Topography. 7. Naval Affairs. 8. Review of Two Books. 0. Letters chiety of the ryth Century, and early in the 18ch. 1o. Poetry. 11. Sessions. Of all these articles, the lait only, which occupies 6 pages out of 575, is particularly applicable to the year of which the book is ftyled a Regifter. Consequently we have much over.done the mat. ter in saying, that one twentieth part is what it ought to be, to correspond with its title. The collections in themselves are not destitute of local intereit.
Art. 50. The Annual Hampshire Repository, or an Historical, Economic
cal, and Literary Miscellany; a Provincial Work, of entirely original Materials, comprising all Matters relative to the County, including the Ille of Wight, Sr. under the following Heads: County History, Chronicle, Regifiry, Naziy, Army, Church, Law, Civil and Municipal Af: fairs, Public Works, Commerce, Schools, State of the Poor, Economy, Charities, Agrienituré, Naturnl History', Philosophy, and Curiofities, Antiquities and Topography, Arts and Sciences, Letters, Bingraphy, Projets, Miscellanies, Notices to Correspondents, &c. &c. Vol. 1. 20 be continued Annually. The whole Work under the Direction of a Cone ductor, with the Allijtance of regular Contributions, and occasional Communicarors. 8vo. About 465 pp. Robbins, Winchester; White, London, &c. 1799.
This compilation is not liable to ihę cenfure passed upon the preceding. The chief part of its contents are temporary, as well as 10cal: and the inhabitants of the county would probably feel much in. tereft in it. Much diligence and ingenuity appears to bave been exerted in forming the work : and it contains a good deal of poetry, though none is promised in the long enumeration of the title-page.
Art. 51. Representation of the Millers in the vicinity of London, against
a Bill now pending in Parliament, intitled, “ A Bill to incorporate certain Persons by the Name of the London Company for the Manufacture of Flour, Meal, and Bread. With an Appendix. Folio. 36 pp. 25. Richardsons, &c. 1800.
The Bill, here remonftrated against, having passed into a law (and we hope it will prove a falutary one) it is fufficient to say of this tract, that it is drawn up with acuteness and pinzufibility. We must note. however, a remarkable contradiction betwixt the several declarations of these millers at different periods. In the year 1734, when a chiarter was refused to the albion 21. ll Company; who perfitted in their undertaking, “ without the aid of a charter," these worthy gentlemen “selolved unanimously, that the carrying on the said scheme and urin, dertaking tended to a monopoly of a very alarming nature; and that the uniting of so many persons concerned in interelt together, would, by means of the capital proposed to be einployed by them, and the
extensive powers of their works, be enabled to buy up, and manpfaciure weekly, such a large proportion of all the British wheat brough to the port of Londo, a forquently to govern the price thereof." P.35. Eur, in the present year, their tone is lowered, and they say, “the millers have no right, nor will they ever presume, to obstruct the speculations of persons wiio may think proper to enter into any, or all. the branches of the flour-trade." P. i.
Art. 52. Picture of Palermo ; by Dr. Hager. Translated from the German, hy Mrs, Mary Robinson. 12 mo. 35. 6d. Philips. 1800.
This we understand to hare been the last publication of the ingeni. ous, but unfortunate, translator. Dr. Hager has confiderable reputation as a man of ingenuity and learning; and this little sketch of Pa. lermo is agreeable and ir.teresting. The Advert sement states, that it has been read with much evitry in the native larguage. It may be fo; but there seems to us nothing in the work itself, or the translation, to juftify avidiry. There is a neat frontispiece, exhibiting a sketch of Sicily. ART. 53. A Seleftion of the Lives of Plutarch abridged, containingihe
molt illustrious Charnciers of Antiquity; for the use of Schools. By William Mor:or, LL. D. Vicar of Hurley, &c. &c. izmo. 45. 6d. Philips. 1800.
We have often commended the labours of this unwearied author, in behalf of the rising generacion. This work is no less entitled to praise, nor at all less calculared to obtain and facilitate the end propoie 1, than the numerous publications of Dr. Mavor, which have been noticed on various occasions by the British Critic. ART. 54. The modern Traveller; Vol. I. containing the compressed Traa
vels of Mungo Park. Vol. 11. those of Ledyard, Lucas, and Sonnini, in Africa. Vol. III. thoje off Browne, Savary, and Volney. And, Vol. IV. containing those of Vaillant in Africa. 12mo. W'right: 125. 1800.
These are modestly called compressed Travels, but nothing of ma. terial importance appears to have been omitted. We much approve of this publication, which will prove an acceptable companion 10 the Tra. vels published by Dr. Mavor, which we have before commended. A very good map of Africa is pre fixed, upon which the routes of the different travellers are delineated. This publication has also the merit of being well and perfpicucully prin:ed. .. Art. 55. Marengo, or th: Campaign of Italy, by the Army of Referre,' under the Command of the Chief Consul Bonaparte. Translated from the French of Ipiph Petit, Horse-Grenadier in the Confular Guard; with a Map of the Nort:-W of Port of Italy, shewing the Route of the Army. To which is added, a bingraphical Notice of the Life and Military Actions of General Difaix. By C. Foudras. 8vo. 25. 61, Jordan. 1800.
From ewo French pamphlets the translator has contrived to make one, which, considering the importance of the subject it profeties to discuts,