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or cured, by inhaling the oxygen gas, under the author's direction. The diseases with which they were affected, were epilepsy, palsy, scrotula, rickets, and some anomalous complainis. From there we Mall select a case of hydrocephalus, as being a disorder of frequent occurrence, and hitherto deemed incurable by medicine. “ Cafe of Hydrocephalus, in the Child of William Bennet, late of Bera
ner's Mews, now No. 26, Devonshire-place Mews. , - This was a strong healthy child, till fix months old, when he was seized with the fmall.pox in the natural way. The epileptic fit, coma mon to young children previous to the eruptive fever, lasted three quare ters of an hour, accompanied with strong convulsive struggles, and much feeming pain and uneasiness in the head. The morning after this fir ine mall pox appeared. With common nursing, during the sea veral stages of the disease, the mother, to a cerrain degree, recovered the child ; but as it often happens that, without proper medical aid, the conititution is much impaired, so it was in this child; for, when the eruption was gone, the habit was very much exhausted, a great heaviness affected it, and there was a considerable inflammation in the white part of the eye, where a pustule had been.
" The child was taken in this fta:e to the Small-pox Hospital. Mr. Wachfel, che attendant apothecary, very judicioufiy ordered leeches to be applied to the temples, and several doses of physic, which soon recovered the eye. Shortly afterwards, however, the child began to appear more dull and heavy ; his head gradually enlarged; the futures, which had been united except the two fontanels, were beginning to lose their bony union; and his lower extremities were so unable to support his body, that every attempt to move him gave him great pain,
* He was now taken a second time to the holpital. Mr. W. immediately discovered, that the enlargement of the head proceeded from water lodged within it, and aporised the child's mother of its fatal consequences. He notwithstanding advised more doses of physic, and some tonic remedy. The opening medicines gave him relief for a few days; but after that symptoms of oppression returned with great violence, when the same remedies were repeated, but with no good ef. fect. The head being now wonderfully increased in size, in coolequence of the weight and pressure of the water on the brain, the panalysis of all the extremities was complete.
in The child was brought to me in May, 1796, then seventeen months old. On examining its head, I found the tagittal suture, commencing from the nasal process, or bones of the nose, and extending through the os frontis, or frontal bone, open to the full extent of half an inch. The other futures, connecting the several bones of the head, were in the fasne proportion open, and expanded from their natural bony union into a wide membranous one, under which water was felt to fluctuare very readily. On any kind of pressure a convulfive motion of ite body followed. His pulse was weak, and beat near a hun, dred in a minute; and all his lower extremities wcre perfectly flabby, and motionless,
i . ' . or This 3
i i This deplorable case, on being presented to my view, appeared 10
the one of the most incurable diseafes to which the human frame could be subject ; and from its extent far more threatening than any I had ever met with during my practice. The child's coral incapacity to inhale, even if vital air could act as a remedy, was the first difficulty I had to encounter. I therefore contrived to apply a tube to the body of my apparatus, closed the child's noftrils with my finger and thumb, made it cry, and, as often as it took a deep'inspiration, forced the vi. tål air from the apparatus into the lungs. This method succeeded completely ; for warmth in the extremities was iminediately felt, wich a firmer pulfe, and foft skin. 'The succeeding night he Nept with inuca inore' composure than he had done for many months, and his mother observed that he made an unusual quantity of water. '
“ From continuing the fame dole of two parts of pure vital air to twenty of common air daily, in the course of a week he was evidently Itronger, more lively, and his bowels, which from the general paralytic torpor had been disposed to great coitiveness, were become quite regular. As the action of the air by this time had produced a while tongue, I ordered a dose of rhubarb and fal polychreit, to clear the bowels gradually, by repeating it at short intervals. This soon cleared the tongue; the child ate a great deal heartier, and improved very much in appearance; the membranes foon became flaccid ; and, as 'The water gradually leflened, new dific marier gradually cloled the sufure in the frontal bone. In a month the whole of the futures, except the two fontanels, were again united by a firm bony union. The head being reduced nearly to its natural fire, on the cause of its enJargement being gradually removed, the paisy of the lower extremisjes recovered. Tonic remedies were now ordered, so that by the middle of October he could stard, and walk alone; and to so great a degree did the vital air renovate this poor jittle being, that he cut eight new teeth. This farther effort of nature appeared to be the only reason, why he did not recover the entire use of the lower extremities fooner. Since his recovery, this child has had his thigh fractured : but his conftitution has surmounted this accident, though he is rendered somewhat lame, by the injured limb being shorter than the other.
" Obfervations on the proceding Cafe. « Vital air thus mechanically applied with the happiest effects, in the last stage of this fatal disease, a disease too becoming more prevalent among children, with the phenomena of its thus imparting life to the blood, and exciting strong action in the heart and arteries, cannot fait to claim much attention, and give confidence in future practice. In the next place it promoted an iscrease of all the secretions, by the skin, kidneys, and bowels. To these effects succeeded the restoration of natural sleep, the subsequent ahsorprion of the water covering the brain, the renovation of the ossific procefs in uniting the various fuo tures of the skill, and lally the removal of all the paralycis affectious of the arms, legs, and bowels.” P. 14.
Oxygen is exhibited with most advantage, the author says, to young fubjects, as it aslists in developing the parts, and aids their groirth ; next to them, io pessoas from the age of pu.
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berty berly to about the forty-fifth year ; to those who are further advanced in life, it should be administered sparingly, and with caution. The author has found the application of oxygen to the roots of plants highly beneficial, in restoring those that are decaying, and accelerating their growth. He thinks also that, administered to fruir-trees, it heightens the flavour of the fruit. He propofes to give a delineation of the apparatus he employs, in applying oxygen io trees, in a subsequent fasciculos or number, which will contain further experiments on the use of oxyger in the cure of diseases. The cases and observations are illustrated by plates, representing two children, deformed and crippled by 15e rickets, with the view of showing the advantage they experienced from inhaling the oxygen ; and a geranium, fiift as blighted and nearly destroyed, by being exposed to a cold frosiy air, then, from the influence of the gas, full of bloom and vigour.
Art. V. Travels in the Interior of Africa, from the Cape of Good Hope to Morocco, from the Year 1781 10 1797; through Caffraria, the Kingdoms of Mataman, Angola, Mafi, Monacmugi, Mufchako, &c. likewise across the Great Defert of Sahara, and the Northern Parts of Barbary. Translated from the German of Christian Frederick Damberger. Illuftrated by a Map, and coloured Plates. 8vo. gs. Longman.
1801. W E are anxious, promptly, and we hope effectually, to do
our utmost in checking the circulation of what we cannot help conlidering as a molt impudent and fraudulent publication. Sume individuals on the continent availing themselves of ihe public curiosity, with respect to books of Travels, in
general, and with what concerns Africa in particular, have, we · do not the least doubt, from a Map of Africa before them, pro
duced this farrago of falsehood and nonsense. Were the account given in the book ime, which we are certain it is noi, it does not afford one atum either of information or amusement, but is juft such Atuff as the most ignorant of mankind might have put together, from any German Map.
We will insert a few particolars, which not only justify, but establish this suspicion."
The volume confills of about five hundred pages; of which one half is taken up with describing the traveller's journey through Cuff aria, a portion of Africa, very well known for
having been most investigated. The other half hastily runs through the diameter of Africa, about which every one is anxiously inquisitive, and which, if Mr. Damberger had actually examined, he must necessarily have described to the extent, not of half a scanty octavo volume, but of many entire books.
The compiler, for such we must call him, is perpetually inveighing against Europeans in general, and against the Eng. lish in particular, 'on account of the part they take in the flave-trade, and impudently and ignorantly aireris, that no Africans would have been made llaves, unless Europeans had come into the country. This inforınation he has probably derived from some ingenious and candid essays on the flavetrade; whereas if he had read some authentic books, of less modern date, he would have found that expeditions for seizing flaves, are as old as the rime of Sesostris.
In one place, he describes himself as actually fainting from hunger, but afier a short interval recovering himself, without having received any nourishment, he walks many miles with a large land-turtle on his back.
He somewhere loses himself, by sinking fathoms deep in mud, but from this also he recovers without fuffocation. Thes gentleman comes to an inn, in Africa, as regularly as to the Three Kings at Brentford ; and, pon many occasions, finds good entertainment for 20 Zimpoes. Whereas honest Poncet informs us that, in the interior of Africa, Gilver is of no use in the way of trade, all is done by exchange of commodities. . But in Page 147, Part II. we find Mr. Damberger in the summit of his glory. He arrives at Kahoraiho, and here sees a canal, which is conducted from the river Gambia. The compass which he represents as having with him, must have been terribly out of order, for Kahorarho happens to be in longitude 42, and the Gambia is in longitude 22, the length therefore of this canal must be 20 degrees, or 1400 miles. If This be not in the style of Munckhausen, we know not what is. From this part therefore we will make a short extract. :'
«s Here I chose to remain, because I perceived that it would not be possible for me to reach the town of Sahahara, it still being three or four leagues distant.-On the the roth, in the forenoon, I came to that town; where I was immediately taken in cuítody by fix foldiers, and carried to the dwelling-place of the king. But he fent word to the guard, that, as he could not speak with me that day, they must take me back, and keep a strict watch over me. Accordingly, I was conveyed to a goat-hut, and presented with victuals and drink in abundance.---. Next morning an order came to bring me to the king; I followed,
and was brought before him. At my entrance a variety of questions were put to me by one of his ministers * ; namely : Wherefore was I come into that country?-Whether I had brought the king any prefents? -Whither I intended to proceed ?--And whether I was a chriftian? I answered, that I had thought it the nearest and also the safest way to travel through that country; that I was an unfortunate mari, ner who had lost all his property, and no christian ; neither did I require any farther affistance than quarters for the right, and, if it were posible, meat and drink for one day; but that if my presence were disagreeable to the king, I was ready to quit the town immediately. On receiving orders to remain, as the king wanted to have fome conference with me himself, I was taken back to my hut, and again supplied with meat and drink. I lived very comfortably here till the 14th, eating, drinking, and sleeping; but now iny affairs took another turn. An officer feiched me from where I was, and conveyed me to the slave-hut; where, on the succeeding morning, I was obliged to rise very early, and, by command of the overseer, first feed the horses, then press daies, and, at lait, carry the implements for bunting, such as a spear, two fowling-pieces, and a water-veffel, into the forest. These offices, however, I retained only a few days. For once, as I was carrying the king's guns into the forest, I examined them. The king observing this, asked why I examined them. I answered, to see, as they were in a very bad condition, whether they could not be repaired. The locks probably had not been unscrewed and oiled for fome years, and were therefore all over rust. The king, perceiving me thoughtful, aked whether I would put his arms in betier order; 'on my replying in the affirmative, he said, that I should have another dwelling, and more conveniencies, that very day.--I have remarked above, that in the country of Bahahara, and the adjacent parts, it is cuftornary for people to travel about on purpose to clean arms, and rcpair them when damaged. It may therefore be thought that my pre. iending to work in this way was superfluous; but, for clearing up this matter, I must mention what follows: A few years before my arrival, the king of Haoufla declared war against the king of Bahahara, and did him considerable mischief. The armourers, as I may call them, had just at that time been putting the arms of the latter king in good condition, and were about to go away, when the king sent them orders not to depart, but to abide in his capital, that they might not furbish and repair the arms of his enemies, Resolving, however, to go, as there was no more to be earnt in that place, the king ordered them to be arreled and thrown into prison, from which they were not to be delivered till the termination of the war. From that time forth they have never come into the country, norwithstanding the king has made them large proinises.-That very evening a roomy hut was alligned
«* The king understood my language ; but from stateliness, chose to talk with me through his minister, as he only speaks with bis officers and great nuen by his own mouth: and it was a testimony of extreme grace and condescension in him, afterwards, to converse personally with me,"